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Business Research Proposal格式范文:Challenges for Businesses in the Caribbean

论文价格: 免费 时间:2023-11-22 10:19:32 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Business Research Proposal格式范文-加勒比地区企业面临的挑战。本文是一篇留学生商科Research Proposal写作格式范文。俗话说,变化总是不变的。拥抱变革对变革推动者来说可能是一个挑战。

本篇Research Proposal的作者坚持认为,变革之所以失败,是因为有缺陷的方法,或者在约翰·科特的案例中,是因为管理层没有意识到这个过程可能而且往往需要数年才能实现。Kotter教授提出了一个确保变革举措成功的八步模式。许多组织,尤其是国有企业,诞生于传统的官僚体系,发现工人所获得的知识和技能超过了那些坚持陈旧方法的管理层。这样的组织是转换感叹词的主要候选者。以下就是这篇Business Research Proposal格式范文的具体内容,供参考。

Research Proposal格式范文

1.1 Introduction 引言

Change, according to the adage, is always constant. Embracing change can be a challenge to change agents.

Many authors of change have maintained that change fails because of flawed methods, or in the case of John Kotter, the failure of management to realize that the process can and often do, take years to come to fruition. Professor Kotter (Kotter, 1996), proposed an eight-step model for ensuring change initiatives success. Many organizations, especially state-owned corporations, were born out of legacy bureaucratic systems and find that the workers have acquired knowledge and skill-set that surpasses that of the management who hold on to archaic methods. Such organizations are prime candidates for transformational interjection.

1.2 Purpose of the Study 研究目的

This study looks into the challenges that faces emerging businesses within the Caribbean area, with an aim to highlight issues that are critical for growth and transition. Focus is placed on complexity as a driver of change; as a vessel for accommodating interactive initiatives within systems and agents of change. The study will explore the ways in which researchers and academics have adopted various models and theoretical methodologies to catalyze change, some with limited success others with high success rate. The region has been able to adapt to changes throughout the years but modern change initiatives calls for unique, if not unorthodox methods to successfully execute such transitions. This research attempts to apply such novel ways to bring out the best in management of organizations.

本篇Research Proposal提出本项研究探讨了加勒比地区新兴企业面临的挑战,旨在强调对增长和转型至关重要的问题。将重点放在复杂性上,将其作为变革的驱动力;作为在系统和变革推动者中容纳互动倡议的容器。这项研究将探索研究人员和学者采用各种模型和理论方法来催化变革的方式,其中一些成功率有限,另一些成功率很高。多年来,该地区一直能够适应变化,但现代变革举措需要独特的方法,即使不是非正统的方法,也能成功地实现这种转变。Research Proposal指出本研究试图运用这些新颖的方法来发挥组织管理的最佳效果。

1.3 Problem Statement 问题陈述

For decades academics and researchers have wrestled with the problem of change and have even proposed theoretical models explaining their different methods. It has been ascertained that over 70% of all change initiative have failed, (Higgs & Rowland, 2005), (Beer & Nohria, 2000). Change hinges around behavioural patterns in people; people have to consciously desire change in order that it works. The past methods applied to organizations have proven to be inadequate, or very complex in nature. John Kotter in an article in the Harvard Business Review, made it clear that change is a large-scale process that takes time. This process goes through stages and any significant error in any stage can lead to the collapse of the entire change initiative (Kotter, 1995).

几十年来,学者和研究人员一直在努力解决变化问题,甚至提出了解释他们不同方法的理论模型。已经确定,超过70%的变革举措都失败了。改变取决于人们的行为模式;人们必须有意识地渴望改变,这样才能奏效。过去应用于组织的方法已被证明是不充分的,或者性质非常复杂。约翰·科特在《哈佛商业评论》的一篇文章中明确表示,变革是一个需要时间的大规模过程。这一过程是分阶段的,任何阶段的任何重大错误都可能导致整个变革倡议的崩溃。

An attempt at change management at the airports in Trinidad and Tobago entitled “Institutional Strengthening Project” failed after several years at change management. There is no single reason for the failure, but a series of complex interrelated processes and situations that lead to a total breakdown of the effort.

特立尼达和多巴哥的一项题为“体制加强项目”的机场变革管理尝试在几年的变革管理后失败了。失败的原因并不单一,而是一系列复杂的相互关联的过程和情况,这些过程和情况导致了努力的彻底失败。

I propose that using models that manage change from a multi-faceted approach that caters for complexity, will ultimately see positive transformational mechanism in the organisations.

