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如何写建筑学assignment?

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-05-29 16:43:45 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Task 1
酒店住宿的建设需要考虑很多因素,包括酒店的位置、施工进度、楼层数、建筑面积和设计等,这些因素都会影响最终的建设成本。因此,早期向客户提供成本估算不仅方便,而且至关重要,这样成本顾问才能很好地控制预算。
There are numerous considerations involve in constructing a hotel accommodation, including its location, construction’s time schedule, number of stories, floor area and design etc. All of them can influence the final construction cost. Therefore, it is not only convenience but crucial to provide a cost estimation to client in early stage so that the budget is well controlled by cost consultant.
在2013年RIBA工作计划中,项目工作流程包括八个阶段。前三个阶段被定义为简报阶段。在第一阶段(即第0阶段,称为战略定义),通过顾问和客户之间的协作,正确地确定业务案例和范围。在这种情况下,工作范围是明确的,以建立一个酒店住宿和规划许可已被授予。然后进展进入第一阶段,即“准备和简要说明”。这个阶段最重要的任务是准备最初的项目简介。此外,成本顾问可以开始编制成本估算订单,确定与业主功能要求相关的施工工程的可能成本。NRM1规定的成本估算方法有三种:功能单元法、建筑面积法和元素法。成本顾问将根据建筑师或客户提供的细节数量选择相应的方法,同时,准确度应按比例增加。成本顾问可以通过其顾问公司自己的成本数据库或BCIS网站找到为酒店提供每间客房成本的合适来源。
In RIBA Plan of work 2013, the project work flow comprises of eight stages. The first three are defined as briefing stages. In first stage (i.e. Stage 0, described as Strategic Definition), the business case and scope are properly identified by collaboration between the consultants and client. In this case, the scope of work is well defined to build a hotel accommodation and planning permission has been granted. Then the progress moves into Stage 1 called “Preparation and Brief”. The most important task in this stage is to prepare the initial project brief. Besides, the cost consultant can start to prepare the order of cost estimate which determines the possible costs of the construction works in relation to employer’s functional requirements. There are three types of method for preparing the cost estimate which is set out by NRM1: functional unit, floor area and elemental. The cost consultant will select the corresponding method depending on the amount of details supplied by the architect or the client, and in the meantime the accuracy shall be increased proportionally. The cost consultant can find the suitable source which provides costs per bedroom for hotel by either his consultant firm’s own library of cost data or BCIS website. 
The accuracy of an order of cost estimate is dependent on the quality of the information supplied. In this scenario, it is known that 80 bedrooms of hotel accommodation is planned to build on the site and functional unit method can be used as one of the approaches. Firstly, find the source of cost information that provides costs per bedroom for hotel accommodation. The cost consultant can find the cost information in the cost consultant firm’s own library of cost data, BCIS or the price book. In this scenario, we can use an appropriate range of functional unit rates from BCIS. In BCIS website, there are corresponding indexes which adjust the cost data automatically to take account of the date and location. If the range is so wide, then we should consider some other available information from BCIS, for example, mean, median or quartiles. By considering the lower quartile and the upper quartile as well as the mean and median, we can infer that if the variety of costs is evenly spread. If the client requirement allow the range to be narrowed down further, more ideal information could be found. We can use the range of cost to calculate the approximate cost estimate using the formulae:
Number of places × minimum functional unit cost selected.
Number of places × maximum functional unit cost selected.
In this case, we can use 80×the lower quartile figure and upper quartile figure to get the appropriate ranger of the building cost estimate. Thus,we can establish a range of costs for the building cost estimate. 
Of course,we must consider other important constitutions as details to establish the cost limit. For example,we should consider minimum and maximum of building works estimate including associated main contractor’s preliminary,overheads and profit. In this scenario,possibility of ground contamination estimate,noise from railway junction estimate,construction risks estimate,employer change risks estimate must be considered. It is very crucial to clarify which item should be included or excluded from the estimated so that the client is fully informed.
