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心理学Essay怎么写:The Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Bibliotherapy on Self-Esteem

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-05-10 09:35:45 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是心理学专业的留学生Essay范例,题目是“The Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Bibliotherapy on Self-Esteem(认知行为疗法与阅读疗法对自尊的影响)”,本研究旨在探讨认知行为疗法(CBT)与阅读疗法对低自尊的影响。

结果,三篇关于CBT的文章被审查:Yeo和Choi (2011), Taylor和Montgomery (2007), Pack和Condren(2014)。这三篇文章都表明,认知行为疗法在治疗所有年龄段儿童(即儿童、青少年、年轻人)的低自尊方面都是有效的。在阅读疗法方面,我们回顾了Lenkowsky et al.(1987)、Karacan and Güneri(2010)和Tofaha(2012)这3篇文章。此外,这三篇文章也都发现阅读疗法提高了儿童的自尊。因此,研究的问题是,阅读疗法是否比认知行为疗法(CBT)对低自尊(即儿童、青少年、年轻人)更有效?

Abstract 摘要

The purpose of this research paper is to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and Bibliotherapy on low self-esteem. As a result, three articles on CBT were examined: Yeo and Choi (2011), Taylor and Montgomery (2007), and Pack and Condren (2014). All three articles showed that cognitive behavioral therapy CBT was effective when it comes to treating low self-esteem in children of all ages (i.e., children, adolescents, young adults). In regard to Bibliotherapy, the following 3 articles were reviewed: Lenkowsky et al., (1987), Karacan and Güneri (2010), and Tofaha (2012). In addition, all three articles also found that Bibliotherapy increased self-esteem in children. Therefore, the research question that will be asked, is Bibliotherapy a more effective treatment than cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on low self-esteem (i.e., children, adolescents, young adults)?

Keywords: self-esteem, cognitive behavioral therapy, bibliotherapy

心理学Essay范文

Introduction 介绍

The purpose of the paper is to examine low self-esteem in adolescents. In addition, the research paper will determine two treatments for low self-esteem. Past studies have shown that low self-esteem can be treated by cognitive behavioral therapy, Bibliotherapy, pharmacology, art therapy, and play therapy. However, the focus of this paper will be on cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and Bibliotherapy as the treatments for low self-esteem in adolescents. The following articles will be reviewed for CBT: Yeo and Choi (2011), Taylor and Montgomery (2007), and Pack and Condren (2014). In regards to Bibliotherapy, the following articles will be reviewed: Lenkowsky et al., (1987); Karacan and Güneri (2010), and Wagener (1976).

摘要本研究旨在探讨青少年的低自尊问题。此外,研究论文将确定两种治疗低自尊的方法。过去的研究表明,低自尊可以通过认知行为疗法、阅读疗法、药理学、艺术疗法和游戏疗法来治疗。然而,本文的重点将是认知行为疗法(CBT)和阅读疗法作为青少年低自尊的治疗。以下文章将对CBT进行回顾:Yeo和Choi (2011), Taylor和Montgomery (2007), Pack和Condren(2014)。关于阅读疗法,以下文章将被回顾:Lenkowsky et al., (1987);Karacan和Güneri (2010), Wagener(1976)。

During adolescence, girls are at risk for no intimacy, no support, and self-disclosure to other people because of the negative effects of self-esteem (Agam, Tamir, and Golan, 2015). Moreover, the Hispanic PR Wire (2008) examined girls between the ages of 8 and 17. It found that seventy-five percent of girls when feeling insecure, engaged in destructive behaviors. An example of girls’ destructive behaviors would include smoking, drinking, and bullying. Although boys have a higher self-esteem, they are more likely to engage in competition that encourages, conflict and power (Agam, Tamir, and Golan, 2015). Among boys in grades 6-12, the New York Times (2012) found that forty percent of them reported using protein supplements while almost six percent acknowledged to experimenting with steroids. Therefore, it is evident that gender differences exist in girls and boys since self-esteem is a result of others’ opinions and their environment. Why do adolescents experience low self-esteem?

