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Literature review:英国媒体专业文献综述范文-关于过年送红包的习俗

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-04-10 15:09:03 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
Literature review文献综述
近两年来,红包作为我国传统习俗之一,正逐渐走向一种新的出现方式。通常情况下,在一些特殊的节日或某些活动中,如农历新年、婚礼或葬礼等,红包就如同它的字面意思一样,是以红包的形式把真实的货币从一个发往另一个发往另一个发往另一个发往。自2014年以来,电子红包(或电子红包,电子幸运钱)已经呈现给了普通人的生活。
社会学家图赫曼(1978)在《新闻制作》一书中指出,新闻是世界的窗口,人们利用窗口框架来了解和认识世界。然而,窗框的大小影响着我们观察世界的视野和习惯。在这种情况下,我们能透过窗框看到什么样的风景?中国的报纸是如何在网上寄出红包的?这与中国政府在这方面的立场相比如何?
In recent two years, sending red envelopes, one of the traditional customs in China, is changing to a new way to appear. Normally, red envelopes, just as its literal meaning, is sent the real currency in an red envelope from one to another during some special festivals or in some events, such as Chinese Lunar New Year, wedding or funeral ceremony so on and so forth. Since the year 2014, electronic red envelope (or e-red envelopes, e-lucky money ) has present to ordinary people’s life.
On the book called News Making, sociologist Tuchman (1978) indicates that news is the window of the world and people uses the window frame to know and then recognize world. However, the size of the window frame affects our vision and habits to look at the world. In this case, what kind of sceneries could we see through the window frame? How do Chinese newspapers frame the process of sending red envelope online? How does this compare to the Chinese government position on this practice?
 
Theoretical background理论背景
到目前为止,许多学者对这一理论框架做出了贡献,如欧文·戈夫曼、图恩·范·迪克、威廉·甘森等。然而,这一贡献的理论框架相对较大,学者们经常引用美国社会学家欧文戈夫曼的话。传播理论框架下的新闻研究(框架理论),源于美国社会学家戈夫曼的思想。然而,戈夫曼的概念框架借鉴了人类学家、心理学家贝特森(Gorp,2009年)。框架概念从人类学到戈夫曼符号互动理论,再到传播学的研究。
1959年,戈夫曼的社会学著作《日常生活中的自我呈现》在讨论个人如何向他人展示自己时出版。他说,引入一个分析框架,个人社会生活中呈现出的各种特征:他们共同构成一个框架,框架涉及到各种动态问题,都有助于将读者零散的体验结合在一起,也为研究者和要扩展的逻辑框架。如果对上述观点的解释,我们可以看到戈夫曼在三个层面上使用了概念框架:第一,主体(个人);第二,读者;第三,调查人员。对于个人而言,扩大社会活动必须界定一个侧面,这是个人行动的前提。框架是人们定义组织类型的场景。对读者来说,当框架帮助读者将体验碎片化联系在一起时,实际上就是引导读者(受众)转换为重要的社会真实凭证主观思想。对于研究人员来说,框架提供了一个有价值的指导测试。也就是说,该框架将帮助研究人员回顾事件,并提供检查或指导。此外,框架检验了原有的架构,进而实现了对事件的主观解读和结构思维,可见框架是一种元信息传播。
So far, many scholars make the contribute to the theoretical framework , such as Erving Goffman, Tuen van Dijk, William Gamson and so forth. However, the theoretical framework of the contribution is relatively large, scholars often cited to the American sociologist Erving Goffman. Journalism studies in the framework of the theory of propagation (framing theory), derived from the American sociologist Goffman’s thinking. While, Goffman’s conceptual framework is borrowed from the anthropologist, psychologist Bateson (Gorp, 2009). Framework concept has gone from anthropology to Goffman symbolic interaction theory, then to the course of communication studies.
