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Assignment怎么写——CRM assignment参考范文

时间:2021-09-06 10:21来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
Assignment怎么写?小编这次为各位留学生朋友推荐一篇CRM assignment参考范文,主要内容是讨论所选组织的客户感知到的体验在多大程度上可能受到文化背景的影响。提出公司可以用来适应这种多样性的方法。是一篇格式完整,逻辑清晰的Assignment范文,对于要解决怎么写Assignment这一问题的学生来说,是一篇值得参考的Assignment范文。
 
Assignment怎么写
Assignment怎么写
Introduction 简介
客户关系管理(CRM)是一种专门为特定客户设计的软件系统,用于留住老客户和吸引新的潜在客户。客户关系管理是在关系营销的基本原则下工作的,与客户建立高质量的关系是任何企业能够实现的最有价值的资产。随着客户关系管理的出现,它使企业能够了解客户的购买行为并系统地建立信任。英国航空公司董事长柯林·马歇尔爵士表示,“关键是首先确定并吸引那些重视您服务的客户,然后留住他们,使他们成为客户,并赢得尽可能多的终身业务份额。”
CRM is a specially designed software system for a particular client, to retain old customers and attract new potential customers. CRM works under the basic principle of relationship marketing, building a high-quality relationship with customers is the most valuable assets any business can achieve. With the advent of CRM, it enables the business to understand its customer’s buying behavior and build trust systematically. Sir Collin Marshall Chairman of British Airways said “The key is to first identify and attract those customers who will value your service and then retain them as customers and win the largest possible share of their life time business. ” (The IDM Guide to Mastery, session 5, p-6)
安东尼卡伦说“文化可以定义为我们与他人分享的价值观和实践,这些价值观和实践有助于将我们定义为一个群体,尤其是与其他群体的关系。可以有职业文化、组织文化和民族文化。”。
Anthony T Karen states “Culture can be defined as the values and practices that we share with others that help define us as a group, especially in relation to others groups. There can be occupational cultures, organizational cultures and national cultures.” (2001, p-185).
根据上述定义,文化是一种环境,在这种环境中,人们将按照核心价值体系以某种方式行事。此外,更多的文化可以归为组织文化,其中标准模式或规则成为集团的价值观)。最后,Dorfman和Howell认为人格是研究民族文化对个体行为影响的一个独特的文化梯队。一个人可能不是这个文化群体的一部分,但这种欲望实际上会触发购买以获得归属感。
According to the above definition culture is an environment where people belonging to this environment will act in a certain way, in accordance with the core values system. Further more cultures can be classified in to organizational culture where standard model or rules becomes the values of the group (Adler 1997; Bagchi and Cerveny 2003). Lastly Dorfman and Howell (1988) suggest personality is a unique echelon of culture in the investigation into the effects of national culture on individual behavior. An individual may not be a part of this culture group, but this desire that actually pulls the trigger of buying to get sense of belonging.
CRM in different cultures 不同文化中的客户关系管理
CRM是一个旨在了解这些影响的系统,作为一个研究小组,我们选择了一个植入眼镜商/眼科医生的CRM系统。假设CRM系统是成功的,并且帮助客户与客户建立更好的关系,那么在一个不同的文化社会中,它会是成功的吗。我将进一步讨论这个问题的背景,这可能是成功的障碍。
CRM is a system designed to understand these influences, as a group we chose to study a CRM system implanted on a Optician/ Ophthalmologist. Assuming if the CRM system is successful and helps the client build up better relationship with customers, would it be a success in a different cultural society. I will further discuss this subject in with respect to context which could be the barriers in success.
Understanding Consumer 了解消费者
在国外市场引入客户关系管理文化可能非常棘手,尤其是在市场饱和的情况下,但有时如果当地市场将产品或服务视为身份象征,这种策略可能非常有益。例如,在某些文化中使用黑莓手机被认为是地位的象征,因为它释放了一种属于精英商务阶层群体的感觉,尽管市场上还有其他手机会执行完全相同的任务,如果不是更好的话,至少会有类似的效率。
Introducing a CRM culture in a foreign market, can be very tricky, especially if the market is saturated but some times this strategy can be very beneficial if the local market presumes the product or service as a status symbol. For instance use of the Black Berry phone in some culture is perceived as status symbol because it releases a sense of belonging to elite business class group, although there are other phones in the market which would perform exactly the same task, if not better then at least with similar efficiency.
其他文化中的客户可以根据类别划分为子类别。控制购买决策的因素可以是内部的,也可以是外部的;在这两种情况下,消费者几乎无法控制它。这些因素可能是你希望在一群朋友或商业客户中被认知的方式,如果你想炫耀自己的购买力并将其用于身份象征,那么你会选择顶级品牌。内部因素也可能是你的榜样,一些你真正受到启发的榜样,或者一些来自媒体的榜样。
Customers in other cultures can be divided into sub-categories according to classes. Factors that control buying decision can be internal or external; in both the cases consumers have little control over it. These factors could be how you want to be perceived among group of friends or business clients, if you’re looking to show off and use your buying power for status symbol then you would choose top of the line brand. Internal factors could also be your role model, some one you really inspired by or could be some one from the media.
