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环境保护与人权assignment如何下笔?调查哈里伯顿帮你解读

时间:2016-01-06 10:20来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:anne 点击:
哈里伯顿公司是一家美资的国际合作,主要集中在油田服务。该公司业务遍及80个国家,拥有上百个分公司,子公司和部门。哈里伯顿公司雇用超过100,000名员工。该公司的总部设在休斯敦和迪拜。该公司的产品都集中在能源行业。哈里伯顿公司的营业收入为$ 24.8亿在2011年的营业收入约$ 4.7亿在2011年的纯收入大约是3十亿在2011年(哈里伯顿2012)。研究表明哈里伯顿公司的环境问题直接影响到社会和利益的相关者。利益相关者如当地居民和政府监管机构都面临着因哈里伯顿环境问题的负面影响。整个社会也面临着因环境问题的挑战。在另一方面,哈里伯顿公司还拥有人的权利滥用问题。人们对安全待忽视成为哈里伯顿最严重的问题。这直接影响到的利益相关者如员工和消费者。这也使得全社会有了一定负面影响。Halliburton is an American owned international cooperation which mainly focuses on oil field service.  The company operates in over 80 countries and has hundreds of branches, subsidiaries and divisions. It employs more than 100, 000 employees. The headquarters of the company is located in Houston and Dubai. The products of the company are both focus on the energy industry. Revenue of Halliburton is $24.8 billion in 2011. The operating income is around $4.7 billion in 2011. The net income is around $3 billion in 2011 (Halliburton 2012). This report will focus on analysing the performance of Halliburton on environmental protection and human right protection. As a major energy company and oil field service provider, environmental protection issue could be considering as one of the major social responsibility that Halliburton should concern. The research shows Halliburton has environmental issue that directly affects the society and stakeholders. The stakeholders such as local citizens and government regulation agencies are both facing negative consequences because of Halliburton environmental issues. The whole society is also facing challenges because of environmental issues. On the other hand, Halliburton also has human right abuse problem. The ignore of people’s safety becomes the most serious issue of Halliburton. This directly affects the stakeholders such as employees and consumers. It also causes negative effects on the whole society. 
 
1. Environmental protection performance and impacts  1.环保性能和影响

Toxics Releases Inventory reported Halliburton had chemicals emitted from its Harris Country, Texas factory in 2002. In research, there are around 230 TRI air releases in 2001 and the release is increased to 245 in 2002. This shows Halliburton did not handle the chemical emitting issue well but lets the emitting be worse year by year (Scorecard 2003). Halliburton also had toxic cloud issue in 2006 that forced Farmington, New Mexico citizens to evacuate from their homes (Associated Press 2006). Moore and Finnerty (2012) mentioned many people have been forced to move out of their home because there are 4,000 gallons of hydrochloric acid pollution in New Columbia. Emergency officials worry the hazardous materials in could well threaten the safety and health of residents. Once the acid emitting into the air, it will vaporise and causes the toxic gaseous cloud. Thus, all local residents have been forced to evacuate from their home. ‘It was about 10:20 p.m. Thursday when Gregory Pellicer Jr., 28, of Lawton, Okla., noticed a cloud billowing behind the Halliburton Energy Services tanker he was driving east on Route 80 as he and co-driver Nicklaus Cunningham, 38, of Semmes, Ala., were headed from Homer City to Montrose, state police at Milton said’(Moore and Finnerty 2012). Moreover, in 2009, Halliburton has also been found implicated in the oil spills in the Timor Sea near Australia. ‘Well operations had not yet reached the point of requiring the placement of the final cement plug which would enable the planned temporary abandonment of the well’ (Ron Paul Forums 2008). The inappropriate operation of workers causes oil pollution in the sea. Halliburton faces further investigation according to this accident (Ron Paul Forums 2008). Finally, in 2013, Halliburton has been found guilty of destroying evidence that related to Halliburton 2010 deepwater horizon oil spills. The company paid a $200,000 fine and 3 years probation and is willing to continue cooperating with the criminal probe (Stempel and Reddall 2013). 
Environmental issue especially chemical pollution and oil pollution in the sea are very serious accidents that directly affect society and stakeholders of Halliburton in the long run. Based on considering the stakeholder’s perspective, local residents as one of the major stakeholders to Halliburton are directly affected by chemical pollution. The pollution forced them to leave their home and threaten their safety. It will cost long time to clean the chemical pollution in the local area. It may also have potential issues in the future such as potential impacts on land, animals and plant. These are closely related to daily life of local residents. Once people eat the food which content dangerous chemical materials because of this chemical pollution accident, the health of people will be directly threatened and many possible diseases will be emerging. Moreover, government agencies as other major stakeholders to Halliburton also face huge challenges according to the chemical pollution accident. Government agencies need to monitor the pollution situation for the long term. It also needs to arrange all the local residents because they need to be evacuated. These are very time, money and resource costly. Based on considering the society perspective, the chemical pollution will causes panic which could be widely and quickly spread in the society. The whole society system will be threatened. The negative impacts on society will sustain long time. 
As the same as chemical pollution, the oil spill accident also affects stakeholders of Halliburton and the whole society. Oil spill polluted the ocean; the animals are directly affected by the pollution. Animals are dead because of an oil spill. This result in fisherman could not catch enough fish for sale. When the market lack of aquatic products, the product price will go up, thus, consumer will need to pay more money to buy aquatic products. Damage to fish industry will sustain long time. On the other hand, government agencies will also need to clean the oil spill. It is also time, money and resource costly for government agencies to do it. In this case, the negative impacts on society are widely. 
 