In 1959, Goffman sociology book “The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life ” published when discussing how individuals presented themselves the way to the others. The introduction of a framework for analysis, he said, the various features presented in individuals’ social lives: they form a framework together, the framework involves a variety of dynamic problems, both contribute to have joined together the fragmented experience of readers, and also provides a worthy test of guidance for the researchers and the logical framework to expand. If the interpretation of the above point of views, we could see that Goffman use a conceptual framework on three levels: first, the subjects (individuals); second, the readers; third, the investigators. For individuals, expand activities in society must define a profile, which is the premise of individuals’ action. Framework is that people define tissue type scenario. To the readers, when the frame to help the readers to fragment experience linked together, in fact, is to guide readers (audiences) to be converted to the important social real credentials subjective thoughts. For researchers, framework provides a worthy test of the guidance. That is to say, the framework will help researchers to look back upon the events, and also give inspections or guidance. More over, framework examining the original architecture, then to achieve subjective interpretations and structural thinking to the events, and it could be seen that framework is a metacommunication  information dissemination.
In 1974, Goffman published a book "Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience," to further elaborate the framework of his early thinking: framework is a personal interpretation illustration, and to through such a pattern, everyone could find, understand, recognize and distinguish information or events. Goffman (1974) believes that people's daily activities implied or using a particular interpretation of the framework, will enable chaotic situation had become of some significance. Besides, it is a particular reality that people construct rules followed, or a specific category meaning. Framework is true that people will be converted to subjective social thought important credentials, furthermore, will be provided to receivers who pass from the communicators should to know how to understand the interpretation of the rule symbol. This has been involved in the issue of symbols and information flows.
Frame theory is introduced journalism, after communication, mainly used in news production, media content and media effect three research areas. The theoretical framework is introduced in the field of information dissemination Berkeley sociologist Gitlim. He (Gitlim, 1980) defines the framework concept is to about the existence of what happened and have to choose the significance of these issues, emphasizing performance criteria and when to use it. Framework is a sustained perception, interpretation and presentation box type, also chose to emphasize and stable missing paradigm change. Through this framework, the symbol of handlers routinely organize discourse. This fact has gone beyond the specific news, but a pass abstract and general laws have handled.
In the 1980s, the theoretical framework of the ascendant, some scholars call it in the relationship between the media and public opinion research new paradigm, so that scholars started to discussing. American scholar Gamson is one of the most important theoretical framework researchers, divided frame into two categories: one means boundary, such as the role of the camera lens, the lens is important to be accessible , and also excluded unimportant, so that like a picture frame effect; another one refers to the interpretation of a social phenomenon structure, namely as explained, paraphrased or comments to the outside world (Gamson, 1992) . The former represents the range of coverage, the latter is the sense of the structure of the display. Some scholars believe that boundary and structure, one as internal aspect, for the purposes of human knowledge structures; another one as external aspect, for the purpose of exchanging information and having interaction. The former for the latter set approximate boundaries, which in turn lead the scene how to choose the former. In addition, Gamson (1992) also proposed that a mature framework analysis should include three parts: first, focusing on the production process; second, examining the text; the third is in the negotiation of meaning between the a complex interactive audience and the initiative text.
Another communication scholars Entman (1993) is that the framework includes a selection and highlights. That is to see, frame conduct the selection process in the report and to highlight certain aspects of social reality in particular. Entman's selection and highlights, compare with the boundary of Gamson, seems describing the content of the same area.
