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伦敦大学Research proposal:The perspective of teachers on the chi

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-08-08 10:46:06 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
Research Proposal研究建议
Topic 话题
The perspective of teachers on the childcare provision for left-behind kindergarten children in rural China 教师对农村留守幼儿保育工作的看法
Rationale 理论基础
在学前教育阶段,农村留守儿童数量不断增加,形势令人担忧。它是我国经济发展转型期出现的一个特殊的弱势群体。根据2013年进行的三次大规模数据调查,中国留守儿童的数量正在上升。
In the pre-school education stage, the number of left-behind children in rural areas is increasing and the situation is worrying. It is a special and vulnerable minority group that appears in the transition period of China's economic development. According to three large-scale data surveys conducted in 2013, the number of left-behind children in China is on the rise.
农村学前教育发展面临困难。学前教育的性质和农村学前教育的重要性不言而喻,学前教育具有显著的公益性、教育性和盈余性,但它不属于我国义务教育的范畴,公民仍需缴纳费用,应属于o“准公共产品”由国家、社会和个人教育承担。国家要体现农村留守儿童的人文关怀和早期干预,提高学前教育质量。农村学前教育的创立不仅是儿童启蒙教育,是基础教育的基础,是终身教育的开始,也是国家教育体系、国民教育公平和儿童身心健康的重要组成部分。全面协调发展。对农村来说,它影响着农村教育的发展、农民家庭的幸福和农村社会的发展。无可否认,针对全国农村留守儿童学前教育问题,制定了一系列政策法规,如:早在2001年7月,教育部就颁布了《幼儿园教育指导方针(试行)》、《国家中长期教育纲要(试行)》。《教育改革与发展规划纲要(2010-2020年)》首次提出一年普及学前教育,2020年普及基础学前教育2年,有条件地区普及学前教育3年,已明确“以农村发展为重点”学前教育的“任务”。国务院关于当前发展学前教育进一步确立“中西部农村重点扶持和城市薄弱环节”和“村镇大村自建、园建或幼儿园联合设置点”的若干意见发展思路,但不幸的是由于政府间责任不明确,责任主体重心太低,缺乏金融安全能力,立法水平太高,缺乏具体的行动计划等问题,造成了我国金融安全面临的困境。农村学前教育财政权利不足,学前教育质量参差不齐,农村幼儿园频繁发生校车事故,食品安全,教师道德品质等。
The development of rural preschool education is facing difficulties. Preschool education nature and the importance of the rural preschool education is self-evident, preschool education has significant public welfare, educational and surplus but it does not belong to the category of compulsory education in our country, citizens still need to pay fees, should belong to "quasi-public product", shall be borne by the state, society and individual education. The state should reflect the humanistic care of left-behind children in rural areas and early intervention to improve the quality of pre-school education. Rural the founding of the preschool education is not only a children's enlightenment education, is the foundation of basic education, is the beginning of a lifelong education, but also an important part of national education system, national education fairness and children's physical and mental healthy and harmonious development in an all-round way. For rural areas, it affects the development of education in rural areas, the happiness of peasant families and the development of rural society. There is no denying that for national problem of rural left-behind children pre-school education enacted a series of policies and regulations, such as: as early as in July 2001, the ministry of education promulgated the "kindergarten education guidelines (try out)", "national medium and long-term education reform and development plan outline (2010-2020)" first proposed to popularize preschool education in one year, 2020 basic universal pre-school education for two years, conditional region popularize preschool education in three years, has been clear about the "focus on development of rural preschool education" of the task. "The several opinions on the current development of pre-school education under the state council to further establish the" key support the Midwest rural areas and urban weak link "and the" village of villages and towns and large village built independent, garden or joint set points of kindergarten "development train of thought, but unfortunately because of intergovernmental responsibilities are not clear, the responsibility main body centre of gravity is too low, lacking the ability to financial security, legislative level is too high, the problem such as lack of specific plan of action, the rural pre-school education finance rights and there is not enough, the quality of the preschool education is uneven, frequent rural kindergarten is the school bus accident, food safety, teachers' moral character and so on.
The importance of pre-school education. Pre-school education stage is children's cognitive, social, personality and so on various aspects of body and mind, the key of the germination period, children undergoing various sensitive period and the critical period, short years cognitive development is one of life's most quickly, the most important stage, is man's curiosity, curiosity, imagination, creativity and other non-intellectual quality formation of the critical period, is a contains great potential for development and plasticity of life stages, and life is very fragile, easy to mistake the directional and hurt. Cognitively, sensory perception develops rapidly. In terms of sociality and personality, the development task of early childhood (about 2-4 years old) is to gain autonomy, overcome shyness and doubt; 4-7 years old, is in the game period, obtains the initiative feeling, experiences the goal realization. American psychologist bloom under the nearly thousand of track from early childhood to adolescence to study and put forward: if the 17-year-old intelligence as 100%, 50% developed from 0 to 4 years old, and development by the age of 4 to 8 30%, then 20%, 8-17 most rapidly in intellectual development of pre-school education stage, the influence of the environment and education education. The development of children plays a key role in promoting the healthy development of children through critical periods and ensuring their cognition and sociality. Rural pre-school education stage left-behind children lack of parents' life care and emotional communication and limited pre-school education resources, if there is no professional education, professionals to promote the healthy development of its in such aspects as cognition, personality, development of left-behind children's potential and future development of irreversible effects.
Preschool teachers are the direct implementers of education content, whose professional quality directly influences the healthy growth of children. Teachers in number two kindergarten teachers are four, but he said on integral student-faculty ratios, public kindergarten student-faculty ratios for 1:34, private kindergartens student-faculty ratios as 1:40, student-faculty ratios is too large, with the national and provincial full-time, boarding kindergarten establishment standard, township center kindergarten in proportion to their respective shares of not less than 1 to 15 with preschool teachers is a serious shortage of the standard.
In terms of the degree of teacher specialization, the overall quality of teachers in rural kindergartens is generally low, which is not in line with the national requirements. Among the two kindergartens 8 teachers, two is a country at a teacher, and only the two is someone who is a teacher certification and preschool education specialized graduation, four teachers are but did not read junior high school graduation, two teachers are graduated from primary school, the pre-school education teachers' identity is not confirmed. Say from preschool education knowledge, two teachers in early childhood professional graduate with pre-school education and cultural knowledge, the rest of the six children education specialized graduation, teachers are not only elementary school or junior high school degree. The reasons for choosing a preschool education are: 3 teachers because children in the kindergarten can care for children in kindergarten; 2 because they do not want to work outside, the kindergarten is close to the family; 2 because of the young teacher's graduation but because of the lack of experience in the town teaching; One is related to the kindergarten, and is young to babysit.
Research questions 
How teachers and parents support left-behind children sample size 
What are the emotional and social issued arose from the lacking parent provision?
How do the left-behind children respond to the absence of parents and how does this affect their development in the long run? 
Key literature
 
