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荷兰经济类论文指导assignment服务:对外贸易政策的解析Foreign trade policy oriented

论文价格: 免费 时间:2013-10-23 15:16:11 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

First, trade policy and industrial competitiveness policy coordination
一、商业活动政策与产业竞争政策的协调


Industry competition policy stems from industrial organization policy , which is to obtain the expected market performance , established by the government-led intervention and adjustment of industrial structure and market behavior of the market economic policies . In an open economy, the industry is the essence of competition policy by coordinating the relationship between competition and economies of scale in the maintenance of normal market order , based on the cultivation and improve the industry 's competitiveness. Industry competition policy on the one hand to encourage competition , limiting monopolies , on the other hand to avoid excessive competition , the pursuit of economies of scale.
产业竞争政策源于产业团体政策,它是为了取得预先期待的市场成绩,由政府主导制定的过问和调试产业的市场结构和市场行径的经济政策。在开放经济条件下,产业竞争政策的本质是经过协调竞争与规模经济的关系,在保护正常的市场秩序的基础上,培养和增长产业的竞争有经验。


( one ) Trade policy and industrial competition policy conflicts
(一)贸易政策与产业竞争政策的冲突
Integration in the global economy under the conditions of the original primarily for regulating industrial relations in the domestic market competition policy gradually evolved to ensure and maintain international competitive environment as a coordination tool . Industrial connotation and denotation of competition policy far beyond the scope of industrial organization policy , including industrial organization has become a policy , trade policy , investment policy and other aspects of international economic policy coordination .

在全世界经济一体化条件下,原来主要用于调节国内市场关系的产业竞争政策渐渐衍变为保障和保持国际竞争背景的一种协调工具。产业竞争政策的涵养与外延远远越过了产业团体政策的范畴,已变成涵盖产业团体政策、商业活动政策、投资政策等方面内部实质意义的国际性经济协调政策。


Economic ties between countries continue to strengthen the case , industrial competitiveness and trade policies are getting closer , industry competition policy in multilateral trade negotiations has become an important issue . With a significant reduction in tariff and non-tariff reduction , trade liberalization, more and more influenced by the results of industrial competition policy under the jurisdiction of the erosion of restrictive business practices ; same time, a growing number of trade policy measures not only did not promote competition worsened the international competitive environment.


In the long run , for the competitive industry , its competitiveness in a competitive environment than in protected conditions easier to train . Therefore, from the perspective of fostering industrial competitiveness analysis , competition policy, trade policy and industry should have more consistency . Government in the choice of trade policy and the development of industrial competition policy should be to minimize the conflict between the two to build a coherent policy framework .


( Two ) categories of industrial clusters and industrial
In an open economy, competition policy, trade policy and industrial synergies and policy objectives are not the same. Dutch scholars in the study of domestic competition policy system focus and ideas , the role of competition policy areas will be divided into three major industrial clusters and six industry categories .
The introduction of market competition mechanism based on economic and social benefits for the industry, the degree of influence of the existing industries into competitive industries , quasi- competitive and non-competitive industries industry three industry groups . Competitive industry is competition in the market is conducive to improve economic efficiency but also help to improve the social benefits of the industry ; quasi- competitive industry refers to increasing economic competition in the market , but not conducive to improving social benefits industry ; noncompetitive industry refers to competition in the market is not conducive to improving economic efficiency is not conducive to improving social benefits in the industry.
 

Divided in three groups on the basis of industry , in accordance with the degree of opening up competition in the market and competitiveness of the differences will be broken down into indole competitive industries interpersonal competitive industries ( such as textiles and clothing , household appliances, electrical and mechanical equipment , shipbuilding , etc. ) and domestic competitive industries ( such as light industry, machinery, electronics, building materials, etc. ) ; according to national economic security and national economic impact of long-term development strategy , the quasi- competitive industry segments for economic security industry ( such as weapons, aerospace, aviation , nuclear equipment and other defense industry , petroleum, chemical , energy, resources and other pillar industries ) and the development of strategic industries ( such as automotive , electronic information, bio- engineering, new materials, new technology, etc. ) ; according to significant economies of scale and public nature of the product the significance of the non-competitive industry segments is a natural monopoly industries ( such as electricity, telecommunications, railways, civil aviation , etc. ) and external economy industries ( such as ports , airports, urban transport, gas, water , radio, television , meteorology , environmental protection, etc. ) .


( Three ) competition policy, trade policy and industrial synergies and policy objectives
For competitive industries , industrial competitiveness policy 's main task is anti- administrative monopoly and promote competition in the market to ensure that the market mechanism in the allocation of resources within the industry a decisive role ; while also against excessive competition and achieve economies of scale in the industry . Anti administrative monopoly and achieve economies of scale are not contradictory, because of economies of scale is the result of the natural evolution of competition is competition generate economies of scale , rather than monopoly " create" economies of scale. Compatible with industrial competition policy , trade policy should be to achieve a competitive industry full liberalization of the domestic market and to further expand opening up , to borrow in international competition mechanism to suppress and eliminate administrative monopoly and excessive competition.


Competition in the market also help to improve the competitive industry standard efficiency of resource allocation , but may jeopardize the country's economic security and long-term development . Currently, foreign economic competition in the Netherlands quasi- monopoly industries economy has gradually strengthened the trend . In some important sectors ( such as the electronics industry , the automotive industry ) or key enterprises, foreign investment through ownership holding, technical control, the right to operate controls , etc. , forming the current or future market control . While the domestic small-scale enterprises in these industries , production and operation of decentralized , vicious competition with each other . Therefore, in this industry group , the industry 's key objectives of competition policy is opposed to multinational economic monopoly , while limiting the low level of domestic excessive competition among enterprises , and promote the realization of economies of scale and improve overall competitiveness . Trade policies should be compatible with the investment policy , aimed to give moderately competitive industries , in a timely manner to protect deadline . It should be noted that the basic elimination of tariff barriers zero tax rate does not mean a comprehensive , international practice is also not comprehensive free trade practices .


