英格兰coursework范文:The Influence of Event Marketing on Scottish

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-03-27 14:10:00 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction引言
In order to promote the development of tourism, the Scottish government and organizations have organized a series of well-known events, what influences these events brought to the Scottish society, whether they have achieved their intended purposes, which needs to carry out in-depth discussion and research in order to facilitate the improvement of the future Scottish event marketing management. This essay first introduced the theory relating to the impact of event marketing on society. Then it took the Edinburgh International Festival as the research object to discuss its influence on Scottish society. Finally, it put forward some suggestions on the improvement of Scottish event marketing management in the future.
2.0 Literature Review文献综述
Numerous studies have explored the impact of event marketing on a local society from different perspectives. 
吴、李、林(2016)从经济角度分析大型活动的成功可以为地方政府带来巨大的旅游收入,同时也带动了与活动相关的行业收入,如住宿、餐饮、娱乐等。Clark、Kearns和Cleland(2016)进一步讨论了活动营销带来的经济收入不仅有利于当地,而且还为城市周围的旅游景点带来了旅游者和旅游收入。布鲁内对1986年至2004年巴塞罗那奥运会的经济影响进行了全面分析。Brunet(1995)认为,巴塞罗那奥运会是奥运会成功的标杆,奥运会给城市带来的巨大收入为巴塞罗那城市的振兴和城市吸引力的增强做出了不可磨灭的贡献。Absalyamov(2015)认为,大型活动带来经济效益,同时也导致社会经济两极分化,导致缺乏“地方精神”。在大型活动中,弱势群体更可能成为受害者,而不是受益者,从而导致贫困增加和社会分层加深。此外,Maiello和Pasquinelli(2015)等学者认为,城市事件营销导致公众参与不足、社会预算减少、公共利益压缩、公共目标甚至公共空间减少。Wu, Li and Lin (2016) were from the economic point of view to analyze that the success of large events can bring huge tourism revenue to a local government, while also driving the revenue of event-related industry, such as: accommodation, catering, entertainment and so on. Clark, Kearns and Cleland (2016) further discussed that the economic income that event marketing brought about not only benefits the local, but also brings tourists and tourism revenue to the tourist attractions around the city. Brunet conducted a comprehensive analysis on the economic impact of the Barcelona Olympic Games from 1986 to 2004. Brunet (1995) believed that the Barcelona Olympic Games is a benchmark for the success of the Olympic Games, the huge revenue brought by the Olympic Games to the city made an indelible contribution to Barcelona's urban revitalization and enhancing the attractiveness of the city. Absalyamov (2015) thought that mega-events bring about economic benefits, at the same time, they also lead to social and economic polarization, causing a lack of "the place spirit". Vulnerable groups are more likely to be victims rather than beneficiaries in large events, leading to increased poverty and deepening social stratification. In addition, scholars such as Maiello and Pasquinelli (2015) argued that urban event marketing leads to a lack of public participation, a reduction in social budgets, compression of public interest, public goals and even public space.
Werner, Dickson and Hyde (2016) pointed out from a social point of view that, the emergence of large events can enhance local residents’ community identity. Caiazza and Audretsch (2015) found that sporting events can increase local residents’ interest in sports activities. Arnegger and Herz (2016) argued that big events can reinforce regional traditions and values, and enhance local pride and community spirit. Deng, Poon and Chan (2016) mentioned that increased participation in sports provides a sense of recreation to bring a sense of self-fulfillment and a sense of accomplishment, while promoting social interaction and cohesion.
Wu, Li and Lin (2016) pointed out from the point of view of urban construction that in order to support large events, a government generally needs to increase a large scale of investment on  public expenditure in building public facilities and infrastructure in the city. Absalyamov (2015) further proposed that large events could accelerate development of urban roads and infrastructure construction, making a city have an access to advanced development, so as to promote the overall competitiveness of the city. Maiello and Pasquinelli (2015) figured that the events will bring about the improvement of urban facilities and the development of public transport, urban tourist reception facilities will be strengthened accordingly, it will also have a broad and far-reaching impact on urban housing, urban renewal, urban image enhancement and other aspects.
Matheson, Rimmer and Tinsley (2014) were from a social and cultural point of view to comment that events can have a positive impact on the image of a host city, residents' awareness, local culture and so on. He believed that global events provide a kind of opportunities to publicize and show their culture to get the identification from the outside world, which helps to improve a host city's image. Roche1 (1994) found that Sheffield was through successfully hosting the 1991 World University Games to change its city image of a traditional manufacturing city into a world-renowned sports city. Caiazza and Audretsch (2015) mentioned that hosting large events can promote the cultural exchanges between different countries around the world, which plays a catalytic role for the development of local multiculturalism.
However, some scholars found from the environmental point of view that large event marketing also have widespread negative effects on a city's physical environment, such as the destruction of traditional urban landscape, urban duplication of similar projects, regional development imbalance and environmental costs of large-scale construction (Maiello and Pasquinelli, 2015; Clark, Kearns and Cleland, 2016).