The impact on the family structure
The parting family and separation of the members is the fundamental characteristic which illustrated the change in family structure as consequence of migration. Existing research was done by Fehr et. al (2008:1080) shown that out-migration from rural areas does not dissolve the existing family structure but challenges and refines the existing codes which regulate and provide them meaning.  Grasmuck and Pessar (1991:3) also illustrated that the physical relocation or displacement could also interfere with the discursive and material arrangements of the family unit as its members embed themselves in various social, cultural political and economic context. Murray (1981:13) shown agreement by generalizing the structural changes of the family relationship in the context of labor migration in rural areas into three categories: contradiction, conversation, and dissolution. The kinship was both conserved and dissolved concurrently through the push from labor migration. Furthermore, the relatively stable agnatic family structure could coexist with the family separation, unstable marriage status, and increased individual mobility.#p#分页标题#e#
The arrangements for child-rearing could be the most significant challenge within the family problems arise from the increased family separation and out-migration. This is more severe in the absence of the mother and when the child is at the pre-school to kindergarten age. The existing research has demonstrated various child-rearing strategies which could be applied during parent-child partition. In the context of South Africa, the term “Bantustan Child” refers to children who have no adult at home to look after due to migration and thus are placed with others in a fostered kinship (Spiegel, 1978). Adding on, the differentiating and unequal labor divisions according to the gender of migrant could be another consequence of migration. In the context of Philippines, female migrants do not institute a change in the gender practice but instead cause a confluence of gender responsibility contestation and retention in the family environment (Parrenas, 2005). It is common that when husband migrates, the wife takes on the role and responsibility of both mother and father. However, when the wife migrates, the husband show tendency to stand aside, placing the child-rearing responsibility to their female relatives. Since the rural area of China still experiences severe gender disparity, the above situation could be an application to this study. Adding on, the male migration could trigger the rapid expansion of non-migrant female’s responsibilities including existing male duties such as farming and renovations. Furthermore, the assignment of the child’s caregivers could vary based on the gender of the migrant. The child of the male migrant is in most cased raised by their mother while the child of the female migrants is raised by their grandmother, father, and other relatives. Close female relatives tend to assume higher child-rearing duties. 
 