Research Proposal给出建议,使用从多方面的方法管理变革的模型,以适应复杂性,最终将在组织中看到积极的转型机制。

1.4 Purpose of the Research  研究目的

This exploratory study will demonstrate the phenomenon that either foster a change climate or actively deter the process in dynamic organizations. A qualitative approach would be used. Many theorist including (Senge, 1990; Morgan, 1996) in systems theory, showed that the organizations tend towards maintaining homeostasis, but failed to show what dynamics occurs in continual change (Ford, 2008). Moreover, system theory (Von Bertalanffy, 1965) enabled the practictioner to view the organization in a more holistic manner: more like an organism, rather than a machine (Ford, 2008).

Research Proposal提出这项探索性研究将证明在充满活力的组织中,要么助长气候变化,要么积极阻止这一过程的现象。将采用定性方法。许多理论家,包括系统理论中的,都表明组织倾向于保持稳态,但未能表明在持续变化中会发生什么动态。此外,系统理论使实践者能够以更全面的方式看待组织:更像一个有机体,而不是一台机器。

In many developing states, the airport environment, which is highly dynamic has seen the phenomenon of rapid, constant changes and evolvement. The airports in Trinidad and Tobago were chosen and HyperResearch software was employed to manipulate the data.

在许多发展中国家,机场环境具有高度的动态性,呈现出快速、不断变化和演变的现象。选择了特立尼达和多巴哥的机场,并使用HyperResearch软件来处理数据。

1.5 Significance of the Study 研究意义

The research into the behaviour, culture, management style, of state organizations such as airports and port in Trinidad and Tobago specifically and by extention, the wider Caribbean area can be a launching pad for significant inroads into the understanding of dynamics that are emerging in organizations of these types.

对特立尼达和多巴哥机场和港口等国家组织的行为、文化、管理风格的研究,特别是在更广泛的加勒比地区,可以成为理解这类组织中正在出现的动态的重要跳板。

The research would lead the way in identifying the strengths or weaknesses of applied management styles, and the way that many management paradigms are applied to such dynamic organizations. The information obtained will be used for practitioners to understand the emergent phenomenon within the organization; the way to encourage rather than deter changes by ‘agents’ of change. State administrators and management practitioners would be given the tools to deal with a changing environment.

Research Proposal提出这项研究将引领人们识别应用管理风格的优势或劣势,以及许多管理范式应用于这种动态组织的方式。所获得的信息将用于从业者了解组织内的突发现象;通过变革的“推动者”来鼓励而不是阻止变革的方式。国家行政人员和管理从业人员将获得应对不断变化的环境的工具。

The organization can benefit from a lower turnover rate and higher output as employees find that their needs are now significantly addressed; both their hygenic and motivating wishes (Chowdhary & Prakas, 2005).

组织可以从较低的离职率和较高的产出中受益,因为员工发现他们的需求现在得到了显著解决;他们的卫生愿望和激励愿望。

Chapter 2: Literature review 文献综述

2.1 Why Change Management? 为什么要进行变革管理?

The classical and scientific management theories and to a lesser extent, the systems theories sought to minimize the turbulence of changes. These changes were seen as movement away from homeostasis. What modern theorists advocate is the embracing of non-equilibrium forces within an open-style organization. According to (Ford, 2008), an open organization interacts with its environment, both internally and externally, and between and within groups.

古典和科学的管理理论,以及在较小程度上,系统理论寻求最大限度地减少变革的动荡。这些变化被视为脱离稳态的运动。现代理论家所提倡的是在开放式组织中包容非平衡力量。一个开放的组织与其环境相互作用,包括内部和外部,以及团体之间和团体内部。

This study will focus on the new way of collecting, using, and disseminating information and processes within the organization to cope with, foresee, even cause changes that may propel such organization forward.