Overall, the natural monopoly industries and external non-market economy industries are competitive field . But these industries are not completely , absolutely reject the market competition mechanism , because in these non-competitive industrial chain , there are some more or less competitive in the market sector or the market competing businesses . For these competing businesses and departments , industry competition policy should also be opposed to administrative monopoly and unfair competition ; market for non- competing businesses and departments should strengthen the government 's economic management functions. Trade policy should also focus on expanding these competing sectors and competing business to the outside world .


Second, trade policy and industrial structure upgrading


Upgrading of industrial structure , including the structure of inter-industry upgrading and upgrading of the structure within the industry . Industrial structure upgrade mainly refers to economic growth relies on three industries , from agriculture to industry again sequentially transfer service . At the macro on the performance of the total output value of the three industries share of GDP constant change and adjustment, that total agricultural output decreased proportion of GDP , the total output value of industry and services share of GDP gradually increased. Experience has shown that an economy in the process of industrialization , industrial output gradually increase the proportion of GDP , while the service sector output is also accompanied by a percentage of GDP synergistic growth. With the Dutch economy gradually step into " heavy industrialization " era ( since the late 1990s , the Dutch began to enter the industrial , electronic, energy, automotive, petrochemical, building materials and other industries for the industrial growth of pillar industries new stage of industrialization ) , industrial GDP gross domestic product (GDP) increased steadily , agricultural output in the gross domestic product (GDP) decreased, the proportion of service sector is also increasing every year. However, this industrial structure upgrade ratio is not coordinated . First, the regional structure is seriously unbalanced . Eastern coastal areas has been largely achieved industrialization and become so-called " newly industrialized areas," the majority of the central and western regions are still in "agricultural industrialization period " , where agricultural output value accounted for the proportion of GDP is still high . Secondly, the services sector growth rate lags behind the industrialization process in the east " newly industrialized regions ," even more so. Third, agriculture and service industries significantly lower development potential , which results in three industrial structure is relatively large fluctuations , reflecting the instability of the process of industrialization .


( one ) Trade policy and industrial structure upgrading to ask
How trade policy to promote industrial structure upgrade , there are three aspects are worth noting. First, because " heavy industrialization ," the pillar industries are " quasi- competitive industry group" , related to the country's economic security and long-term development strategy, its inputs and outputs should be first based on the domestic market ; trade policy should focus on security technologies and demand for imports of resource products , in conjunction with the use of domestic and foreign investment policies policies to ensure the stable development of these pillar industries , to prevent foreign monopolies and excessive competition in the domestic market , achieve economies of scale . Second , overall, the service sector should be further expand opening up, but there are also a number of services such as banking , securities , insurance naive industry, the opening speed and depth of the reforms to be with their speed and ability to adapt to market competition , we must have sufficient competitive pressure , but also has enough room to grow. Third , for agricultural trade, trade policy priority is to maintain fair competition, safeguard food security. To establish a sound system of agricultural subsidy system , making full use of WTO agreements under the framework of "green box policies" and " amber box " policy, to support agricultural production.


( Two ) Trade policy and industrial structure upgrading within
Upgrading of the structure between industries within the industry structure is based upgrade . The structural changes within the industry by market demand structural changes and changes in production and supply structure their interactions common decision . Constraints under a certain income requirements structure determines the supply structure , under certain conditions of production possibility frontier structural changes in the supply -induced demand structural changes .


Industrial structure is determined by its internal chain of interrelated industries interwoven network . Upgrading of the structure within the industry refers to the center along the value added chain to a new link or node metastasis, and accompanied by a rise in the proportion of value added . During the upgrade process, some industry chain may shrink , and some may extend industry chain ; industrial parts of the network may become more intense , some parts may be more loosely . Result of the upgrade within the industry are: the input-output ratio increased , industry run more efficiently.


Within the industry structure in the process of upgrading , there may be a new dynamic industrial sectors and industrial branches , being the so-called "industrial disproportionate ." If the resource is to keep the newly created link or branching or centralized , the new link will continue to " proliferation " , the new branch will continue to extend the old part of the chain will gradually shrink or even die, then the old industrial structure will be the new alternative industrial structure , namely the so-called "industrial transformation ."


On the supply side , trade policies should be conducive to the expansion of the production possibility frontier . The production possibility frontier expansion depends on physical capital and human capital accumulation and more dependent on technology innovation and technology diffusion . Here, the import trade policy should receive adequate attention. On the demand side , trade policy should lead to structural changes as income changes in the structure of the market demand to make timely adjustments. Adjust the direction of : by adjusting the export commodity structure induced demand structure upgrading , thus promoting intra-industry upgrading.
In short, from the Dutch trade policy practice visits, trade policy and industrial policy has always been inextricably linked . With the openness of the Dutch economy continues to improve ( gradually rising dependence on foreign trade is enough to prove ) , implementation of the national competitive strategy, strive to foster international competitiveness of industry , has become a trade policy and industrial policy, the common goal . Thus , trade policy and industrial policy must , in particular, industrial competitiveness policy closely with complementary collaboration to promote inter-industry and intra-industry upgrading.

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