The damaging influence of parent migration
The existing literature explored family problems as consequences of the increased out-migration and separation of families. Gardner (2015) shown in his study that left behind children could be the cause of high-level social cost from migration. It could significantly influence the children in different development dimensions. The absence of the parents could be injurious to the child’s development as there is a lower level of parental supervision and control as well as the weaker child to parent bonding. Existing studies (Scott and Karberg, 2016:76 ;Mazzucato and Schans, 2011) further explored the association between the family structure with kindergarten children’s development. Their results were consistent with the damaging influence to the child’s behavioral, emotional and academic within the single parent families when compared to those with both parents present. 
However, contradicting results were obtained from Yeoh and Lam(2007) where there was no significant difference between those who were left behind and their parents present comparative in the academic interest and achievement dimension. Nonetheless, statistical significant variation among their academic environment and supervision was observed. The out-migration of the parents not only adds the labor burden onto the left-behind children, which lowers their time spent on development as well as the absence of family tutor (Cao, 2007). Therefore, this was supported by the drop in the development pace of the children who were left behind compared to those periods when their parents were present (Ye and Murray, 2005). The previous study illustrated consistent results in terms of added housework responsibilities for the left0behind children which lower their time and effort allocated to study. Furthermore, the lack of parent tutoring is also an issue arise from parent absence. 
Moving on, further research (Tilly, 2007) was done in suggesting that the left behind children haveto pay a high emotional cost of separation from parents in the long term which could not be balanced by the gained economic advantages. Research done by Derby in 2007 found that children in various age group act differently to their parent migration in his sample of Mexican transnational sample. Those left behind children during the kindergarten stage shown higher emotional impact from separation as they tend not to accept their biological parents. However, those who have moved onto the primary to secondary stage expressed behavioral difficulties. These could arise due to the feeling that carer concerns little of what they were doing in effect. Even though families reunite during some time of the year or eventually after a long period of time, family members could have a significantly longer time to adjust to each other after a prolonged period of parent absence. A long period of separation at early childhood stage could result in children have difficulties in adapting to their parents as well as child-parent communication (Mazzucato et. al, 2015). Therefore, the following research examines the impact of parent absence in the long run and how their connection with their parents diminishes. 
The research was done by Wang et. al (2005:59) viewed from the psychosocial perspective of the left behind children. Psychological frailness and the parents’ love anxiety could be common in the left-behind children at early childhood stage. The distancing of the child and their out-migrant parent are caused by their lack of communication and shared experiences (Yu and Murray, 2005). The rise of the peer group as emotional support for the left-behind children are playing a greater emphasis when compared to parent participation (Wang, 2006:69). Nevertheless, peer group associations have caused children’s aberrant conduct and supplying support.   
 
The benefits of parent migration
The out-migration of the children’s parents could not only bring about the negative effect on the left behind children, but also benefits. Existing research has examined that left behind children could benefit from the increased earnings and savings from parents’ migration which increase their material livelihood (Asis, 2006). The same research also found that the major benefits for the left behind children compared to their non-migrant parent peers could largely due to the significant increase in economic return gained from migration. In the context of Philippines, the remittances generated by the migrant parents often improved the child’s development outcomes such as the improvements in physical health, education, and nutrition (Parrenas, 2005). Supporting evidence from another study done by Morooka and Liang (2009) shown that in Mexico, families with migrant parents are financially better off than their non-migrant families (Kandel and Kao, 2001). More specifically, the Mexico-US migration could increase the family remittance to the US allowing the parents to provide better education and care for their children while lowering the demand for child labor.  
Furthermore, out-migration from rural to urban cities could also result in the change of perspective and aspirations (Toyota et. al, 2007). The broadening of the parents’ horizon could be further transferred to the left behind children through parent-child interaction and communication while serving as channels for future reallocation. This research could also examine the impact of migrant parents on the aspirations of the children. These could be studied through understanding their value of education, and eagerness to have a better future. 
 
