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如何写Encoding and decoding model assignment的assignment

时间:2019-04-12 15:02来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
导读:本文是一篇英国本科课程作业,说的是关于编码和解码模型的分配,主要是从Dominant-hegemonic position negotiated position oppositional position (Encoding/Decoding, Stuart Hall) 书上的三个点来进行诠释的。
 
20世纪初,传播科学理论把受众作为信息传播的被动受众,对传播效果的研究仍然主要集中在传播系统本身,但在现实中,电视节目制作者发现他们的信息没有被受众正确理解,电视节目制作者希望采取一系列措施促进沟通的“有效性”。然而,基于这些传统的传播理论并没有帮助改善传播效果。在此背景下,人们提出了许多新的通信理论,霍尔的编解码理论是最具代表性和权威性的理论之一。在通信科学中,所谓的编码是指将信息转换成可以通信的符号或代码。解码是从通信符号中提取信息。霍尔将电视译码信息的观众位置分为三个部分。
In the early 1900s, the theory of communication sciences took audience as passive audience of information communication, the research on communication effect still mainly focused on the communication system itself, but in reality, television producers found that their information was not properly understood by audience, TV program makers wanted to take a series of measures to promote the "effectiveness" of communication. However, based on these traditional communication theories did not help to improve communication results. In this context, many new communication theories have been put forward, Hall's encoding and decoding theory is one of the most representative and authoritative theory. In communication sciences, the so-called encoding means converting information into symbols or codes which can be communicated. Decoding is to extract information from communication symbols. Hall divides the position of viewers for TV decoding information into three parts.
1. Dominant-hegemonic position支配霸权地位
支配-霸权地位是指电视观众在支配码范围内的解码实践,他们直接从电视新闻广播或时事节目中理解意义,并根据信息编码的参考码来解码信息(霍尔,1973)。霍尔称这种理想的电视传输模式为“完全透明的通信”。简单来说,主宰地位是观众的解码位置与电视制作者的编码位置或专业编码位置完全相同,编码和解码一致。
Dominant - hegemonic position refers to decoding practice of TV viewers within the scope of dominant codes, they make sense of meaning directly from TV news broadcasts or current affairs program, and according to the reference codes of information encoding to decode information (Hall, 1973). Hall calls this ideal television transmission mode "fully transparent communication". In simple terms, dominant - hegemonic position is that the decoding position of viewers and the encoding position of television producers or position of professional codes are exactly the same, encoding and decoding accord.
2. Negotiated position谈判立场
霍尔解释说,电视观众一方面承认主流意识形态的权威,另一方面,他们也强调自己的特殊情况,二者之间有一个充满矛盾的协商过程(霍尔,1973年)。霍尔举了一个例子,看电视新闻的工人可以同意新闻的观点——工资上涨会导致通货膨胀,但他们仍然参加了一场高工资的罢工。
Hall explains that television audience on the one hand recognizes the authority of dominant ideology, but on the other hand, they also emphasize their particular circumstances, there is a consultation process full of contradictions between the two (Hall, 1973). Hall cites an example, workers watching television news can agree with the point of view of news - a wage increase will lead to inflation, but they still participate in a strike for higher wages.
3. Oppositional position相对位置
霍尔认为,电视观众可以完全理解语言所带来的字面意义和内涵的曲折变化,但解读信息的方式却完全相反”(霍尔,1973年)。这意味着电视观众可以理解电视词的“代码”,但他们根据自己的经验和背景选择自己的解码位置,以完全不同于编码者的意思。
霍尔理论的意义在于,他放弃了以往认为观众在解码电视节目时只是被动的观点,他认为,在理解电视文本和理解编码器意图的基础上,观众可以根据自己的需要,主动采取主导的态度。或协商,或对立立场来解码电视节目,接受电视观众不是被动的,发送者自己的解读并不意味着接收者自己的解读,信息传递不顺畅,一路完整地进入接收者的概念。本文中的译码是一种社会活动,是一种社会协商过程,受众可以采取任何态度来处理。
Hall believes that TV viewers may fully understand the twists and turns of changes of literal meaning and connotation that language brings, but in a completely opposite way to decode the information" (Hall, 1973). This means that television viewers can understand the "code" of TV words, but they choose their own decoding position, based on their experience and background to interpret entirely differently from what coders mean.
Significance of Hall’s theory lies in that he has abandoned the point of view that in the past, audience was believed to be only passive in decoding television program, he believes that based on understanding of television text and understanding a coder's intent, audience can be according to their needs and take the initiative to take a dominant, or negotiated, or oppositional position to decode television program, acceptance of television viewers is not passive, a sender's own interpretation does not mean a recipient's own interpretation, information transmitted is not smooth and intact all the way enter the concept of recipients. Decoding in this essay is a social activity and a social process of negotiation, audience can take any attitude to deal with it.
 
References文献
Hall, S. (1973). Encoding and decoding in the television discourse. University of Birmingham.
 


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