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Applied business research:Foxconn’s employee relationship ma

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-08-16 11:33:55 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
本文的研究目的是探讨富士康如何利用员工关系管理系统来管理90后员工。本文在对员工关系管理相关文献和实证研究结果的基础上,构建了员工关系管理的理论基础。通过定量研究方法和150份问卷收集数据,问卷调查结果表明,90年代后的员工对富士康的员工关系管理体系进行了适度的评价,两者之间存在适度的正相关关系。90后员工对富士康员工关系管理及工作满意度、对公司忠诚度、工作积极性的评价。这表明,富士康不断改进员工关系管理,有助于提高90年代后员工的工作满意度、工作积极性和忠诚度。为避免自杀事件的发生,富士康应考虑改善员工关系管理,以实现这一目标。这项研究的局限性包括,可能的参与偏差和可能的回应偏差可能导致受访者对富士康的员工关系管理进行低评价。最后,笔者从三个方面提出了改进富士康员工关系管理的建议:依法管理员工,重视与90后员工的沟通,实现个体和组织的共同发展。这对富士康的人力资源管理具有一定的参考价值。
 
Research purpose of this article was to discuss how Foxconn made use of employee relationship management system to manage post-90s employees. Based on relevant literatures of employee relationship management and empirical research results, the author built the theoretical foundation. Through quantitative research methods and 150 copies of questionnaires to collect data, the results of the questionnaire survey showed that the post-90s employees gave a moderate evaluation on Foxconn's employee relationship management system; there was a moderately positive correlation between the post-90s employees’ evaluation on Foxconn's employee relationship management and their job satisfaction, loyalty towards the company, and working enthusiasm. It indicated that Foxconn’s continued improvement of its employee relationship management was helpful to improve the job satisfaction, working enthusiasm, and loyalty of its post-90s employees. To avoid the occurrence of suicide incident, Foxconn should consider improving its employee relationship management to achieve this goal. Limitations of this study included that the possible participation bias and possible response bias may lead respondents to give low evaluation of Foxconn’s employee relationship management. In the end, the author recommend from three aspects: managing employees based on laws, paying attention to the communication with the post-90s staff, and realizing individual and organizational common development for Foxconn to improve employee relationship management. This has certain reference value for Foxconn’s human resources management.
 
1. Introduction介绍
2010-2014年,富士康16名员工连续自杀(Christos,2015),引起了全世界的关注,人们批评富士康是一家血汗工厂,员工过度工作导致了无法承受的压力(Enderwick和Buckley,2017)。然而,作为一家世界知名的铸造公司,富士康严格的管理制度已经实施了大约20年,为什么以前什么都没有发生过。作者认为,这与越来越多的90后一代在富士康的参与有关。数据显示,2014年,富士康90后一代员工比例超过50%(Christos,2015年)。90年代以后,中国这一代人的成长环境与前人有很大的不同。首先,他们的生活环境比他们的前辈更丰富。他们不是为了钱加班的。二是更加个性化,不习惯在严格的管理制度下工作。第三,他们更清楚自己的权利。他们更加重视维护自己的权利,希望得到更多的重视和尊重。简言之,这一代员工出生于20世纪90年代之后(90年代后员工),相对于之前的员工,在压缩能力、职业需求和正确意识方面,他们与他们的前任(Peng、Wong和Song,2016),如果原始设备制造商(Original Equipment Manu)富士康(Foxconn)等生产商无法正确认识90后员工的特点,完善自己的管理体系,因此类似的事情将在未来继续下去,这将影响公司的声誉。
During 2010-2014, 16 Foxconn’ employees committed suicide consecutively (Christos, 2015), which caused the world's attention, people have criticized Foxconn as a sweatshop, staff overwork led to unbearable pressure (Enderwick and Buckley, 2017). However, as a world-renowned foundry company, Foxconn's strict management system has been implemented for about 20 years and why nothing has happened before. The author believed that this was related to the participation of more and more post-90s generation in Foxconn. Data show that in 2014, proportion of employees of post-90s generation in Foxconn exceeded 50% (Christos, 2015). After 90s, the growth environment of this generation in China is quite different from that of its predecessors. First, their living environment is richer than their predecessors’. They do not work overtime for money. Second, they are more individualized and not accustomed to working under strict management systems. Third, they are even more aware of their rights. They attach more importance to safeguarding their own rights and hope they are attached more importance and respected. In short, employees of this generation were born after 1990s (post-90s employees), it is relative to the previous staff in the compression capacity, career demands and right awareness that they are quite different from their predecessors (Peng, Wong and Song, 2016), if OEMs (original equipment manufacturer) such as Foxconn can not properly recognize the characteristics of post-90s employees and improve their own management system, so similar things will continue in the future, which will hit the reputation of the company.