Research Proposal提出这项研究将侧重于在组织内收集、使用和传播信息和流程的新方式,以应对、预见甚至引发可能推动组织前进的变化。

Systems theorists came to realize that organizations were to be looked at more as organism, rather than machines. Systems, according to renowned academic (Von Bertalanffy, 1965), all shared common attributes irrespective of their kind, the nature of their components and the forces between them. All systems were seen to consist of an environment, components, interrelatedness, negative entropy, equifinality, homeostasis, has a central purpose and has synergy. Systems theory describes the organization as depicting the control systems mechanisms – positive and negative feedback loops – that maintain the system at some desired goal or a state of homeostasis (Ford, 2008). Ford noted that both systems theory and classic management maintained similar ontological stances when referring to turbulence and managing change. Both seek to maintain an equilibrium state. They seek to reduce or absorb the effect of the turbulence causing the disruption to the system.

系统理论家开始意识到,组织应该更多地被视为有机体,而不是机器。根据著名学者的说法,所有系统都有共同的属性,无论其类型、组成部分的性质以及它们之间的力如何。所有系统都被认为是由一个环境、组成部分、相互关联性、负熵、均衡性、稳态组成的,具有中心目的和协同作用。系统理论将组织描述为描述控制系统机制——正反馈和负反馈回路——将系统维持在某个期望的目标或稳态。福特指出,在提到动荡和管理变革时,系统论和经典管理都保持着相似的本体论立场。两者都寻求保持一种平衡状态。它们试图减少或吸收对系统造成破坏的湍流的影响。

Kurt Lewin’s Three Phases Change Management Model, is a theory that attempts to give the fundamentals of linear change.

Kurt Lewin的三阶段变化管理模型是一个试图给出线性变化基本原理的理论。

Figure 1. shows Lewin’s 3-Step model of change.图1显示了Lewin的三步变化模型。

Research Proposal格式

Lewin proposed that the change practitioner, firstly, unfreezes the current processes, mindset or beliefs that exist. This is usually by introducing a new concept, idea or challenge that allows people to see the need for change. Secondly, transitioning follows. This is the introduction of new actions, processes or way of doing things. There may be times when this is bombarded with confusion and caution as people may not have clear understanding of where to go or how to get things done a particular way. Finally, there is the process of refreezing. This process is the crystallization of the new processes as the accepted norm. This is a period where there is constant reiteration of the new system. This is crucial since people may revert to their old ways.

勒温提出,变革实践者首先要解冻现有的过程、心态或信念。这通常是通过引入一个新的概念、想法或挑战,让人们看到改变的必要性。其次,过渡随之而来。这是引入新的行动、过程或做事方式。有时,这可能会受到困惑和谨慎的轰炸,因为人们可能不清楚该去哪里,也不清楚如何以特定的方式完成事情。最后,还有重新冷冻的过程。这一过程是作为公认规范的新过程的结晶。这是一个不断重复新制度的时期。这一点至关重要,因为人们可能会回到过去的生活方式。

Another method that is widely used is the ADKAR model. The method is different from the Kurt Lewin method only in its emphasis on the change at the individual’s level. ADKAR posits that successful organizational change is only possible when everyone can transition successfully (Connelly, 2011). The model has a sequential five-step process as depicted in the figure 2 below.

另一种被广泛使用的方法是ADKAR模型。该方法与库尔特·勒温方法的不同之处仅在于它强调个人层面的变化。ADKAR认为,只有当每个人都能成功转型时,组织变革才有可能成功。该模型有一个连续的五步过程,如下图2所示。

Research Proposal范文

Many researchers believe that changes occur on two dimensions. The business and the people dimensions and changes to each dimension should occur simultaneously for success  (PROSCI Inc, 2013).

许多研究人员认为,变化发生在两个维度上。商业和人的维度以及每个维度的变化应该同时发生才能成功。

Figure 2 shows this process.图2显示了这个过程。

Research Proposal写作

Change management, according to Fred Nickols (2010), brings to mind four definitions: the task of managing change; an area of professional practice; a body of knowledge and a control mechanism.

根据Fred Nickols的说法,变革管理让人想起了四个定义:管理变革的任务;专业实践领域;知识体系和控制机制。

Managing change can be further subdivided into a planned or systematic fashion. This is simply implementing planned change into an existing organization. Unplanned change is the response to environmental issues in which the organization has little or no control.

管理变革可以进一步细分为有计划的或系统的方式。这只是对现有组织实施有计划的更改。计划外变化是对组织几乎无法控制或根本无法控制的环境问题的反应。

As an area of professional practice, many change agents and consultants have set up shops with expertise that cater for changes within organizations. As a body of knowledge, there are models, tools, techniques, skill-sets, and applied practices that make up this area of management. According to Nickols, the subject matter for change management is drawn from a wide field of professions and studies: psychology, sociology, economics, business administration, industrial and system engineering, and human and organizational behaviours. As a control mechanism, many organizations keep tabs on the alterations specially in the systems used. These “version controls” as seen to be part of the change management systems at many workplace.