2. Human right protection performance and impacts2.人权保护性能和影响

Halliburton has been found ignored the safety and health of people. Thus, abused a basic human right. Jamie Leigh Jones testified when she was hired by KBR the subsidiary of Halliburton in Iraq in 2005, the company falsely supports the food and drink to them for 24 hours. There are around 38 women has complained the same situation as Jones in Iraq, Kuwait and other countries which are all hired by KBR. Jones also mentioned the gang rape that happened in 2007. Her colleagues locked her into the shipping container and KBR officials try to keep her public the rape. She has been forced to be quiet about what happened on her (Schone 2011).  Moreover, Halliburton has been found used forced labor in Burma including its projects Yadana pipeline. When Vice President Cheney’s the CEO of Halliburton. The company has involved in using forced labor in the Yadana pipeline project. The worse working condition and low wage directly violated the rights of Burmese workers. The International Labor Organization mentioned the use forced labor in Burma is a very serious human right violation issue. The investigation will be made in order to help Burmese people protect their human right (Hidden Mysteries 2005). 
The safety and health could be considering as the major human right to employees. Halliburton’s human right abuse issue directly affects stakeholders and society. Based on stakeholder perspective, the employee’s rights are deeply impacts. Female employees could not feel safe when the workplace has a sexual harassment issue. Sexual harassment is a very serious workplace unethical behavior that should be avoided in the organization. However, Halliburton did not manage the workplace well that causes sexual harassment issue which directly threatens the safety of female employees. Female workers may be hurt physically and mentally. This kind of harm will continue long term. Female employees will have no choice but only to resign because the company did not perfume well to protect them and try to hide the issue when sexual harassment cases emerged. Male employees will be inappropriate encouragement to make sexual harassment because of the company attitude. Thus, organizational culture will be unethical in the long run. This also causes negative impact on society because the inappropriate attitude will be spread in the society. The other organization will copy the way that Halliburton handles sexual harassment cases. Thus, build up unethical principles in the society. 
On the other hand, Halliburton did not provide food and water to workers in Iraq also directly affects the health and safety of employees. Food and water are the basic human needs. Health issues will emerge if people have no food and water for a certain period. 
Finally, use of forced labor the human right of Burmese people. Force people to do what they do not want could be considering as crime. Burma people could not choose but only do what Halliburton needs them to do. It abused the freedom of the Burmese people. Receive low wage, worse working condition and long working hour both threaten the health of Burmese worker. Other companies will copy the way that Halliburton did in Burma, thus, causes increase the forced labor issue in Burma. It increases the negative impacts of human right violation in Burma. 
 
In conclusion, Halliburton did not perform well in both environmental protection and human right protection perspectives. Halliburton has chemical pollution and oil spill issue that directly affect the environment in the long term. These pollutions cause serious problem to stakeholders and society. People have been forced to evacuate from their home. Fishing industry has been damaged by oil spill accident. Government agencies need to monitor and handle the pollution in the long run. To be recovering from these pollutions will take long term. It is also money and resource costly. Halliburton also has a human right violation problem which directly affects stakeholders and society. Ignoring sexual harassment of Halliburton causes female employee safety issue. It also builds up an inappropriate attitude in the society. The use of forced labor abused the freedom of workers. It increased human right violation problem in Burma. In order to improve Halliburton’s social responsibility performance, it is suggested Halliburton combines both profit and ethics together when it managing the operation of the company. Proper ethical principles which contents corporate social responsibility should be including the principles. 
 
Reference list文献
 
Associated Press. 2006. ‘Halliburton spill results in acid cloud’. Associated Press. 2006.
Halliburton. 2012. ‘Halliburton announced full year and fourth quarter results’. Halliburton. 
Moore, M. and Finnerty, J. 2012. ‘Chemical cloud from Halliburton frack fluid truck threatens New Columbia Community’. Earth First Journal. 
Ron Paul Forums. 2008. ‘Halliburton implicated in oil spill in Gulf’. Ron Paul Forums. 
Scorecard. 2003. ‘Environmental Release Report’. Scorecard. 
Stempel, J and Reddall, B. 2013. ‘Halliburton pleads guilty to destroying Gulf spill evidenc’. Reuters. 
Schone, M. 2011. ‘Jamie Leigh Jones claims after Iraq rape employer held her against her will’, ABC News. 21 June. 
Hidden Mysteries. 2005. ‘A.F.L. Attempts to end Halliburton’s human abuse in Burma now that cheney’s gone’. Hidden Mysteries.
 


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