2. Research purpose and questions
2.1 Research purpose
Foxconn’s past success is closely related to its rigid management system (Enderwick, 2018), with the increase of post-90s employees, Foxconn should consider add a number of flexible factors in the management  and reform some of the system in order to be able to better help the employees to reduce their work pressure to improve their work enthusiasm and loyalty. Employee relationship management can be considered as one of the measures for Foxconn to take into consideration. Research purpose of this paper is to discuss how Foxconn makes use of employee relationship management to manage post-90s employees, based on the research purpose established, it develops the following research questions. 
2.2 Research questions
Research question 1: To understand Foxconn’s current status quo of employee relationship management, this article focused on the status quo of Foxconn's employee relationship management by collecting data on post-90s employees’ evaluation on Foxconn's employee relationship management.
Research question 2: To understand the impact of Foxconn’s employee relationship management system on its post-90s employees, this article was mainly through the correlation analysis to understand the impact of Foxconn’s employee relationship management status on its post-90s employee’s loyalty, job satisfaction and working enthusiasm.
Research question 3: To recommend on how Foxconn reforms its employee relationship management system.
2.3 Research hypothesis
Based on the research background and Christos’s (2015), the following research hypotheses have been proposed.
Research hypothesis 1: the post-90s employees are not satisfied with Foxconn's current employee relationship management status.
Research hypothesis 2: The inadequacy of Foxconn's employee relationship management has reduced the post-90s employees’ loyalty, job satisfaction, and working enthusiasm.
3. Literature review
3.1 Definition and characteristics of employee relationship management
Employee relationship management is the realization of an organization's goals by ensuring that the managers of the enterprise are through the formulation and implementation of human resource policies, management practices and other means of management and communication to regulate the interconnection and influence between the enterprise and employees, employees to achieve value-added purposes for the employees and the society (Strohmeier, 2013). Employee relationship management more uses flexible, motivational, non-mandatory means to improve employee satisfaction and support an organization to achieve other management objectives (Verčič and Vokić, 2017). Its main responsibilities are: to coordinate the relationship between employees and managers, employees and employees, and guide the establishment of a positive and progressive working environment (Lemon and Palenchar, 2018).
From the perspective of management, employee relationship management embodies the humanistic management thinking. From the perspective of Maslow's hierarchy theory of needs, employee relationship management helps to meet employees' high-level needs such as self-esteem and self-realization. Judging from two-factor theory point of view, employee relationship management helps to improve the incentive factors to help improve employee satisfaction. Considering from the perspective of stakeholder theory, the use of employee relationship management is a manifestation of corporate managers’ valuing the interests of employees and taking employees as the core interests of the enterprises. 