作为一个专业实践领域,许多变革推动者和顾问都建立了具有专业知识的商店,以满足组织内部的变革。作为一个知识体系,有模型、工具、技术、技能和应用实践构成了管理的这一领域。尼克尔斯认为,变革管理的主题来自广泛的专业和研究领域:心理学、社会学、经济学、工商管理、工业和系统工程以及人类和组织行为。作为一种控制机制,许多组织都会密切关注所用系统的变化。这些“版本控制”被视为许多工作场所变更管理系统的一部分。

2.2 The Pitfalls for Change Management 变更管理的陷阱

Randal Ford(2008) posits that “an organization that has learned how to manage continuous change because continuous change is part of its goal and necessary to its survival would prove invaluable in providing robust empirical data as a living heuristic.” The fact is, there exist no solid data to support the fact that there will be success if change management is modelled on the complex adaptive systems approach.

Randal Ford认为,“一个已经学会了如何管理持续变化的组织,因为持续变化是其目标的一部分,也是其生存所必需的,在提供强有力的经验数据作为一种活生生的启发式方法方面,这将是非常宝贵的。”事实是,没有可靠的数据支持这样一个事实,即如果以复杂的自适应系统方法为模型进行变革管理,就会取得成功。

In looking at companies that have profitably survived over the years it is evident that they used some systems approach as they continually remolded their future as the years progressed. The Coca Cola company, for example, showed its resilience as it headed the field for many years and changed to accommodate the changing environment. Google has been relatively new but has applied the model of adapting changes.

在观察这些年来盈利的公司时,很明显,随着时间的推移,他们使用了一些系统方法来不断重塑自己的未来。例如,可口可乐公司在多年的发展过程中表现出了韧性,并为适应不断变化的环境而做出了改变。谷歌相对较新,但采用了适应变化的模式。

Change do not come easy. People resist change for a variety of reasons: by quitting, overt and covert hostility, passive compliance, strikes, and even giving reasons for the resistance. Paul Lawrence of the Harvard Business Review (Lawrence, 1969), contends that most people do not resist technical changes but do so for social changes. Professor Rosabelle Moss-Kanter (Moss-Kanter, 2012) of the Harvard’s Business School, in her blog suggest that change should not come as a surprise but should be introduced tactically by change agents. She stated that people prefer to be “mired in misery than to head towards an unknown.” Change can make people feel that they have lost control over their territory. Because of the ripple effects of change the agents must reach out to all stakeholders in an effort to lessen this ripple effect. Dr. Moss Kanter contended that it is better for management to be honest, fair, transparent, and fast in any change initiative.

改变并不容易。人们抵制变革的原因多种多样:辞职、公开和隐蔽的敌意、被动顺从、罢工,甚至给出抵制的理由。《哈佛商业评论》的Paul Lawrence认为,大多数人并不抵制技术变革,而是为了社会变革。哈佛商学院的Rosabelle Moss-Kanter教授在她的博客中建议,变革不应该令人惊讶,而是应该由变革推动者从战术上引入。她说,人们宁愿“陷入痛苦之中,也不愿走向未知。”变化会让人们觉得他们失去了对自己领土的控制。由于变革的连锁反应,代理人必须联系所有利益相关者,努力减少这种连锁反应。Moss Kanter博士认为,管理层在任何变革举措中都应该诚实、公平、透明和快速。

3.1 Introduction 引言

Primary and secondary research were applied in achieving the objectives of this dissertation. Due to the nature of the data to be collected and analysed it was expedient to use a qualitative approach.

Research Proposal提出为了达到本文的目的,采用了初级研究和次级研究相结合的方法。由于要收集和分析的数据的性质,宜采用定性方法。

3.2 Primary Research 初步研究

Questionnaires were used with standardize closed questions. Direct interviews were conducted as well as the use of focus groups focus groups where open ended questions were used.

问卷与标准化封闭式问题一起使用。进行了直接访谈,并使用了焦点小组——使用开放式问题的焦点小组。

本站提供各国各专业Research Proposal格式范文,以及Research Proposal写作辅导,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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