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法学research proposal:基于功能对等理论的法律英语汉译技巧研究

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A Study on Chinese Translation Skills of Legal English based on Functional Equivalence Theory基于功能对等理论的法律英语汉译技巧研究
1.0 Introduction简介
法律术语具有程式化的特征,它具有严谨的逻辑和模糊的内容。虽然法律术语不容易被外行所掌握,但它可以准确地表达法律概念而不会引起歧义(Sarcevic,1997)。法律英语的特征决定了法律英语翻译有其独特的问题和困难(Donat和Candel-Mora,2015)。同时,法律英语翻译要求信息的完整,准确传递,如权利,义务,责任和利益,法律翻译具有法律效力,其正确性不仅影响法律的使用甚至法律的正义。 ,也影响国际交流与合作(Sun,2003)。然而,在实践中,许多法律翻译从业者忽视了法律英语的独特性,并没有形成一套法律英语翻译的理论和原则来指导法律英语的实践(He,2004))。本研究旨在结合典型案例,从功能对等的角度研究法律英语的翻译,以提高法律文本的翻译质量,指导具体法律文本的翻译。
Legal terms have stylized features, it has rigorous logic and obscure content. While legal terms are not easy to be grasped by a layman, but it can accurately express the concept of law without causing ambiguity (Sarcevic, 1997). Characteristics of legal English determine that legal English translation has its own unique problems and difficulties (Donat and Candel-Mora, 2015). At the same time, legal English translation requires the complete and accurate transmission of information such as rights, obligations, responsibilities and interests, and legal translation has a legal effect, its correctness not only affects the use of the law and even the justice of laws, but also affects international exchanges and cooperation (Sun, 2003). However, in practice, many legal translation practitioners ignore the uniqueness of legal English and do not form a set of theories and principles of legal English translation to guide the practice of legal English (He, 2004)). This study aims to combine with typical cases to study the translation of legal English from the perspective of functional equivalence in order to improve the quality of translation of legal texts and guide the translation of specific legal texts.
2.0 Literature review文献综述
Legal translation is not a simple process of replacing the concepts and institutions in the original legal systems with the concepts and institutions in a target language, but a double transfer process including language transfer and 1egal transfer (Sarcevic, 1997). Scholars at home and abroad have put forward different opinions on legal English translation. 
2.1International research situation and development国际研究现状与发展
奈达提出了动态对等的翻译原则,认为翻译应该关注原文的意义和精神,不应该严格遵守原文的语言结构(Nida和Waard,1986)。 Snell-Hornby(1988)补充了奈达的理论,并提出翻译的动态对等不仅是信息内容的等价,而且是尽可能多的形式对等。 Nida(1991)进一步完善了Snell-Hornby的动态对等理论并提出了功能对等“理论,强调法律英语翻译不是文字形式的简单对等,也不是字面意义的表达,而是强调法律的等同性。功能和强调读者对翻译信息的反应和读者对原文信息的反应基本相同(Nida,1991)。奈达的功能对等理论比其他翻译理论具有更灵活的应用,人们可以实现通过使用工具重建原始形式和语义结构来实现功能等同的目的。
Nida has proposed the translation principle of dynamic equivalence, which considers that a translator should focus on the meaning and spirit of an original text and should not rigidly adhere to the linguistic structure of the original text (Nida and Waard, 1986). Snell-Hornby (1988) supplements Nida’s theory and brings forward that dynamic equivalence of translation is not only the equivalence of information content, but also formal equivalence as much as possible.  Nida (1991) further perfects Snell-Hornby’s dynamic equivalence theory and puts forward functional equivalence" theory, which emphasizes that legal English translation is not a simple equivalence of literal form, nor is it an expression of literal meaning, but emphasizing the equivalence of legal functions and emphasizing that a reader’s response to the translated information and the reader's response to the information of the original text are basically the same (Nida, 1991). Nida's functional equivalence theory has more flexible application than other translation theories, and people can achieve the purpose of functional equivalence by using the tool to reconstruct the original form and semantic structure.
2.2 Domestic research situation and development
Sun (2003) points out from the perspective of functional equivalence that the particularity of legal texts, the authority, dignity and accuracy of legal language determine the accuracy and faithfulness of translation in the process of translation, so he advocates that literal translation of word by word is the most preferable. Du (2004) analyzes the applications of functional equivalence principle and finds specific implementation principles, he thinks that legal English translation should follow the three principles: "principle of language deferring to law", "principle of tolerance for difference and pursuit of concord" and "principle of contrast and complement". Xiang (2011) argues that it is difficult to find a completely equivalent sentence in English that can express the same connotation. He advocates the use of a method of "hit-and-break" to transform the deep structure of a source language into the surface structure of a target language, making translation more acceptable to the target readers. Yu (2015) figures that due to the differences between Chinese and English cultures, in the process of legal translation, to implement the functional equivalence of translation strategies, it must eliminate the difficulties brought about by cultural differences, he advocates changing the form of vocabulary to eliminate cultural differences.
This study will discuss legal English translation from three aspects: discourse, vocabulary and syntax.
3. Methodology
This thesis will make use of a qualitative research method, first of all, it is through literatures to review theories on functional equivalence to lay the theoretical foundation for this study. Then specific legal texts will be taken as research objects of case study, from three perspectives: discourse, vocabulary, syntax to explore legal English translation.
4. Anticipated outcome
In this these, the author will discuss how to improve the quality of legal English translation by using functional equivalence theory. The conclusion of this study will be helpful for of legal English translators to improve translation skills and explore the effective translation principles and methods of legal English translation.
Ahiamadu, A. (2006). A Functional Equivalence Translation of the Zelophehad Narrative in Num.  Scriptura, 93 (27), 293-304.
De Blois, K. F. (1997). Functional Equivalence in the Nineties. Current Trend in Scripture Translation. UBS Bulletin 182/183:21-35.
Donat, T. R. and Candel-Mora, M. A. (2015). Extraction of Terminology and Phraseology towards the Design of Instructional Resources for Legal Translation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 212(2), 250-255.
Du, J. B. (2004). Legal Linguistics. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 53.
He, Q. H. (2004). Missionary and Chinese Modern Law. Beijing: Commercial Press, 60.
Nida, E. A. and Waard, J. D. (1986). From One Language to Another: Functional Equivalence in Bible Translating. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.
Nida, E. A. (1991). Language culture and translating. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Languages Education Press, 32.
Sarcevic, S. (1997). New Approach to Legal Translation. The Hague: Kluwer Law International. 
Snell-Hornby, M. (1988). Translation Studies: an Integrated Approach. Philadelphia: John Benjamin's Publishing Company.
Statham, N. (2003). Dynamic Equivalence and Functional Equivalence. How they Differ. The Bible Translator 54/1:102-111.
Sun, W. B. (2003). English and Chinese Legal English Course. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 79. 
The Professional Issues Committee April. (2011). Guide to Translation of Legal Materials
Xiang, Y. H. (2011). Equivalence in Translation: Features and Necessity. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(10), 110-115.
Yu, Z. (2015). On the Chinese-English Translation of Advertising Slogan from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory. EDP Sciences.
Zhang, Q. (2010). Application of Functional Equivalence Theory in English Translation of Chinese Idioms. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(6), 880-888.

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