3.2 Content of employee relationship management
Men (2011) elaborates the content of employee relationship management from the aspect of enterprise's rigid management, including: formulating and implementing scientific evaluation standards and systems, labor dispute handling system, employee induction, leaving-post interview and formalities, organizing employee training. Moskovich and Achouch (2017) were from the perspective of enterprises’ flexible management to describe the work content of employee relationship management, including guiding employees to abide by a company's rules and regulations, guiding employees to establish a good working relationship, guiding two-way communication in a company and improving employee suggestion system, organizing staff attitude, satisfaction survey to address what staff concerns, building a positive corporate culture, guiding staff values, maintaining a good corporate image, helping employees to balance the relationship between work and life.#p#分页标题#e#
From the definition of employee relationship management point of view, the content of employee relationship management should include contents of both rigid and flexible management, Men (2011) and  Persson and Wasieleski (2015) were only from one hand to elaborate the content of employee relationship management, which is not comprehensive, this article will synthesize their points of view, from two aspects of flexible management and hard management to investigate the status of employee relationship management of Foxconn.
3.3 Significance of employee relationship management
Strohmeier (2013) pointed out that enterprises’ performance of attaching no importance to employee relationship management, as well as their point of view that employee relationship management increases the cost of management and difficulty of enterprises to go against improving the performance of enterprises are wrong. He believed that the purpose of employee relationship management is to transform the relationship between traditional enterprises and employees by providing employees with satisfactory working conditions, motivating staff, improving staff efficiency in order to maximize the interests of enterprises.
Li, Kim and Zhao (2017) analyzed that employee relationship management helps to improve the relationship among employees, promote smooth internal communication, improve employee satisfaction, increases cohesion of an enterprise, and shape trust and harmonious internal atmosphere. Strohmeier (2013) figured that employee relationship management helps to improve employees' sense of identity and belonging to an organization, thus employees are willing to pay their own efforts for the success of the business without over-calculating personal gains and losses, and their will also proactively safeguard the corporate image of the organization.
The above literatures show that improving employee relationship management can effectively improve employee satisfaction to improve employee loyalty, improve staff motivation and thus improve the overall performance of enterprises. This is why this article explored Foxconn's employee relationship management. This article also investigated whether Foxconn's current employee relationship management could play a more positive role. The problem that the above researches have is that they neglected the cost of enterprises in employee relationship management and only analyzed benefits of employee relationship management. If researches in the future can make use of cost-benefit analysis and further prove that the benefits of employee relationship management outweigh the costs, it will make the conclusion more convincing.
3.4 Critical analysis
Research and application of employee relationship management in European countries are relatively mature, however, one of the defects of these researches is that the influence of cultural factors on employee relationship management has been ignored. Under different cultural backgrounds, the role of employee relationship management will be somewhat different. Currently, research on employee relationship management is not yet perfect in China (Men, 2011). Chinese enterprises and employees have their own unique cultural background. The system and implementation of employee relationship management must consider the influence of Chinese culture. This article will discuss how Foxconn manages the post-90s staff through employee relationship management based on Chinese cultural factors. This will have some innovative significance for research on employee relationship management to apply to Chinese enterprises.
4.0 Methodology
4.1 Research approach
Quantitative research is based on positivism epistemology and objectivism methodology, which refers to the research methods that represent problems and phenomena by quantity, and through the analysis of these data to obtain the law of quantitative changes. Qualitative research is the research approach based on epistemological epistemology and constructivist methodology. Researchers use data analysis, interview, observation and other methods to obtain data in special situations and analyze them with non-quantitative methods to obtain the conclusions and further study the reasons for its production. In general, quantitative research tends to solve the problem of "what it is", then qualitative research tends to solve the problem of "why." Considering the research aim of this article, it aimed to investigate the current status of Foxconn’s employee relationship management, and to evaluate whether it, rather than to explain why it was good or bad. Therefore, quantitative research is more appropriate. This article used a quantitative approach to understanding how the post-90s generation of Foxconn’s workers evaluated its employee relationship management and analyzed whether there was a statistically significant correlation between their evaluation and their job satisfaction, loyalty, or working motivation.