Adolescents have low self-esteem because of interpersonal problems (Kahle Klingel, & Kulka, 1980). According to Bronfenbrenner (2017), his theory on Ecological Systems suggests the complexity of interactions of the individual in social and cultural systems. The Ecological systems theory explores how development goes through a process of progressively more complex interactions between the child and its environments (Bluteau, Clouder, & Cureton, 2017). In addition, the Ecological Systems theory includes the microsystem, mesosystem, and chronosystem; however, the microsystem will be examined. Moreover, the micro system is defined as a pattern of social interactions and interpersonal relations that a child experiences in their environment whether the child is in setting with family, friends, or an environment that promotes a healthy engagement in a progressively more complex system with their immediate environment. Therefore, the purpose of this research paper is to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and Bibliotherapy on low self-esteem in all ages. Thus, the research question for this paper will be is (CBT) a more effective treatment than Bibliotherapy on low self-esteem (i.e., children, adolescents, young adults)? Moreover, the hypotheses are:

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) increases self-esteem in all ages (i.e., children, adolescents, young adults).

Bibliotherapy increases self-esteem in all ages (i.e., children, adolescents, young adults).

According to Kahle, Kulka, and Klingel (1980) interpersonal problems is the result of low self-esteem. As a result, this can affect a child’s self-awareness and self-regulation. In addition, Leary, Schreindorfer, and Haupt (1995) as cited in Henriksen, Ranyoen, Indredavik, and Stenseng (2017) suggest people who have low self-esteem can experience eating disorders, substance abuse, and emotional problems. Moreover, having low self-esteem can be linked to psychiatric illness, depression, and anxiety (Freeman et al., 1998 as cited in Hall & Tarrier, 2003). Furthermore, Zimmerman, Copeland, Shope, and Dielman (1997) as cited in Taylor and Montgomery (2007), low self-esteem was negatively associated with causing peer pressure, low academic achievement, and alcoholic use in adolescents. Furthermore, the purpose of this research paper is to examine Therefore, this research papers will determine if CBT or Bibliotherapy is a more effective treatment for low self-esteem.

Self-Esteem 自尊

Leary and Downs (1995) define self-esteem as how a person perceives the outside world to be internally. These internal representations can affect a person physiologically, or psychologically. An example of this affecting a person physiologically and psychologically would be how a person is accepted and rejected by others. In addition, Coopersmith (1981) describes self-esteem to be driven by outside opinions. Thus, self-esteem is the valuing of others’ opinions.

Leary和Downs(1995)将自尊定义为一个人如何感知外部世界的内在。这些内在表征可以在生理上或心理上影响一个人。这影响一个人的生理和心理的一个例子是一个人如何被别人接受和拒绝。此外,Coopersmith(1981)描述自尊是由外界意见驱动的。因此,自尊就是重视别人的意见。

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy认知行为疗法

According to Fennell (1997), CBT aims to eliminate negative beliefs and to create a more positive outcome, which is done by changing behavior, and shifting perceptual bias through cognitive restructuring and behavioral experiments. CBT is essential for individuals with depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem (Kolubinski, Frings, Nikcevic, Lawrence, & Spada, 2018). An intervention was conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months over a 12-month period, with a series of assessments at week 12, week 26, week 52. CBT is comprised of reasoning reorganization, positive self-talk, and problem-solving skills. Furthermore, role play is an activity that supports cognitive behavioral therapy because it can improve the perspective taking (Yeo & Choi, 2011).

Fennell(1997)认为CBT的目的是通过改变行为,通过认知重组和行为实验改变感知偏见,消除消极信念,创造更积极的结果。CBT对抑郁、焦虑和低自尊的个体至关重要(Kolubinski, Frings, Nikcevic, Lawrence, & Spada, 2018)。在12个月的时间里,分别在3个月、6个月和12个月进行干预,并在第12周、26周和52周进行一系列评估。CBT包括推理重组、积极的自我对话和解决问题的技巧。此外,角色扮演是一种支持认知行为疗法的活动,因为它可以改善视角的获取(Yeo & Choi, 2011)。

Bibliotherapy阅读疗法

In the opinion of Jacob and De Guzman (2016), Bibliotherapy is a treatment that makes use of materials, such as books, poems, and pamphlets, to assist people with mental health issues. The aim of Bibliotherapy is to train the reader how to influence negative emotions (Gualano et al., 2017). In addition, it is intended to take the place of negative thinking with deep thinking through strategies such as:

Jacob和De Guzman(2016)认为,阅读疗法是一种利用书籍、诗歌和小册子等材料来帮助有心理健康问题的人的治疗方法。阅读疗法的目的是训练读者如何影响负面情绪(Gualano et al., 2017)。此外,它还旨在通过以下策略,用深度思考来代替消极思考:

Connecting emotions with their actions

Realizing they are not alone in facing their problems

Realizing there are others who experience similar emotions

Bibliotherapy is of use for individuals that do not have access to other mental health services or are on waitlists (Cobham, 2012). It is a form of intervention that can consist of 12-15 sessions and address four components necessary for treatment (Zipora, 2017). The four components are:

Patient explores pain, sorrow, or helplessness of literary character

Patient compares their own emotions to a literary character

Patient analyzes their own behavior and discusses alternative behavior

Therapist and patient work on gaining control of feelings and behavior

Individuals who are dealing with anger management, anxiety, family, fear transitions, mental illness, and self-esteem, Bibliotherapy is effective in helping individuals (Heath, Sheen, Leavy, Young, & Money, 2005). The intervention included participants that were divided into four equal groups with regards to their reading level, sex, and age. Each group attended three “book report and literature” classes where they read books of interest. Furthermore, discussion was provided by some of the groups to express their feelings (Lenkowsky, Barowsky, Dayboch, Puccio, & Lenkowsky, 1987). During Bibliotherapy, individuals participate in reading books (Newton, 1969).

 

心理学Essay怎么写

Results and Discussion结果与讨论

In this section, the author will review and discuss 3 peer reviewed journal articles for CBT and 3 peer reviewed journal articles for Bibliotherapy. The following articles on CBT will be reviewed: Yeo and Choi (2011), Taylor and Montgomery (2007), and Pack and Condren (2014). In regards to Bibliotherapy, the following articles will be reviewed: Lenkowsky et al., (1987); Karacan and Güneri (2010), and Wagener (1976).

在本节中,作者将审查和讨论3篇关于CBT的同行评议期刊文章和3篇关于阅读疗法的同行评议期刊文章。以下关于CBT的文章将被回顾:Yeo和Choi (2011), Taylor和Montgomery (2007), Pack和Condren(2014)。关于阅读疗法,以下文章将被回顾:Lenkowsky et al., (1987);Karacan和Güneri (2010), Wagener(1976)。

Article 1 (Yeo and Choi, 2011)

The purpose of Yeo & Choi’s (2011) study is to improve self-esteem and determine the success of CBT introduced to children in Singapore that have behavioral difficulties. The study included 95 participants, of which 82 were boys and 13 were girls, between the ages of 8-12 years from one elementary school who have behavioral difficulties, as well as self-esteem, lack of social skills, school and home behavior. The participants were randomly selected and 49 of the 95 participants were designated to the CBT group, while the other 46 participants were assigned to a control group. There were 10 one-hour sessions, twice a week done for both groups, and were on for a period of 3 months. The study found that there was an improvement in all behavioral domains from pupils including self-esteem. Also, the participants in the CBT group exceeded at increasing self-esteem than those of the control group. Moreover, the 46 participants in the control group that did not receive CBT, did not show any improvements in their behaviors. However, self-esteem increased only because the CBT program taught classroom rules. Therefore, what CBT does is show that children with behavioral difficulties are capable of changing their behavior through self-managing techniques which affects their feelings, behavior, and thinking. Thus, allowing the participants to achieve positive self-esteem.

Article 2 (Taylor and Montgomery, 2007)

The purpose of Taylor and Montgomery’s (2007) study was to examine CBT and its effect on improving self-esteem among adolescents. The study included 82 participants from two trials, aged ranging from 13-18 years because developmentally the age range in this group develop similarly. To measure self-esteem and depression, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used. In addition, the outcomes were divided into an immediate post-treatment, a short-term follow up, a medium-term follow up, and a long-term follow up. Moreover, the study found that CBT can be suitable for adolescents as it appears to be effective in raising self-esteem. Furthermore, adolescents suffering from low self-esteem indicates that the use of CBT is suitable, although it was not seen during the short-term and medium-term follow up after the treatment. However, the goal of the treatment is to aid the client with skills to logically challenge negative thoughts over time. Although Taylor and Montgomery (2007) noticed that the treatment was not an immediate cure in the months, it was found over time to decrease depressive symptoms and affect self-esteem in the long term. Thus, the overall findings suggest that CBT as an effective intervention in decreasing depressive symptoms while increasing self-esteem.