Chinese scholar Pan Zhongdang believes that Goffman's frame analysis is a social reality about people in the construction process of how to contact the research area, including the following few points: first, social reality is constructed with the people through social action and interaction. Structural analysis is the analysis about how people construct social reality, which means a part of the real life is selected and interpretation, and then will be placed in a particular system; second, the construction of social reality is the need to establish common life scenes through contacting interaction occurs, and to achieve social realities of inter-subjectivity in this process, which is constituted subjective externalities from internalities. Structural analysis examined how people follow some specific rules of discourse or narrative construction commencement communicative action, so that to achieve concrete action scenes in the definition of the scenario; third, it happens in the real political and economic scene. This construction of reality discourse or narrative actions performances that discussed the activities or have some debates. Structural analysis must examine the process of struggle, and launched simultaneously in the normative and experiential levels; fourth, discourse debates occurred in the public domain, namely that the process of structure, is a core component of a democratic society which people live in public life. Structural analysis is to examine how people carry out the public life, at the same time, it is an important analysis tool which appears in the field of studying and discussing democracy with broad deliberative political communication. Thus, it can be seen that Pan is based on the basic idea of social constructivism and the perspective of political economy, combined with modern social and public life, discussed the concept of democracy and studied structure analysis, so that thinks that the structure is the process of which the social interaction of people get through the discourse, the formation and the exchange of knowledge of the phenomenon and the construction of a shared discursive environment, so that the public life to be started.#p#分页标题#e#
However, the frame analysis is considered to be a field of chaos theory, which involves multiple disciplines and multiple research orientation (Pan, 2006). Such as Pan and Kosicki (1993) would like to be divided the theory into traditional sociology and psychology. Some researchers also divided it into constructivism, critical theory and cognitive psychology as three paradigms (Pan, 2006). Focusing on the analysis of the two common ways, the first is the frame as the dependent variable, which investigates the dynamic structures and processes its construction; the second is the framework deemed independent variables, studying audience awareness, attitudes, intentions and behavior of the so-called "framing effect". This effect is usually associated with agenda setting, priming effects with collusion (Scheufele & Tewksbury, 2007). In the analysis of path, researchers often use induction (Gamson, 1992) and interpretation (Semetko & Valkenburg, 2000) as two main methods. Analysis of the former one, which began in a series of relatively vague framework or categories, attempting to analyze the process of gradually clarified and exhausted all possible frame types if possible. While, the latter one is already well-defined framework of categories when it began analysis, at the same time, seems to look at it as the standard system to view all investigated discourse, action and text, which was included in the prior frame type determination, examining the number of the frequency in which they appear.
In the field of mass communication, the central issue is the production of discourse or text from media frame analysis. Since the news is not a natural product, but the presentation of journalists on the subjective and objective fact, thus reporters shoul deal with information and must have integrity in the interpretation schemata, namely "news frame" or "media frame". What is more, the frame can be seen as a journalist involved in the facts in the organization with the subjective view (Tuchman, 1978). Tuchman (Tuchman, 1978) further pointed out that the significance of the news is as the window frames, and the size of window frames will be large or small. People could see different sceneries with different size around the world because of the window frames, thus the media has the function or the ability of constructing social real concept.
Gitlin (1980, p.7) indicates that the framework of the “continuous choice to emphasize and exclusion” and implementation. In this regard, there is a more detailed explanation from Entman (1993, p.52): “framework that is the perception of the reality of certain side of choice, making these levels in the dissemination of the text is more significant.” Entman further noted that the framework of four functions: defining the problem, or to key facts and issues related to clarification; explain the causes and consequences of the problem; on the issue of moral judgment; the results and put forward opinions on issues that may arise to be discussed. Even if a particular event is also worth noting that there are countless details, the framework that is selected by the pre-existing position and views communicators posed by emphasizing and principles presented, thereby telling people what exists, what is happening, and what is essential connotation (Gitlin, 1980). “In the specific context of any action, there is always a frame located in the ‘foreground’, it will conform to its appearance in the highlights actors vision” (Pan, 2006, p. 23).
There is sufficient evidence to show that the power of the media or news frame sufficient to shape the people for a policy or issues of public awareness and attitudes toward (Callaghan & Schnell, 2001; Nelson, Clawson & Oxley, 1997). Thus, different social actors attempt to engage in defining key social events or issues, or to compete in the process and meaning (Kruse, 2001). Entman (1993) pointed out that social issues or public issues is an imaginary scenario (putative situation), the actors in the public discourse of the field to be labeled and then become a social problem or issue by special methods to framing it, and this process of operating is the power performed the framework.