4.2 Research tool
This paper used the method of questionnaire to collect data. Questionnaire survey helps to collect the opinions of a group of people in a short period of time, thereby saving manpower and saving money. If collecting data by interview, it is difficult to collect enough data in a short period of time because interviewing is time-consuming. The disadvantage of questionnaire is that if the respondents are not serious in filling in the questionnaire, the data collected may not truly reflect their thinking. Therefore, this study conducted reliability and validity analysis on the data of the questionnaire, and when the reliability and the validity of the questionnaire were qualified, the next study was conducted to ensure that the data of the questionnaire have high quality.
150 copies of questionnaire were distributed and collected through the largest online survey website named WJX in China. The questionnaires were distributed and collected by using a random sampling strategy. The survey was conducted towards the post-90s employees who   now worked or once worked in Foxconn. In order to encourage respondents to actively participate in the survey and shorten the time for data collection, the author gave each participant who participated in the survey a small gift that was worth of US $ 1. At the same time, the author chose the online forum that Foxconn’s employees visited frequently to issue the online questionnaire to attract more Foxconn’s post-90s employees to be involved in the investigation.
4.3. Questionnaire
The questionnaire is mainly divided into four parts. The first part introduces the purpose of the questionnaire and the method of filling out the questionnaire to respondents. The second part investigates respondents' evaluation on Foxconn's employee relationship management system. The questionnaire was based on Men’s (2011), Moskovich and Achouch’s (2017) research, investigating from both rigid and flexible aspects, the data obtained in this part of the questionnaire helps to understand the current status of Foxconn's employee relationship management and respondents' evaluation of Foxconn's employee relationship management, which meets the requirements of research question 1. The third part investigates their job satisfaction, loyalty and working enthusiasm. The data collected in this part of the questionnaire helped to assess the impact of employee relationship management on post-90s employees, which meets the requirements of research question 2. Answers to the questions of the three parts were represented by using Likert scale, from answer 1 to 5, representing from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. The fourth part of the questionnaire survey investigates respondents’ personal background information, including age, gender, position, and whether they have work experience at Foxconn. The details of the questionnaire can be found in Appendix 1.
4.4 Data analysis
The data analysis tool of this study was SPSS 22.0. The data analysis mainly included three parts. The first was to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, the reliability testing was carried out by using α reliability coefficient method. If the α reliability coefficient of the questionnaire is more than 0.8, it was ideal; 0.7-0.8 is acceptable; if the reliability coefficient is above 0.7, it is best, 0.6-0.7 is acceptable. If the Cronbach α of the questionnaire is less than 0.6, it is necessary to consider re-compiling the questionnaire. In this paper, exploratory factor analysis was used to test the validity of the questionnaire. First, the questionnaire's KMO value and the spherical test result were obtained through using SPSS. Usually, if KMO value is more than 0.8, P value of spherical test is less than 0.05, it is more suitable for factor analysis. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the factor root was more than 1. If the total variance is more than 60%, it indicates that the questionnaire has good structural validity. The second step of analysis of the questionnaire was descriptive statistics. In this paper, it used SPSS to calculate the standard deviation, mean and frequency, explained the respondents' answers according to the standard of Best’s (1997) (as shown in table 1) and found out to what extent the respondents agreed with the answers. The third step of the questionnaire analysis was to use correlation analysis to understand whether there was a statistically significant positive or negative correlation between the evaluation of the post-90s generation’s on Foxconn’s employee relationship management and their job satisfaction, loyalty and working motivation.
Table 1 Evaluation standard of descriptive statistics
 
5.0 Findings
5.1 Reliability analysis and validity analysis#p#分页标题#e#
In this paper, Cronbach α reliability coefficient was measured by using SPSS to determine whether the questionnaire has sufficient reliability. The Cronbach α reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.9326, which indicated that the reliability of the questionnaire was qualified.