Article 3 (Pack and Condren, 2014)

The purpose of Pack and Condren’s (2014) study was to examine how effective group CBT was at treating low self-esteem. The study focused on participants who were less than 18 years, of which the 50 participants, 18 were men and 32 were women. The participants attended 10 sessions each at 1.5 hours, which included a 1.5-hour follow up session that was conducted after 3 months. Depression, anxiety and self-esteem were measured before and after using Mann-Whitney U tests. Moreover, to help increase participants’ awareness and understanding of their low self-esteem they participated in group discussion and doing homework outside of group sessions. However, Pack and Condren (2014) found that increasing self-acceptance, unhelpful thoughts, and behaviors is important for CBT to be effective at improving self-esteem. The study found group CBT to be effective at improving self-esteem while lowering levels of depression and anxiety due to the maintenance cycles being disrupted and the change in their beliefs.

Pack和Condren(2014)研究的目的是考察群体认知行为疗法(CBT)在治疗低自尊方面的有效性。这项研究关注的是年龄不到18岁的参与者,其中50名参与者中,18名男性,32名女性。参与者参加了10次每次1.5小时的会议,其中包括在3个月后进行的1.5小时的后续会议。在使用曼-惠特尼U测试前后测量抑郁、焦虑和自尊。此外,为了帮助参与者认识和理解他们的低自尊,他们参加了小组讨论,并在小组会议之外做家庭作业。然而,Pack和Condren(2014)发现,提高自我接纳、无用的想法和行为对CBT有效提高自尊很重要。研究发现,群体认知行为疗法(CBT)在提高自尊、降低抑郁和焦虑水平方面很有效,这是因为维持周期被打乱了,他们的信念发生了变化。

Article 4 (Lenkowsky, Barowsky, Dayboch, Puccio, and Lenkowsky, 1987)

The purpose of Lenkowsky, et al., (1987) study was to examine the effects of Bibliotherapy on adolescents who were disabled. These individuals were disabled emotionally because of their inability to interpret and express their emotions effectively in a classroom setting. The study included 96 disabled, emotionally handicapped participants, of which were 79 boys and 16 girls, and were between the ages of 12-14 years. In addition, the participants were divided into four equal groups with regards to their reading level, sex, and age. Each group attended three “book report and literature” classes where they read books of interest. Moreover, to express their feelings some of the groups talked it over. Students were then tested with the Piers-Harris Child self-concept scale prior to the treatment and after the treatment. As a result, the Bibliotherapy groups significantly improved their self-concept. Furthermore, Lenkowsky et al., (1987) found Bibliotherapy to be successful in a classroom setting for adolescents who were emotionally disabled. Bibliotherapy involved students reading a story and gaining a new understanding of their problem, as well as improve their self-concept. By participating in three sessions weekly that included literature similar to the needs of the students, Bibliotherapy was able to produce a change in their point of view, their behavior and how they coping skills. Thus, Bibliotherapy helped improve their self-concept.

Article 5 (Karacan and Güneri, 2010)

The purpose of Karacan and Güneri (2010) study was to examine if bibliocounseling enhanced the self-esteem of sixth-grade students. The study included 24 students, of which 13 were female and 11 were male. They were randomly selected and designated to the group in an treatment or non-treatment group. Also, the group in treatment was measured by Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI), and took part in an eight-week enhancing self-esteem bibliocounseling program. The CSEI consisted of 58 items, 50 of which measured self-esteem while 8 were made for social desirability. Furthermore, Karacan and Güneri (2010) found the study to be successful at significantly increasing self-esteem for the group of treatment, while there were no changes seen with the non-treatment group due to the topics that were determined according to the esteem needs of students. The students answered questions about a problem others’ faced with similar problems. Therefore, the authors suggest the treatment to be effective since the students’ self-esteem increased due to involved issues that related with the needs of students.