生理学家亚伯拉罕·马斯洛提出的需要层次理论中最具启发性的动机理论。他提出了每个人一生中实现目标的动力过程。他把它分为五个阶段;第一阶段是生存的基本需要,例如食物、住所、衣物。一旦这个人在那个阶段得到保护,他就进入了一个阶段,在这个阶段他需要免受失业、舞台或庇护所之类的威胁。下一步,他们需要接受的文化,社会或任何其他群体的影响。后来,当他们被接受时,他们需要在这个群体中保持较高的自我地位,并被他人以尊重、地位、权力和威望来看待。最后但并非最不重要的一点是,当个人不断追求一系列目标或抱负时
The above diagram is the most inspired theory of motivation in hierarchy of needs theory developed by physiologist Abraham Maslow. He suggests the motivation process of any individual’s life to achieve. He divides it’s into five stages; stage one is the basic needs to survive for example food, shelter, cloths. Once the individual is secured in that stage he moves up to the stage where he needs to be safe from threats like loosing jobs, stage or shelter. Next they need to be accepted in the cultural, social or any other group they are influenced by. Later when they are accepted they need to hold them self up high in that group and perceived with respect, status, power and prestige by others. Last but not the least is when that individual is in constant pursuit for a set of objectives or ambitions. (Essentials Of Management, H. Koontz, H. Weihrich, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Figure 14.1, pg 290-291, 7th edition, 2007 )
文化和亚文化对人们的生活方式、情感、原则、信仰和购买行为具有强大的控制力。例如,在西方社会,在麦当劳吃饭对社会地位没有这样的价值,但在一些东方国家,在麦当劳吃饭被认为是一种有声望的行为。
Culture and subcultures has a powerful control over people style of living, feelings, principles, faith and buying behavior. For instance in a western society eating at Mc Donald’s would have no such value towards social status but in some eastern countries eating out at Mc Donald’s is considered a prestigious.
Psychological Factors 心理因素
Consumer buying behavior can also be influenced by a multipart network of inner emotional variable; these consist of attitude, awareness, inspiration, learning, recollection. Every day customers are bombarded with different advertisement and messages, some of these are taken in to consideration or memorized. The subconscious screening process is on the basis of motivation or personal desire, hence this dilemma is worth looking into. Understanding these triggers and how customer associated their self-image with these products and services can give a marketing edge.
In 2000 Terpstra and Sarathy developed a model that explains the factors which influence culture.
The above factors are the key points they all very in different cultures. For instance in some culture English speaking can be witnessed as status symbol but in Arab countries local language is preferred hence if a company is implementing a offshore customer support call center then language with accent is vital.
Values and attitude also change between nations and cultures, meaning in some cultures some symbols or objects can hold great importance like in India cows are considered as religious symbol where as in Pakistan they are sacrificed in a holy month of Ramzan.. “In 2004, China banned a Nike television commercial showing U.S. basketball star LeBron James in a battle with animated cartoon kung fu masters and two dragons, because it was argued that the ad insults Chinese national dignity.”
Religious Views 宗教观点
“Care should be taken to make sure that religion beliefs are not contravened” R. Williams, Proceedings, pg-171, 2nd edition 2003. This could be one of the crucial factors which can not be ignored. For instance in Muslim cultures women can not interact with “Namahram” (Men who are not husband, brother, father or son). Which could be a big barrier in some operations of the firm, but by implementing this CRM system, customer can book appointment online without making any contact with a male. This could play be a big competitive advantage to start with. There is a huge importance given to privacy in Islam as well, Muslims being one of the largest religious group plays a great importance towards profitability.
Technology  技术
Technology plays an important role to support a CRM system to work. For instance optinet provides an facility to reach out customers by SMS service, their may be change that local network company do not provide such support, or even slow internet speed that may discourage customers to book an appointment online. “Trevor Baylis launched the clockwork radio upon the African market. Since batteries were expensive in Africa and power supplies in rural areas are non-existent. The clockwork radio innovation was a huge success”. ( International Marketing and Culture, Marketing Teacher Ltd 2000 – 2009, dc 23.12.2009, http://www.marketingteacher.com)
Law and Politics  法律与政治
Legal and political system in eastern countries are designed with accordance to the religion, for instance in Muslim countries the system is founded on the ideology of Islam and Sharia tradition. However if the government is corrupt and laws can be bended with bribery or having close ties with government officials, which could result in favor of the company.