Research design 
In this paper, left-behind children in the pre-school education stage in A town are selected as the research object. A town located in southwest China's henan province zhumadian, A town there is no large industrial enterprises, mainly through original and sell corn, wheat, and A small amount of cash crops, peanut, sesame and cotton) to obtain the economic source. With the advancement of urbanization, more and more labor, especially after 90 to employment, but because children in need more time and energy to take care of 3 to 6 years of age, migrant parents cannot to be with you at all times, number of left-behind children more cause pre-school education stage.
The questionnaire is divided into three parts, with a total of 30 questions:
The first part is the personal information of left-behind children (a total of 3), which is filled by the main caregivers of left-behind children, involving age and kindergarten. Personal information in the second part is the rural parents and preschool education concept (15 items), completed by the migrant parents, involving migrant parents' gender, the education information, working situation and situation of parent-child communication, the understanding of the kindergarten and preschool education content; The third part is the main caregivers of personal information and preschool education concept (15 items), completed by the main caregivers, involves the primary caregivers for age, the education information, the source of life, physical condition, the understanding of the kindergarten and preschool education content, the policy of the preschool education. Due to in-depth oral interviews with kindergarten principals and preschool teachers, there are fewer questions (7 questions) for the kindergarten teacher survey questionnaire and the questionnaire for preschool teachers. The survey of kindergarten principals involves age, education, employment purpose, appointment form, teacher training and teacher training. The questionnaire of preschool teachers involves age, education, professional, teacher qualification and professional reasons.
 
Standards 
In terms of the nature of kindergartens, kindergartens are the institutions that carry out conservation and education for preschool children over 3 years old. The purpose of kindergarten is to do well in teaching and teaching. The kindergarten should have the teachers' qualification byelaw "regulation of teachers' qualification, with college degree or above, there are three years working experience in kindergarten and certain organization management ability, and obtain the kindergarten job training certificate.#p#分页标题#e#
In terms of the standardization of the park, the public kindergartens of A town run the park in 2014, because the country proposed in 2016 to increase the enrollment rate of education for preschool children in rural areas and improve the quality of pre-school education in rural areas. Private kindergartens have more than ten years of history, and have not been licensed for more than 10 years, and are still applying for status. At the beginning, there was no business license because the state had no hard and hard requirements, and now it is in the process of applying for business license.
On the two kindergarten personal qualities, the public the kindergarten has six years of primary school education management experience, belongs to the superior Ren Mingshi, has certain organization management ability, but do not have three years working experience in kindergarten, and did not attend any kindergarten training. The head of a private kindergarten has more than three years of relevant work experience, but does not have the kindergarten teacher certificate, and the two kindergarten principals have problems of substandard.
The organization and implementation of "education guidelines for children" clearly states that "environment is an important resource of education, and it should be effective to promote the development of children through the creation and utilization of the environment." The environmental creation of kindergarten refers to all the physical and mental environment necessary for the physical and mental development of children in the kindergarten. According to the literature, the kindergarten environment can be divided into: space area of activity (such as: spatial density), spatial Settings (such as: all kinds of the color of the material selection and collocation, ventilation, voice control), metope environment, activities, materials (such as tables and chairs, toys and adequacy, sports equipment, insulation) adequacy of teaching equipment, especially modern electronic equipment. The successful education environment creation can reflect the characteristics of a kindergarten, and can develop the deep psychological structure of children.
 