There are four frame shelter: communicators’ cognitive, constructive text of communication, cognition of receivers and communication activities with the text flow of the social and cultural scene (Entman, 1993). Media and research in the field of political communication, the scholars always would like to analyze the text as one of the core framework of the study (Pan & Kosicki, 1993; Xiaqian Fang, Zhang Mingxin, 2007). 
 
The customs of sending red envelopes
The history of sending red envelopes is so long that Chinese people are accustomed to sending and receiving them in special dates, such as some important holidays and particular occasions. The red envelope can also be called the red packet or hongbao. 
There are some legends on how the red packet become so popular in China, which are interesting and can be considered as one form of the Chinese culture.  
The tradition can date back to the Qin Dynasty when the elder people would use a red string to thread coins to the young generation (Xuan, 1999). With the appearance of the printing presses, the red envelops come into being to replace the coins with a red string. And then the red envelopes become one traditional custom. 
The color of the envelope is red, which stands for good luck and is also expected to ward off some evil spirits. The tradition in China is popular, and the red envelopes are often sent out by married ones to single persons, despite of the age. The money in the red envelope is always an even number, which conforms to the traditional beliefs in China. The odd-numbered money is usually given in the funerals or some other sad occasions (Wint, 2003). However, in several regions of China and in the Diaspora community, it is popular to offer odd-numbers of money, for they consider the odd-numbers are not easy to be divided, which is an interesting custom. Moreover, four is seen as an unlucky number, which should not be given in most occasions, in that the pronunciation of the “four” and is “death” is homophonous. Therefore, it is sensible to follow the number culture of China to avoid some unhappy mistakes, especially for some foreigners (Xuan, 1999). 
At the occasions when two persons get married, people attend the wedding will give the red envelop to the new couples to show the good wishes and aims to cover the expense of the wedding party (Xuan, 1999). This has been considered as the most exciting moment of sending red envelopes, for friends and relatives can witness the happy and moving situation of the new couples, which means a lot to them. On the other hand, the red envelopes given at the wedding also has added the pressure of the generation after 80s and 90s, for the amount of money is always large. 
Another festival of sending red envelope is the Chinese New Year, in most southern parts of China, the married people will give the red envelopes to the unmarried ones, and most of the people who receive the red envelops are young children. The kids are always looking forward to Spring Festivals, for they can get money from the elders, which makes them happy and they can buy lots of desired things with the lucky money. Students, especially the outstanding ones, are always be rewarded in the new year with a large red envelope. The red envelope is always filled with brand new notes. In tradition, the red envelopes will not be opened in front of the elders, for it is not so polite (Tam, 2002).   
The red envelopes are also employed to pay for the religious practitioners, teachers and lion dance performers. The various usage of red envelopes have become more and more popular in China in recent years, for the economy and the living standard of common people are increasing (Tam, 2002). With the development of the technology, especially the internet, the red envelopes has been transformed into digital forms to adapt to the trend of the society. People in China are fond of the red color, which has been kept as a tradition for a long period of time (Wint, 2003). 
The red envelop is one display of the Chinese traditional culture, which stands for the blessing meanings of the people who give the red envelopes. Sending the red envelop has become one important part of the Chinese New Year celebration. During the Spring Festival, the relatives will get together to have dinner and the elder ones will give the red packets to the young ones to express the good wishes. The birthday is also one occasion to give red envelopes. In some companies, the employers will give the red envelops to the employees as the bonus, which can encourage the workers to work much harder to make more contribution to the development of the company. Married couples will send a pair of red envelopes to the relatives to represent both wife and husband. People also sign the names of them and contain some good hopes on one side of the red packet (Tam, 2002). The limitation in the red envelop is not regulated, which depends on the occasion and the person. When the giver of the red packet is a quite close relative, the money included in the red envelope will be much higher. When the red envelope is given by a distant relative, the amount of money will be a little smaller. Moreover, when the red envelop is given to a child in the age of 10 or younger, three to nine dollars will be OK (Xuan, 1999). Generally, the older the kid, the higher the money amount will be. 