Privacy Issues 隐私问题
In western culture as the CRM system has grown stronger and vast there are still privacy issues raised. Where in western culture customer some legislation like Gramm-Leach-Bliley act has be passed and many financial institutions have been forced to share customer details to third parties, eastern culture is quiet far behind in this scenario and some cultures do not prefer sharing there personal details with anyone. With the enough skepticism with internet technology threats like cookies, phising, spam, spyware, spoofing etc customers are worried about. For instance recently customer’s information was sold to marketing company to vitacost.com by bankrupt health information site Drkoop.com. (Matt Hines, Protect privacy or jeopardize CRM, 2002, www.searchcrm.techtarget.com). On the other hand there have been success stories as well like ebay. Ebay has developed a good reputation with keeping customer information private, it clearly states where it needs to share the information i.e. only to provide better service and secure transactions. Kevin Pursglove, spokesman for eBay privacy said “From the start it was apparent that privacy was a serious issue with our users,” (Matt Hines, Protect privacy or jeopardize CRM, 2002, www.searchcrm.techtarget.com).
Cost effectiveness 成本效益
In our case, the price of a basic Optinet Software was £ 99.00 per month, in most culture some private opticians wont be able to afford this price due to competitive environment that some of these opticians are competing a very low profit scale.
CRM Core Value  客户关系管理核心价值
Keeping the customer satisfied is a hard job, especially when the expectations are high, customers do not appreciate being dodged and swindled. If a company promises cheaper price then it should deliver competitive prices, customer may buy once from the supplier but he will only return if he is satisfied. “The absolute fundamental aim is to make money out of satisfying customers.” Sir John Egan (Perfecting: Webster’s Quotations, Facts and Phrases, pg – 5, ICON Group International, Inc., 2008, )
When dealing with troubled customers, expressing that the company is concerned about customer satisfaction makes the difference. This should demonstrate at all operational stages of the company from front desk to policy making. CRM is a fusion of knowledge and technology and personality, it will only be successful if the knowledge gained is used in the right way. The company should be able to offer right products, services and promotions at the right time to the right people and make the customer feel value of the company.
Over spending or over reliance on a CRM software can be dangerous, CRM is only a tool and every tool requires skill full hands. Training and implementing right staff, understanding the key objectives of the system is vital. “‘If we build [CRM] right it will sell itself’ is not true,” Sauter said. An organization needs to be sure that its employees know what it means to that company to deliver customer value. Once that is understood, companies can begin to do the team building and put the tools and strategies in place to deliver that value and build loyalty,” said Mark Sauter president and CEO, GTP Associates Inc.
Conclusion 结论
If a CRM system works for IBM it does not mean it will work other companies. With every changing culture, it is absolutely necessary for the companies to understand the culture they intend to do business in. Without a doubt it is a very powerful and resourceful tool which will only work if all departments work together as a team supporting similar goals. Ellen Guevel, regional operations manager, Americas region, Nokia Mobile Phones, said that another important driver of CRM success is a culture that encourages the business and IT directors on a CRM project to work closely together. “The IT department is my partner. They don’t go around me; I don’t go around them,” Guevel said. “We say, ‘This is what we want to do. What are your reservations? What are your limitations?’ We start there.”
Reference 参考文献
Anthony. T. Karen, Culture, Environment, and CRM , McGraw-Hill Professional, 2001, p-185)
Adler, N. (1997). International dimensions of Organizational Behavior. ITP.
Bagchi, K. and R. Cerveny (2003). The Influence of National Culture in Information Technology Product Adoption. Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems, USA.
CULTURAL DIMENSIONS AND CRM SYSTEMS: A STRUCTURATIONAL ANALYSIS, Maged Ali, Laurence Brooks, Sarmad Alshawi, European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS) 2006
Essentials Of Management, H. Koontz, H. Weihrich, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Figure 14.1, pg 290, McGraw-Hill; 7th edition, 2007
Matt Hines, Protect privacy or jeopardize CRM, 2002, Dc, 22.12.09
R. Williams, Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on e-Learning, pg-170, Academic Conferences Limited, 2003
G. Conlon, Creating a CRM Culture, March 2003 Issue, dc 22.12.2009
International Marketing and Culture, Marketing Teacher Ltd 2000 – 2009, dc 23.12.2009,
Perfecting: Webster’s Quotations, Facts and Phrases, pg – 5, ICON Group International, Inc., 2008
The IDM Guide to Mastery, institute of direct marketing, 2002, session 5, p-6
 
Assignment范文结论部分总结如果一个CRM系统为IBM工作,并不意味着它将为其他公司工作。随着每一种文化的变化,公司都有必要了解他们打算在其中开展业务的文化。毫无疑问,这是一个非常强大和足智多谋的工具,只有当所有部门作为一个支持类似目标的团队一起工作时,它才能发挥作用。诺基亚移动电话美洲区区域运营经理Ellen Guevel表示,CRM成功的另一个重要驱动因素是鼓励企业和CRM项目IT主管密切合作的文化。本站提供各国Assignment写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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