Accessing and recruiting the left behind children and Sampling strategy
First, the left-behind children aged 3-6 are determined to exclude non-left-behind children and children who are not in accordance with their age, and have strong pertinence. Children aged 3 to 6 are not well aware of many professional concepts and have difficulty maintaining their attention for a long time. They are not suitable for a large number of written languages and lengthy questionnaires that require time. Of 65 left-behind children migrant parents, 378 primary caregivers, two the kindergarten and eight questionnaires out of 388 kindergarten teachers, through one-on-one instruction to fill in guarantee the reliability of the questionnaire, the questionnaire recovery rate is 100%. Questionnaire without using anonymous way, and identity in the questionnaire voluntarily leave A phone, this basically is to lay A good foundation for the follow-up interviews, the second stage is the questionnaire analysis, descriptive statistics analysis method, in the form of three wire table intuitive reflect the left-behind children's personal information, primary rural left-behind children parents and caregivers of personal information and preschool education idea, the preschool education of left-behind children accept family family economic condition, family residence, content of family education, family education environment, accept the school pre-school education of left-behind children in the kindergarten namely left-behind children education purpose, education subject, education content, education environment that several big aspects, makes every effort to accurately and fully present A town left-behind children pre-school education present situation.
The investigation has encountered many difficulties, but they have been overcome. When determining the left-behind children of 3-6 years old, because children is more, A town to the power of the individual alone ensure accuracy of the research object, but with A kindergarten teacher in the town of teacher cooperation to solve this problem. When the questionnaire was filled in with the grandparents who were the main caregivers of the main caregivers, the authenticity of the questionnaire was guaranteed despite repeated explanations. It is very difficult to find time for migrant parents to return home to their hometown, and fill out the questionnaire in the evening after communication.
 
Research process
 
The mosaic approach 
This research applies the Mosaic approach in understanding and analyzing the interview scripts. This approach utilizes a mix of various methods in understanding young children’s perspectives relating to their life experiences and interpretation of the world. This includes the traditional methods such as participant observations and interviews as well as participatory methods such as photos and drawings. This method was determined to be child-friendly (Punch, 2002) with minimal harm and less invasive. As children utilize various tools in meaning-making, the researchers should use various methods in providing their views while not restricting to verbal expressions which children at such young age might not be fully capable of.  
The participant observation method is first utilized in understanding the contextual information obtained such as the child’s performance at school and behaviors at home as well as building rapport with the children from frequent involvement. The semi-structured interview is then used in an attempt to understand their experiences from the subject’s perspective. As interviews take on in the form of conversation, it is more suitable for children when compared to formal questionnaire while semi-structured format enabling the researcher to obtain information and improve understanding in-depth at the same time. These semi-structured interviews begin with a focus group discussion in familiarizing each other while encouraging different viewpoints on the research topic. It could be an effective method in displaying important discourses individual utilize to make sense of the phenomena. It then moves on to the in-depth interview where the one-to-one interview is utilized to explore further the multi-faced nature of the research topic with significant trust established with the participant. 
Following which, the use of visual representations could provide the researcher a channel in understanding information perceived from their perspective while allowing greater control in the research process. Additionally, the visual methods could be less invasive to children while children could thus be more willing to express their views through this method. Through the visual methods, a researcher could build an atmosphere of trust, relaxation, and respect compared to other research methods. Children at this age group could be comfortable in, while not limited by their language or speech capabilities. Thus during the in-depth interview, children are requested to make a scrapbook which contains information in the form of photos, drawings, craftworks. The simple instruction provided was to decorate their scrapbook and record their lives in the past, now and the future. 
 
Data analysis and Interpretation
The data analysis of the qualitative information obtained is a systematic search and rearrangement of the interview scripts, notes, and materials which accumulated to improve researcher’s understanding of the sample while enabling the researcher to illustrate the findings. 
Firstly, the interview notes, diary, transcripts are collected and printed out. The scrapbooks of the children were obtained and digital copy recorded. After repeated reading, the relevant data are recorded based on each individual child. The data is further partitioned into the left-behind children and non-left behind children. After the information was sorted, the data translation will be done and the accurate transfer of the social meanings of the wording needs to be ensured. 
 
Ethical implications
Informed consent will be ensured in each step in making sure the participant awareness of the research methodology, aims and risks associated in the research procedures as well as rights to terminate or refuse participation in each step of the process. The process has been described in the previous section. The aim of the research was to build rapport with the parents, guardians and children in the role of a teacher and researcher. Consent was easier to establish once trust was built in avoiding misunderstandings.
Research confidentiality was ensured to not disclose any personal information or connect the information obtained to a specific respondent in protecting their identity.Since the sampling population involved the left-behind children who are ever sensitive and might experience potential or real harm. Their information safety is well safeguarded. Any suggestive wording or information obtained are anonymous and will not be disclosed to others or public. Personal data will be deleted once the research process has finish and recorded. 
Prior to the research process, the researcher will be aware of her role and the children are potentially more vulnerable to unequal power relationship with the adult researcher. This following research attempts to minimize the inequality of power through applying child friendly research methods, building on the children’s competences and interests in empowering children. The application of the visual methods allows the children to better understand the information provided and help them in gaining more control over the research process. The use of scrapbooks promotes the children as co-researcher rather than participants within the research process. #p#分页标题#e#
 