In this scenario,there is another information that the proposed building comprises of 2400㎡ of the bedroom areas and 400㎡ of communal areas. We can get the information that a total gross internal floor areas GIFS of 2800㎡,so we can use the floor areas method. A suitable source of cost information should be found which provides costs per ㎡ GIFA for hotel accommodation building. Also the source of this cost information could be found within the cost consultant firm’s own library of cost data, BCIS or the price book. In this scenario, we can use an appropriate range of functional unit rates from BCIS. For example,we can get the information of costs which are available for various sizes of the hotel accommodation building and appropriate size range and costs of mean, median or quartiles. Then e can use the range of costs to calculate the approximate cost estimate using the formulae:
GIFA× minimum cost/㎡ GIFA selected.
GIFA× maximum cost/㎡ GIFA selected.
In this case, we can use 2800×the lower quartile figure and upper quartile figure from BCIS to get the appropriate ranger of the building cost estimate. Just as the functional unit method,the order of cost estimate must have to consider other constituents to establish the cost limit. In this scenario,possibility of ground contamination estimate,noise from railway junction estimate must be take in to consideration. Also some other information should be involved just as design team fees estimate,design development risk estimate,construction inflation estimate and so on. Just as the functional unit method,we should clearly state which items should be included,and which should be excluded from the estimated cost so that the client is fully informed.
There are a lot of factors that might influence the accuracy of the estimate and bring the change to the original cost estimate. For example,The customer’s cost budget and construction inflation are the important factors that might affect the cost evaluation. In this scenario,the site has the potential of ground. Also the site might be affected by the noise from a busy railway junction. In task 2,we know that the site is large enough to allow a bedroom block to be erected to the rear,as a separate building,linked with an enclosed walkway to a reception area plus all common facilities. Site conditions and the environment around the building affects the accuracy of the assessment and may change the cost of the assessment. Therefore, it will be of great importance and necessityto analyze and evaluate the possible change of the cost estimate which is influenced by some important constituents, and also has a substantial practical significanceto explain it to customers in detail to discuss and clarify the final cost plan.
Task 2
1.Introduction
Project change is a common phenomenon in the process of project construction. The process of project changes is usually associated with the change of project design scenario、change of plan、change of implementation plan and the change of the budget. Users are more likely to focus on the change of the project budget, so we will analysis the budget changes which are caused by project change in this case and analysis the change of budget of all aspects with examples. We will give customers comprehensive constructive suggestions combined with the needs of customers and guide the customer to accept all cost increase which is caused by the change of project.
2. Executive summary
Project process change will inevitably lead to changes in the project budget. Through the analysis of the design changes in this case, it can be clearly seen the additional budget funds under the customer's expectations is insufficient to achieve the practical demand. Therefore, the solution for this case is planning to introduce the concept and connotation of project change in first step. Then describe each key point involved in project change, especially the potential risks in the process of change. Furthermore, based on the case analysis and combine the above-mentioned theories estimate all kinds of budget cost. Finally, combined with customer demand, summarize the potential value and significance on the strength of the impact of budget changes in order to prompt the customer acceptance the additional expenditure and to achieve the successful implementation of the project.
3. Discussion
Due to license of the site, the bedroom block can be separated from the main group in this case in order to reduce the noise pollution. At the same time, the separated bedroom block must be connected with the basic premises and infrastructure facilities. This is also a good wish of customers, this desire of customer might lead to the cost change to the engineering. The people who take in charge of the engineering construction should deeply analysis the project feasibility, project risk, project progress. Especially they need to focus on the project budget change, as for the customer, the change of the cost estimate is always the biggest concern of the customer.#p#分页标题#e#
As a cost consultant, first of all, it is necessary to popularize the relevant theoretical knowledge and related risk analysis of the project and change of the cost estimate to the customer, so that customers will be serious of the change and will have a prudent attitude. The project implementation phase is the phase that the target cost of the project will be completing, which is a very important stage. And it is also the most complicated stage of cost control. Because at this stage,any changes made by the customer will have a greater impact on the original cost estimate, which may affect the progress of the project, resulting in the project risks, and ultimately affect the realization of the project objectives. If the change of the engineering project is improper or the change scheme is impractical or complicated. It may have a great negative impact on the project. Thus,It will not only increase the extra budget, but also change the desired results.