This article used exploratory molecular analysis to test the validity of the questionnaire. The results showed that the KMO value was 0.882> 0.7, Bartlett hemisphere test results showed that X2=1323.441, p=0<0.05, and these results indicated that the questionnaire results could be processed by exploratory factor analysis. The result of factor analysis showed that 80.261% of the total variance could be explained by the factor whose eigenvalue was greater than 1, which showed that the questionnaire has qualified constructive validity.
 
5.2 Questionnaire survey results
5.2.1 Descriptive survey results
Table 2 Descriptive Statistics
 
 
The questionnaire results showed that the respondents rated Question 1 as 2.7015+0.96. According to Best’s (1997) standard, it showed that the respondents thought that the terms of the contract of employment signed by the company with them were moderately reasonable and consummate.
The questionnaire results showed that the respondents rated Question 2 as 2.6791+0.83. According to Best’s (1997) standard, it showed that the respondents thought that the fairness and reasonableness of the company in dealing with disputes between employers and employees belonged to a medium level.
The questionnaire results showed that the respondents rated Question 3 as 2. 4776+0.76. According to Best’s (1997) standard, it showed that the respondents thought that the company's emphasis on the training of employees belonged to a medium level.
The questionnaire results showed that the respondents rated Question 4 as 2.6567+0.84. According to Best’s (1997) standard, it showed that the respondents thought that the company's emphasis on the employees’ suggestions belonged to a medium level.
The questionnaire results showed that the respondents rated Question 5 as 2.7985+0.81. According to Best’s (1997) standard, it showed that the respondents thought that the degree of harmony between the employees of the company belonged to a middle level.
The questionnaire results showed that the respondents rated Question 6 as 2.7612+0.86. According to Best’s (1997) standard, it showed that the respondents thought that the working environment and working conditions provided by the company belonged to a middle level.
The questionnaire results showed that the respondents rated Question 7 as 2.8657+0.60. This score belonged to a medium level, it showed that the respondents’ willingness to work long at Foxconn was low.
The questionnaire results showed that the respondents rated Question 8 as 2.7313+0.66. This score belonged to a medium level, it showed that the respondents’ willingness to take initiative to work at Foxconn was low.
The questionnaire results showed that the respondents rated Question 9 as 2.9328+0.64. This score belonged to a medium level, it showed that the respondents’ satisfaction with working at Foxconn was low.
The descriptive statistics results showed that the post-90s employees' evaluation on foxconn's employee relationship management was not satisfied, which is consistent with the research hypothesis 1.
 
5.2.2 Correlation analysis results
Table 3 Correlation analysis results
 
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
The correlation analysis results showed that there was a moderately statistically significant and positive correlation between respondents' evaluation on Foxconn's employee relationship management system and their loyalty, job satisfaction with Foxconn, as well as their working motivation (as shown in Table 3). The higher staff evaluation on the reasonable and consummate degree of the terms of labor contracts (Q1), the fairness of the company in treatment of labor disputes (Q2), the training system of the company was (Q5), the higher loyalty towards Foxconn (Q7) (The correlation coefficients were 0.376, 0.413 and 0.339 respectively.), job satisfaction (Q9) (The correlation coefficients were 0.372, 0.385, 0.374 respectively.), and working motivation they have (Q8) (The correlation coefficients were 0.453, 0.486, 0.479 respectively.).
The correlation analysis results revealed that there was a statistically moderate positive correlation between respondents' evaluation on the flexible system of Foxconn's employee relationship management and their loyalty towards Foxconn, their job satisfaction and working motivation (as shown in Table 3) . It showed that the more emphasis that Foxconn has on employees’ suggestion (Q4), the more harmonious the relationship between employees (Q5), the working better environment there was (Q6), the higher loyalty towards Foxconn (Q7) (The correlation coefficients were 0.401, 0.424, 0.434 respectively.), job satisfaction (Q9) (The correlation coefficients were 0.418, 0.437, 0.435 respectively.) and working motivation (Q8) (The correlation coefficients were 0.494, 0.374, 0.375 respectively.) the post-90s employees would have. 