3.0 Impact of the Edinburgh International Festival on Scottish society
3.1 Economic impact
Wu, Li and Lin (2016) found that the festivals held have a positive effect on the promotion of local economic development and employment, the Edinburgh International Festival has also played a role in this regard. The Edinburgh International Festival (Hereinafter referred to as the festival) founded in 1947 has become the most influential festival in the world. It includes the International Arts Festival, the Fringe Festival, the Military Band, the Jazz Festival, the International Film Festival and the Book Fair, which constitute the world's artistic carnival. The Edinburgh International Festival has thus become a symbol of and logo of the city of Edinburgh. The International Arts Festival is one of the most celebrated arts festivals in the world, attracting musicians and millions of world tourists from all over the world every year (Sorgenfrei, 2006).  
The annual Edinburgh International Festival stimulates the tourism industry, it is now inextricably linked to the city of Edinburgh. According to the report published by the Edinburgh Municipal Government, the annual Edinburgh International Festival has a huge boost influence on the city of Edinburgh and the Scottish economy, it was estimated that the investment of per £ 1 would bring the net income of £ 17. The annual festival has brought the economic benefits of £ 170 million and £ 184 million respectively for Edinburgh and Scotland; to remove the costs, the festival has brought the city and regional net income of £ 40 million and £ 51 million for the city of Edinburgh and Scotland. The festival also promotes the development of tourism-related industries and creates lots of career opportunities, in Edinburgh and Scotland, the total number of full-time jobs brought by the festival are about 3,200 and 3900, respectively (SQW Limited, 2005).
The huge economic income brought by the festival comes from the following four parts. First, the festival brought a large number of consumers to Edinburgh, the number of domestic and foreign visitors are more than double of the number of Edinburgh's urban population. More than a million visitors to the city of Edinburgh have brought economic benefits of £ 146 million and net income of £ 35 million, as well as 2,800 full-time jobs; for the whole Scotland, its economic benefits have reached £ 156 million, the net income is 43 million pounds, creating 3300 full-time jobs (SQW Limited, 2005; Sorgenfrei, 2006). Second, the annual festival has attracted 2,819 journalists from all over the world, 17% of them came from overseas, generating economic benefits of around £ 532,000 and net urban income of about £ 126,000; it brought the entire Scottish economy benefit of about 698,000 pounds, the net income was about 19.4 million pounds (SQW Limited, 2005; Sorgenfrei, 2006). Third, about 300,000 performers each year brought about £ 17.4 million of economic benefits and £ 4 million of net income to Edinburgh, creating 352 full-time jobs. It brought about £ 23 million of economic benefits and net regional income of approximately £ 6.65 million and full-time employment of about 500 jobs to the whole Scottish region (SQW Limited, 2005; Sorgenfrei, 2006). Finally, the economic benefits arising from the consumption spending effect of the whole festive organization during the festival were about 306 million pounds (SQW Limited, 2005; Sorgenfrei, 2006).#p#分页标题#e#
Clark, Kearns and Cleland (2016) pointed out in his research that the economic income brought by hosting events not only benefits the local, but also brings tourist attractions around a host city tourists and tourism revenue. The Edinburgh International Festival also has this effect. The festival not only has brought a lot of economic income to the city of Edinburgh and the entire Scottish region, but also has a positive impact on other industries and sectors, these industries are mainly related to the tourism industry, such as transportation, accommodation, shopping and so on (SQW Limited, 2005). According to statistics, during the festival, there were 39000 passengers who went to travel in Glasgow, which is a city around Edinburgh, while there were more than 52000 people who consumed in the Scottish Highlands and other regions. According to statistics, during the festival, visitors spent about 31.6 million pounds on local accommodation, about 22.5 million pounds were spent on food and beverage, 15.1 million pounds were spent on entertainment and shopping spending was about 1700 million pounds; in terms of transport (including taxis, car rental, buses) spending, it was about 700 million pounds, there were a total of about 93 million pounds (SQW Limited, 2005).
The enormous influence of the Edinburgh International Festival has brought huge economic benefits to the local people, but it has also led to the simplification of local tourism products. The city has made many important changes to the festival, which inevitably leads to the excessive dependence of the city economy on the festival, suppressing the development of other industries. When there is economic downturn and it causes the decline in numbers of tourism guests, it will be a huge impact on local economy and employment. In addition, during the festival, local prices of various consumer goods will rise more, fluctuations in daily necessities prices are not conducive to the stable development of urban economy, it will also cause great adverse effects on the lives of ordinary people (Sorgenfrei, 2006). 
3.2 Social impact
Matheson, Rimmer and Tinsley (2014) commented that festivals held have a positive impact on the local image, the residents' awareness, local culture and other aspects of a host city. the Edinburgh International Festival has also played such a role.