The money amount in the red envelop is also up to the occasion. When taking part in a wedding party, the giver will fill the red envelop with much higher amount of money. Therefore, the size of the red envelop in this occasion will be much larger than the common ones (Tam, 2002). The red envelopes can be found in all the bookstores, on-line shops, supermarkets and the shopping portals. #p#分页标题#e#
The traditional culture has been kept as an essential treasure of China. Sending red envelops is one kind of communication among people, which can improve the relationships of individuals (Wint, 2003). 
It is sensible to send red envelops according to one’s economy capabilities. In some cases, one may send a large red envelope to his or her dear friends at the wedding occasion to save face and show the best wishes. However, the living standard may decrease dramatically for sending the red envelop. 
 
The current situations of the digital red envelops
Since the year 2014, digital red envelope (or e-red envelopes, e-lucky money ) has become one popular form in China, which has benefited from the development of technology and promoted the economy in China. In tradition, the elder people will give the red envelops that are filled with cash to relatives and young children (Tsui, 2014). However, the usage of the mobile phones in China become more and more prevalent,  and the virtual hongbao comes into being to replace the cash-filed ones. Currently, some Internet organizations have permitted the users to give and receive the blessing money by the mobile payment platforms. The figures of the times of sending and receiving hongbao display the popularity of the digital red envelops, and the figures keep increasing in recent years. 
It is the bank to use the digital red envelop to attract the depositors to consume, but the banks do not advertise the new business seriously, so only a small number of people know this kind of business. 
With the pauperization of the consuming online, more and more websites, during the Spring Festival and other holidays, begin to organize some online activities, such as sending the digital red envelop to the users, which gradually become one marketing mode to surrender part of the profits to the net users. In the new year of 2014, many online users send electronic red envelops to the customers, relatives, friends through the alipay, tenpay, wechat and some other third party payment tools. Thus, the digital red envelop become one new method to send the red packets. 
With the fast development t of the e-commerce, every process of the holidays begin to be involved. For instance, the digital red envelop that depends on the online consuming gets rid of the traditional mode, which is fond of the young consumers deeply. Many young generations become the main force of shopping on the Internet. The discount ticket, rebate ticket, voucher and other types are all considered as digital red envelops. The application of the electronic red envelops become more and more prevalent on many large online platforms, such as Taobao and JD. 
The virtual hongbao service of Tencent is quite successful, which has attracted more and more online platforms to imitate the mode. Baidu and Alibaba have benefited from this kind of business greatly in the two years, whose hongbao payment has increased to US$1.1billion (Tsui, 2014).
The givers of the digital red envelop can enclose the good wishes and the hopes with them to send to other people, which can be operate easily and conveniently, without the need of sending in person, protecting the privacy of one individual effectively. When the digital red envelops are sent successfully, the recipient only needs to log in the e-bank to check the account, the details of the bank card and the transferring details in the e-bank. When the digital red envelop is sent without any problems, but the recipient does not withdraw the deposit by the bank card, the red envelop can only be included in the “new year red envelop” of the wechat interface, and it will not return to the account of the givers in itself (Hoyan, 2014). Therefore, once the users have not bind the wechat account with the bank cards, the red envelop in the account will become dead oney and the giver also loss the money as well.  
Comparing with the traditional mode of sending red envelops (red envelop paper with cash), the digital red envelop is more vivacious and conforms to the new era. The people who receive the electronic red envelop can consume the money on some online platforms to buy their desired commodities, so the practicability of the digital red envelops become much higher than ever before. One important advantage of the digital red envelope is that it is not limited by the region or territory. The merit of the digital red envelope is quite obvious, which promoted the online marketing to a great degree (Hoyan, 2014). 