Karacan和Güneri(2010)研究的目的是考察书目辅导是否提高了六年级学生的自尊。该研究包括24名学生,其中13名女性,11名男性。他们被随机选择并指定为治疗组和非治疗组。同时,治疗组接受了库珀史密斯自尊量表(CSEI)的测量,并参加了一个为期八周的提高自尊的书目咨询项目。CSEI包括58个项目,其中50个测试自尊,8个测试社会愿望。此外,Karacan和Güneri(2010)发现,该研究成功地显著提高了治疗组的自尊,而由于根据学生的自尊需求确定的主题,在非治疗组没有发现变化。学生们回答了一个问题,而其他人也面临着类似的问题。因此,作者建议该治疗是有效的,因为学生的自尊是由于涉及到的问题,与学生的需要。

Article 6 (Tofaha, 2012)

The purpose of Tofaha’s (2012) study was to examine intelligent grade school children and the effects of bibliotherapy as an intervention program. There were 67 children, of which 41 were male and 26 were female. They were then split into 2 groups with one as the group in an experiment and the other being the comparison group. Also, the 2 groups were divided by age, IQ, and self-esteem. There was a total of 8 sessions given to the group in an experiment that totaled 40 minutes, once a week on Thursday. At each session, the participants were read a story orally while they followed along with their books. After, the participants discussed the characters such as what problems arose, and the characters feelings. The researcher then asked the participants to identify their feelings and how it related to the story. Furthermore, the participants followed up with an activity that reinforced the skills from the story. Tofaha (2012) found bibliotherapy to be effective at improving self-esteem of the participants in the group in an experiment over the comparison group that did not undergo treatment. Subsequently, by promoting self-esteem throughout the literature, the participants self-esteem increased due to their issues that related with the characters. Therefore, the participants self-esteem improved, raised their awareness about themselves and their environment.

Conclusion 结论

To reiterate, the purpose of the research paper was to examine the effects of CBT and Bibliotherapy on low self-esteem in various age groups. Each covariate analyzed 3 peer reviewed journal articles for a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles. The research question is:

Is bibliotherapy a more effective treatment than cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on low self-esteem (i.e., children, adolescents, young adults)?

重申一下,本研究的目的是考察CBT和阅读疗法对不同年龄群体低自尊的影响。每个协变量分析了3篇同行评议的期刊文章,总共是6篇同行评议的期刊文章。研究问题是:

阅读疗法是否比认知行为疗法(CBT)更有效地治疗低自尊(如儿童、青少年、年轻人)?

The following are the hypotheses statements:

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) increases self-esteem in all ages (i.e., children, adolescents, young adults).

Bibliotherapy increases self-esteem in all agess (i.e., children, adolescents, young adults).

In Yeo and Choi (2011), Taylor and Montgomery (2007), and Pack and Condren (2014), the three articles found that CBT worked when it came to having sessions. Therefore, the results of the studies support the hypothesis that self-esteem increased in children. When analyzing Bibliotherapy, Lenkowsky et al., (1987), Karacan and Güneri (2010), Tofaha (2012), the results indicated that Bibliotherapy has shown to increase self-esteem, dysfunctional attitudes while reducing symptoms of anxiety (Moldovan, 2013). Consequently, the results of the studies support the hypothesis that self-esteem increased in children. However, Moldovan (2013) states when there is limited access to other psychological treatments, Bibliotherapy is the intervention of choice since it is cheap and effective. Furthermore, Bibliotherapy is considered acceptable in society and encourages people to seek help (Leong et al., 2009). Therefore, the author would recommend Bibliotherapy as the first treatment and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as the second treatment.

在Yeo和Choi(2011年)、Taylor和Montgomery(2007年)以及Pack和Condren(2014年)的三篇文章中,这三篇文章发现CBT在进行治疗时是有效的。因此,研究结果支持儿童自尊增强的假设。在分析阅读疗法时,Lenkowsky等人(1987)、Karacan和Güneri(2010)、Tofaha(2012)的结果表明,阅读疗法在提高自尊和功能失调的态度的同时减少了焦虑症状(Moldovan, 2013)。因此,研究结果支持儿童自尊增强的假设。然而,Moldovan(2013)指出,当获得其他心理治疗的途径有限时,阅读疗法是首选的干预手段,因为它既便宜又有效。此外,阅读疗法被认为是可接受的社会,并鼓励人们寻求帮助(Leong et al., 2009)。因此,笔者推荐阅读疗法为第一治疗,认知行为疗法(CBT)为第二治疗。

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