In addition to contributing to economic development, hosting the Edinburgh International Festival also brings fringe benefits, it has become an important way to re-position the city and flocculate national pride. The survey showed that 85% of the people involved in the festival believed that the festival enhanced the Scottish people’s national self-confidence. 89% of Edinburgh residents were proud of their city's ability to host such an event (Sorgenfrei, 2006). The Edinburgh International Festival presents Scotland's unique history, culture and national spirit to the world, such as the  unique national band performance. It is performance of military band by the pipe band wearing a different color Scottish traditional tulip clothing in Edinburgh Castle Square. When hundreds of bagpipers play the music, the history of the ancient battlefield of Scotland and the national heroic pride have moved everyone. It is this kind of national characteristics that makes it have unique charm, all the contents of the festival is new every year, only there is no major change in the military orchestra show, since the premiere in 1950, the 23 games per year attracted lots of people (Sorgenfrei, 2006). Besides, to meet what guests need, Edinburgh has improved its transportation facilities, guests can choose to travel by air, tram, train, bus and taxi, making Edinburgh one of the cities with the most comprehensive traffic foundation facilities in Scotland (Sorgenfrei, 2006).
3.3 Cultural impact
Caiazza and Audretsch (2015) analyzed that hosting large events can promote the cultural exchanges between different cities around the world, which plays a promotional role for the development of local culture. Hosting the Edinburgh International Festival brings a strong artistic atmosphere to the whole city, so that the public and visitors can enjoy a variety of cultural and artistic performances. In the same period of time, there are a number of different individual performances. so that visitors can have the opportunity to experience a variety of different cultures, different art, different themes of activities, for those who want to spend the least money to get the most experience tourists, this is undoubtedly the most attractive (Ranscombe, 2016). During the festival, the city is surrounded by colorful peripheral arts festival. Theaters, cinemas, squares, streets, restaurants, and even laundries, elevators, cars, as long as they can find the venue, they come to compete, which is an inclusive attitude that the Art Festival Organizing Committee has to encourage innovation (Friedman, 2014). Performances range from avant-garde art to traditional juggling and even alternative content. As long as the performances are popular, they will be able to enter theaters, cinemas and other places with box office, excellent programs can also get the festival award. This special artistic atmosphere attracts more than 25,000 performers from all over the world each year to attend. Among over 1,700 performances during the festival, 1,600 are external art performances (Ranscombe, 2016).  Many young people win the award here to enter the entertainment circle. The festival is also a good stage for traditional classical art programs, such as performance of Verdi's and Debussy's famous works. Although the fares of these classic repertoires are the highest during the festival, the tickets have been ordered out more than a month in advance (Ranscombe, 2016).
3.4 Environmental impact
Maiello and Pasquinelli (2015), Clark, Kearns and Cleland (2016) showed that hosting large events also has widespread negative effects on the material environment of a host city. The negative effects brought by the Edinburgh International Festival can not be ignored.
Of course, during the festival, it brings the huge number of tourists, which has brought great challenges to Edinburgh's reception capacity, Edinburgh's big and small hotels are full of tourists, in order to enjoy the festival, they should book residence at least 2 months in advance. During the festival, there is traffic control in Edinburgh's main roads, the pubs are legitimate to extend business hours, and there are pubs opening newly (Sorgenfrei, 2006). To meet the needs of the festival, more than 2000 theaters in Edinburgh will prepare four months ahead of schedule, some public buildings will be transformed into a theater, the whole festival has a large scale, spectacular scenes, strong atmosphere. These activities have a certain negative impact on the normal life of the local residents, such as the traffic inconvenience, noise, pollution, environmental damage and so on (Sorgenfrei, 2006).
3.5 Recommendation 
In general, what the Edinburgh International Festival impacts Scottish society is mainly positive, as the negative effects brought can be dealt with in the future by taking the following measures. First of all, by extending the holiday time, scatting the venues to divide the tourists, so as to reduce the problems brought by excessive traffic inconvenience, noise, pollution, environmental damage arising from a large number of tourists. Then, to increase the efforts for festival's promotion and marketing to expand the festival's influence in the world, attracting tourists from different places to stabilize the number of tourists. Finally, through taxation, subsidies and other means to help local businesses and residents to deal with the excessive product price fluctuations during the festival, which to the greatest extent ensure the stability of development of the local economy.
4.0 Conclusion 
This essay evaluated the influence of the Edinburgh International Festival on Scottish society from economic, social, cultural and environmental perspectives. From an economic perspective, the festival has brought huge economic benefits, but it also leads to over-reliance on tourism, large fluctuations in urban commodity prices and other problems. From a social point of view, the festival adds to the pride of the inhabitants and shows the world the traditional culture and image of Scotland. From the cultural aspects, the festival held has brought a strong artistic atmosphere to the entire city, so that the public and visitors can enjoy a variety of cultural and artistic performances. From the environmental aspect, of course, the festival brings the huge number of visitors, which has brought great challenges to Edinburgh’s reception capacity, resulting in traffic inconvenience, noise, pollution, environmental damage and other issues. Finally, the author put forward three measures to deal with the negative impact of the festival.
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