Secondly, it is important to allow customers to realize the connotation of project change. Project change refers to the change of the expected agreement which is caused by the original design documents or technical specifications change. It can also be understood as due to changes of environmental conditions or the demand side of the implementation of the project leading to the differences between actual and expected operating agreement project, and then bring to the amendment and supplement of the original contract or agreement. It can be divided into two aspects specifically: first, the original contract or the provisions of the work has changed; secondly,There is additional work beyond the original contract or the appointment. The change of this scene is the second kind of changes mainly based on the development of constructive opinions.
Based on these changes, we need to continue to further explain to the customer about the joint changes to the project. It will mainly affect five aspects: design change, construction scheme change, cost budget changes, schedule changes, construction environment changes and so on. The project builders always pay more attention to change of the construction program, construction schedule changes and environmental change. But the customers are more concerned about the design changes and cost budget changes.
The customers need to understand that the design changes and cost change are complementary to each other. A good design optimization scheme will inevitably lead to increased costs. In order to realize the separation of the main building and the bedroom group, a well-designed corridor is essential. However the increase of the budget would not only include the corridor. Just as the external walls, doors and windows in Appendix A. If the bedroom block is separated, the outer wall of the area will be significantly increased, while the number of doors and windows will also have a small increase. In addition,constructing a bedroom block alone cannot share the foundation of the main building. It needs to relay the foundation. Steel frame also need to re design. External plans about water, electricity, gas, network pipes and lines will be implemented. Overall, in order to achieve a good planning and design of the independent bedroom group ,and achieving the connection to the main building and all common facilities, the incremental cost estimate change may be much greater than the budget of just a corridor.
Customers also need to know the impact of the engineering project change. The impact of project change is a double-edged sword. The project construction process has two sides. On the one hand, appropriate and reasonable project changes is beneficial to the project promotion. It can timely solve encountered problems in the construction of the case, also it can optimize the construction scheme, enhancing the practicability, safety and durability with the proper increase of the project cost. It will have a positive role in promoting the project construction. On the other hand, relatively arbitrary and unreasonable project change may  bring great negative impact to the construction quality, progress and investment, and may cause great engineering disputes and claims of construction engineering, These all will have a negative impact on promoting.
Based on this case, the cost increases by the change may exceed the customer's expectation. Therefore, the cost consultant need to impart the risk of project change to the customer without necessary and adequate cost preparation. For instance, if the construction party design and construct in accordance with the budget increase just for the walkway, is likely result in jerry-build, and may led to a decline in the quality of the project. In this case, the change relates to core elements such as engineering structural. Low cost budget will leave a hidden danger to the safety of the structure. Structural strength and durability may also reduce their performances. In addition, low budget will not produce convenience for subsequent construction, and even affect the practical function of bedroom block. Furthermore, due to the occurrence of this case will cause engineering demolition, secondary reconstruction, equipment installation and removal, and even bring about working held up for the lack or change of materials. In the meantime, in order to compensate for the lack of cost budget, construction party may take measures associated with accelerative measures, and greatly increase the probability of the occurrence of engineering claims and disputes. Therefore, the customer should consider a series of factors that may be caused by the change of the design, and take into account the increase of the budget.
4. Conclusion
In conclusion, engineering change is the main factor affecting the cost. Controlling the project change well is an effective way for the control of the cost estimate. This case is not only reflect the great significance of the residential suitability, but also lead to profound influence on the hidden costs and benefits which is caused by the extension of time. The cost impact of engineering change are in many aspects, thecost consultant must advice customers to do the active control and be sure ofthe relationship before and after the change. We must understand and do good investment control and establish the scientific management mechanism to avoid unnecessary increase in investment because of human factors. We should try to utilize the change to provide convenient conditions for the construction. The user and the construction party should do the pros and cons, optimization, reasonable modification, risk aversion, minimum input and maximum output, so as to realize effective control of engineering cost, and eventually realizing the project with a win-win situation of economic benefit and social benefit.
 
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