The correlation analysis results showed that there was a positive correlation between the post-90s  employees’ low loyalty, job satisfaction, working motivation and their low satisfaction with Foxconn’s employee relationship management, which is in line with the research hypothesis 2.
6.0 Limitations
A total of 150 copies of questionnaires were sent out and 150 were re-collected, of which 134 were valid and 16 were invalid because these questionnaire were not filled up completely or the questionnaires were filled in with the same answers. The recovery rate and the effective rate reached respectively 100% and 89.33% .There were 89 males and 45 females in this questionnaire survey. 34 respondents aged 20-22, 65 respondents aged 23-26, and 21 respondents aged 27-28. Among the respondents, there are 59 front-line employees, 31 respondents were engaged in safeguard and support posts, 29 respondents were administrative staff, 8 respondents took high-tech position and 7 respondents took other types of position. 41 respondents have a working life of less than 1 year, 65 respondents have worked for 1-5 years and 28 respondents have worked for 5-8 years in Foxconn.
The possible participation bias in this study mainly came from the fact that 85% of the employees surveyed in this study belonged to first-line staff, staff of safeguard and support positions. The employees in these positions have strong work intensity, low scientific and technological content, and relatively low income. Therefore, they tended to have a low evaluation on Foxconn's employee relationship management system, and they also tended to have lower loyalty towards the company, low working motivation and job satisfaction. However, staff taking executive posts and high-tech posts are under relatively little work pressure, they have low work intensity and high wage income. Therefore, if the number of these two types of employees in the sample is increased, the employees’ evaluation in the survey data on Foxconn’s employee relationship management will be higher, scores of employee satisfaction, working motivation and loyalty in the survey will be increased accordingly.
The possible response bias of this questionnaire mainly came from the questionnaire for explaining the purpose of this survey. In the first part of the questionnaire, it explained the purpose of this survey. This questionnaire survey was to investigate Foxconn’s problems in employee relationship management, which may hint the respondents that Foxconn has problems in employee relationship management and guide the respondents to give low evaluation on Foxconn’s employee relationship management, coupled with the social impact of Foxconn’s employee suicide incidents, it may also make the respondents have stereotyped image towards Foxconn's employee relationship management and lead to their low evaluation on Foxconn’s employee relationship management.
7.0 Discussion and recommendation
7.1 Discussion
The research question 1 of this article was to understand Foxconn's current employee relationship management. This article investigated the post-90s employees’ evaluation on the employee relationship management of Foxconn from the perspective of its rigid system and flexible system according to Men’s (2011), Moskovich and Achouch’s (2017), Persson and Wasieleski’s (2015) research. The research results showed that the post-90s employees’ evaluation on the employee relationship management system was moderate. This showed that Foxconn’s employee relationship management was not so terrible. This conclusion did not seem to be consistent with reality. As Foxconn’s employee relationship was tense, resulting in 16 suicide incidents. In principle, the post-90s should be largely dissatisfied with Foxconn's employee relationship management. The reason for why these non-conformities existed was that it may be related to Chinese culture. That is to say, Chinese people are more subtle. Even if they are not satisfied, they do not directly express it. Therefore, Foxconn's employee relationship management must not only emphasize the improvement of its rigid system, but also pay attention to the improvement of the flexible system, by respecting employees' opinions and communicating more with employees to understand their true ideas. The research question 2 of this article was to investigate the impact of Foxconn's employee relationship management on its post-90s employees. The survey results of this paper showed that the post-90s employees’ evaluation on the company’s employee relationship management, and their satisfaction with their work in Foxconn, loyalty towards the company, and work enthusiasm were moderately positive correlated, which was consistent with the study of Strohmeier’s (2013). It revealed that Foxconn’s continued improvement of its employee relationship management would be helpful to enhance the post-90s employees’ satisfaction, enthusiasm, and loyalty. Foxconn should avoid the occurrence of suicide incident by improving its employee relationship management.#p#分页标题#e#
7.2 Recommendations
Based on relevant literatures and the questionnaire survey results in this study, the author proposed the following recommendations for Foxconn to improve its employee relationship management in the future.