Challenges and limitation
This study USES the quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis method, based on the theory of public goods, theory of responsible government, preschool education theory and education equity theory, in order to improve the quality of rural left-behind children's pre-school education as the goal, the further study of left-behind children family, accept kindergarten preschool education and family of preschool education, analyzes the problems and reasons of the rural left-behind children pre-school education. Although the results of periodic research have been obtained, a large amount of first-hand information has been obtained, but there are still some deficiencies, which need to be improved in the follow-up study.
 
This paper has the following shortcomings:
(1) there is no large-scale field survey conducted by individuals, and the scope of investigation is relatively small. The case of A town has local restrictions, and it may be difficult to extend to other rural areas.
(2) due to the limited professional level of individuals, self-compiled questionnaire has certain limitations. Although a lot of first-hand information was obtained through field visits, the excavation of the problem was not deep enough.
Bibliography
Asis, M. M. (2006). Living with migration: Experiences of left-behind children in the Philippines. Asian Population Studies, 2(1), 45-67.
 
Bryman, A. (2004). Qualitative research on leadership: A critical but appreciative review. The leadership quarterly, 15(6), 729-769.
 
Cao, C.H. (2007). Analyzing study performance of rural left-behind children. Education Exploration and Practice, 5, pp.73–74 
 
Fehr, E., Bernhard, H., &Rockenbach, B. (2008). Egalitarianism in young children. Nature, 454(7208), 1079-1083.
 
Gardner, K. (2015). The path to happiness? Prosperity, suffering, and transnational migration in Britain and Sylhet. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 5(3), 197-214.
 
Grasmuck, S., &Pessar, P. R. (1991). Between two islands: Dominican international migration. Univ of California Press.
 
Jingzhong, Y., & Lu, P. (2011). Differentiated childhoods: impacts of rural labor migration on left-behind children in China. The Journal of peasant studies, 38(2), 355-377.
 
Kandel, W., & Kao, G. (2001). The impact of temporary labor migration on Mexican children's educational aspirations and performance. International Migration Review, 35(4), 1205-1231.
 
Liamputtong, P. (2006). Researching the vulnerable: A guide to sensitive research methods. Sage.
 
Mazzucato, V., &Schans, D. (2011). Transnational families and the well‐being of children: Conceptual and methodological Challenges. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73(4), 704-712.
 
Mazzucato, V., Cebotari, V., Veale, A., White, A., Grassi, M., &Vivet, J. (2015). International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola. Social Science & Medicine, 132, 215-224.
 
McCracken, G. (1988). The long interview (Vol. 13). Sage.
 
Morooka, H., & Liang, Z. (2009). International migration and the education of leftbehind Children in Fujian, China. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 18, pp.345– 370.
 
Murray, C. (1981). Families divided: The impact of migrant labour in Lesotho (Vol. 29). Cambridge University Press.
 
Parreñas, R. S. (2005). Children of global migration: Transnational families and gendered woes. Stanford University Press.
 
Punch, S. (2002). Research with children: the same or different from research with adults?. Childhood, 9(3), 321-341.
 
Scott, M. E., &Karberg, E. (2016). Measuring Children’s Care Arrangements and Their Educational and Health Outcomes Internationally. Global social welfare, 3(2), 75-89.
 
Spiegel, A. (1987). Dispersing dependants: a response to the exigencies of labour migration in rural Transkei.
 
Tilly, C. (2007). Trust networks in transnational migration. In Sociological Forum (Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 3-24). Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
 
Toyota, M., Yeoh, B. S., & Nguyen, L. (2007). Bringing the ‘left Behind’back into view in Asia: a framework for understanding the ‘migration–left behind Nexus’. Population, Space and Place, 13(3), 157-161.
 
Wang, Q.X. (2006). Weakened family education and socialization of left-behind children. Culture and History Vision, 7, pp.69–70. 
 
Wang, Y.Q., Ma, X.L. & Wang, T.H. (2005). Children left-behind or children with behavioral problems? China Statistics, 1, pp.59–60.
 
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Science Academic Press.
 
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