However, some young consumers who are in their ages of 17 or 18 do not have a bank account, so they can only ask their family members or employ the off-line recharge to pay for the goods, which is not so convenient at all. Moreover, the digital red envelop can lead to the more elusive corruption. With the measures to fight for the corruption become more and more strict, some corrupt officials begin to employ some more secret method to abuse of power for personal gain, and the way to get rid of the law becomes more crafty. One important manifestation is that they tends to keep away from the material objects and fall in love with the virtual money deeply, for the material objects can become the evidence of crime easily and the digital red envelope can be hidden simply. This can be one adverse effects of the digital red envelop, which has added the elusive feature of the power-for-money deal. 
There is no need for most common people to send the red envelope on the Internet, for it makes people feel cold and impersonal. Therefore, they will not employ this way to communicate with relatives and friends and they are not willing to receive the wishes of the relatives by this method. 
As one essential entrance of the online finance, the payment has been considered as one key fort to attract the users, which hides the wild ambition of the Internet company in the market. Different from the red envelopes activities in 2014, the methods to fight for the digital red envelops in 2015 are more various, which cost lots of money of the Internet companies and introduced more enterprise users. 
The current conditions of the digital red envelop is quite prosperous, which has been considered as one important means to activate the economy and add the interest of play the red envelop games. 
Although the digital red envelop has changed the traditional forms of the custom, it still displays the good wishes of the givers and makes the recipient happy. Therefore, no matter what type the red envelop becomes, the nature meaning of sending the red envelope will sustain forever. 
 
Reference
Hoyan, 2014, The decision on purchasing products online, World Bank and the International Finance Corporation. 
Tsui J. S. L., 2014, ‘The factors in consuming behaviors’, The International Journal of Business, vol. 5, no. 32, pp. 122 - 233.
Tam, 2002, ‘Business profits and the cutomers’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 314-320.
Wint, Liu, 2003, ‘An Overview of Buying Behavior’, Syracuse Journal of International Marketing, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 23-48.
Xuan X.M., 1999, ‘The  attitude and culture in the red envelope’, International Economic Development, vol. 2, no. 24, pp. 76 - 98.
Callaghan ,K.,&Schnell F.,2001,Assessing the democratic debate:How the news media frame elite policy discourse ,Political Communication,18:183-212.
Chan,J.M.,&Lee ,C.C.,1991,Mass media and political transition:The Hong Kong press in China‘s orbit ,New York:The Guilford Press.
Entman,R.M.,1993,“Framing :Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm”,Journal of Communication,43:51-58.
Gamson,W.A.,1992,Talking politics,New York:Cambridge University Press.
Gitlin,T.,1980,The whole world is watching ,Berkeley:University of California Press.
GOFFMAN, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday.
GOFFMAN, E. (1974). Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience. New York, Harper & Row.
GORP, B. VAN. (2009). The constructionist approach to framing: Bringing culture back in. Los Angeles : Sage. Los Angeles : Sage.
Nelson,T.E.,Clawson ,R.A.,&Oxley ,Z.M.,1997,“Mediaframing of a civil liberties conflict and its effect on tolerance ”,American Political Science Reviews,91(3):567-582.
Pan ,Z.,&Kosicki ,G.M.,1993,“Framing analysis:An approachto news discourse ”,Political Communication ,10:55-75.
Pan ,Z.,&Chan,J.M.,2003,“Shifting journalistic paradigms:How China ‘s journalists assess media exemplars”,Communication Research,30(6):649-682.
Scheufele ,D.A.,&Tewksbury ,D.,2007,“Framing ,Agenda Setting,and Priming :The Evolution of Three Media Effects Models ”,Journalof Communication,57:9-20.
Semetko ,H.A.,&Valkenburg,P.M.,2000,“Framing European politics:A content analysis of press and television news ”,Journal of Communication,52(2):93-109.
TUCHMAN, G. (1978). Making news. New York, Free Press.
夏倩芳、张明新,2007,“社会冲突性议题之党政形象建构分析——以《人民日报》之‘三农’常规报导为例”,载《新闻学研究》(台湾)总第91期。
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