Firstly, Foxconn should be familiar with the labor-related laws and regulations promulgated by the Chinese government to strictly and legally govern all aspects of its employee relationship management. For employee entry and demission, labor contract signing management, accident crisis management, they must be handled in accordance with laws and regulations, and as far as possible to meet the legal provisions about the benefits and labor protection that employees should enjoy. On the one hand, it should evade legal risks and avoid conflicts with employees to increase employees' sense of stability, on the other hand, when dealing with contradictions between labor and capital, they should make employees feel that they are acting in accordance with the laws, so as to increase their sense of fairness. 
Secondly, Foxconn should pay attention to the communication with employees, they should understand the needs of employees and their opinions, so as to provide timely feedback to employees. For employees' opinions and perplexities, the company should respond positively and provide corresponding consulting services. For employees' needs and appeals, the company should try their best to satisfy them; for employees' dissatisfaction and complaints, they should listen and actively solve them. In addition, Foxconn should also establish a collective bargaining mechanism, making the company's unilateral decision be changed into a common decision. The company's rules and regulations must go through democratic and collective bargaining procedures and inform employees before they become effective.  
Finally, management of the company must be good at excavating the strengths of employees and providing employees with a stage to display their talents to meet their employees' needs for self-fulfillment. The management should give employees training opportunities, by enriching professional skills to learn how to work with colleagues to provide customers with more value services, which will bring the employees a sense of job satisfaction. The management should also help employees to develop career plans and provide employees with career development space and promotion opportunities, so that employees will feel that they are valued and respected and they are able to get their own development and opportunities, then they will be willing to develop together with the company and devote more to display their talents to formulate their own preliminary career plans based on the company’s goals, so as to achieve the common goals of the company’s and individuals’. 
 
References
Best, J.W. (1997). Research in education. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Christos, K. (2015). Foxconnian culture: an operational crisis abetted suicides. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 175(12), 447-454
Enderwick, P. and Buckley, P. J. (2017). Beyond supply and assembly relations: Collaborative innovation in global factory systems. Journal of Business Research, 12(9), 203-211. 
Enderwick, P. (2018). The scope of corporate social responsibility in networked multinational enterprises. International Business Review, 27(2), 410-417.
Lemon, L. L.and Palenchar, M. L. (2018). Public relations and zones of engagement: Employees’ lived experiences and the fundamental nature of employee engagement. Public Relations Review, 44(1), 142-155.
Li, J., Kim, W. G. and Zhao, R. (2017). Multilevel model of management support and casino employee turnover intention. Tourism Management, 59(4), 193-204.
Men, L. R. (2011). How employee empowerment influences organization–employee relationship in China. Public Relations Review, 37(4), 435-437. 
Moskovich, Y. and Achouch, Y. (2017). Family home culture and management-employee relationships: Comparing two kibbutz factories. Journal of Co-operative Organization and Management, 5(2), 95-107.
Peng, K. Z., Wong, C. S. and Song, J. L. (2016). How do Chinese employees react to psychological contract violation? Journal of World Business, 51(5), 815-825.
Persson, S. and Wasieleski, D. (2015). The seasons of the psychological contract: Overcoming the silent transformations of the employer–employee relationship. Human Resource Management Review, 25(4), 368-383.
Strohmeier, S. (2013). Employee relationship management — Realizing competitive advantage through information technology? Human Resource Management Review, 23(1), 93-104.
Verčič, A. T. and Vokić, N. P. (2017). Engaging employees through internal communication. Public Relations Review, 43(5), 885-893.
 
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