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媒体管理Master Coursework:A study on digital economies: taking B

时间:2019-05-30 15:17来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1.0 Introduction介绍
随着世界经济一体化趋势的深化,世界各个行业,各种企业纷纷参与国际发展,已成为大多数案例的选择,整个传媒业也从事国际化的发展。获得国际成功的企业往往是因为他们具有竞争力的品牌形象,产品,销售渠道或促销策略而在当地市场取得成功,然后他们选择进入国际市场。按照一般逻辑,这些公司将采取自己的过去战略参与国际市场的竞争。然而,现实情况是,市场成功的策略在国际市场上并不一定成功,因为世界上每个地方的消费习惯和偏好都是不同的,并且很难让全球消费者得到同样的认同。一套策略。与通常的制造企业相比,媒体在实现国际化的过程中更容易解决这些问题,因为媒体销售的内容包括新闻,电视节目,音乐和其他文化产品,每个地方都有自己的传统文化,每个地方的地方文化都大不相同,如何开发文化产品以满足全球市场的观众是媒体发展全球化的巨大挑战(Galloway,2016; Jordan和Whitney,2016)。
With the deepening of the trend of world economic integration, the world's various industries, various enterprises have been involved in international development, which has become the choice of most cases, and the entire media industry is also engaged in development of internationalization. Often enterprises achieving international successes lie in that they are successful in the local market because of their competitive brand image, product, sales channel or promotional strategy, and then they choose to enter an international market. In accordance with the general logic, these companies will take their own past strategy to participate in the competition in the international market. However, the reality is that a strategy for success in a market is not necessarily successful in an international market, because the consumption habits and preferences of each place in the world are different, and it is difficult to get global consumers’ identification with a same set of strategies. Compared to the usual manufacturing enterprises, it is more obvious for the media to meet these problems in the process of achieving internationalization, because what the media sells includes news, television programs, music and other cultural products, each place has its own traditional culture, local culture of each place is very different, how to develop cultural products to satisfy the audience in the global market is a huge challenge for the globalization of media development (Galloway, 2016; Jordan and Whitney, 2016).
面对媒体国际化发展中遇到的本土化问题,美国学者罗兰·罗伯森(1994)提出了“全球化”的概念,并提出了“全球化思考,本地化”的国际发展方式。他认为,一个国家想要出口自己的文化产品和大众媒体信息,使它们在全球范围内被广泛接受,它必须基于一个国家或地区的文化特征,它的目的是出口到为了使出口产品本地化以满足国家或地区受众的接受,他打算强调,当全球化产品或服务与当地文化相结合时,它更有可能获得成功(Breuch,2015)。In the face of problems of localization encountered in the development of internationalization of the media, American scholar named Roland Robertson (1994) proposed the concept of "globalization" and put forward the "think globally and act locally" international development methods for the media. He believes that it a country wants to export their own cultural products and mass media information, making them be widely accepted in the global scope, it must be based on the cultural characteristics of a country or a region that it aims to exporting to, through making the exported products localized to meet the acceptance of the audience of the country or the region, he intends to emphasize that when the globalized products or services are combined with local culture, it is more likely to be successful (Breuch, 2015).
As the world's oldest public broadcasting and TV network, since its inception, BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) has been actively involved in the world's major social issues reported and broadcasted, and according to the preferences of audience of different regions to adjust the program content, broadcasting channels and the narrative way to promote the globalization of television programs and localized communication (Raimond, Ferne, Smethurst and Adams, 2014), which not only helps it to accumulate a large number of viewers in the world, but also facilitates its establishment of a good credibility, a high degree of concern and influence in the whole world because of its rapid, accurate and more fair news reporting approaches, through promoting the attention and acceptance of the audience in different countries and regions towards the program content to expand their own media discourse and influence  (Raimond, Ferne, Smethurst and Adams, 2014), BBC’s glocalization strategy provides a good reference for globalization of communication of other media. This study takes BBC as a research object, based on the theory of pattern maintenance, cultural adaptation theory and glocalization theory to discuss the advantages of BBC’ glocalization strategy, combining with the experience of BBC, from these aspects: program content, broadcast methods and the needs of local audiences to recommend on glocalization strategy for other media. 
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Pattern maintenance
There is a function of maintaining self-existing patterns inside culture, that is the function of self-existing pattern maintenance (Parsons, 1949). This function makes the cultural circle play a role of choice and self-protection towards foreign culture. When a foreign culture is conducive to the maintenance of the original cultural model, it is easy to be accepted and taken as a new cultural and nutritional supplements to the original culture; and if the foreign culture is harmful or destructive to the original culture, the function of self-existing pattern maintenance will try to prevent the invasion of destructive culture (Parsons, 1949). The problems revealed by the principle of cultural function of self-existing pattern maintenance to a large extent show that in the dissemination of culture, foreign media must encounter the choice of local culture. From this point of view, the principle of cultural function of self-existing pattern maintenance forced foreign media tot adopt a "localization" strategy, so as to obtain the right to speak in participation in competition with local media. Therefore, for the international media, they need to conduct a detailed background investigation towards their audience to understand the local culture, religion, customs, rather than produce and broadcast programs arbitrarily from their own values and preferences, otherwise it will be contrary to the principle of cultural pattern maintenance to stimulate the local audience’s resistance (Paredes, 2016).
For the current television media which interest in internationalization, in order to maximize understanding what the target audience needs and to carry out better internationalization, they need to be based on the local, through cooperation with local television stations, journalists, government agencies, non-governmental organizations and carrying out a series of survey and analysis to grasp audience’s expectations for the content of television, so as to achieve a comprehensive grasp of the external representation and the internal mechanism of audience’s watching behavior, motivation, habits, psychology, and according to this to design program content. In terms of implementation methods, they can use the pilot program to continue to adapt to the local cultural background, having access to the audience data, in order to continuously improve the program packaging and content (Galloway, 2016).
2.2 Glocalization
Glocalization proposes "think globally and act locally”, emphasizing that not only the content should be local, but also the way of broadcasting program should be local. Affected by local habits, geographical conditions, national policy, infrastructure and other factors, countries have different ways to watch programs (Breuch, 2015), such as in Africa, there are people in many places who can not watch TV, but they can watch program through the network, in some countries such as China, there are lots of limitations for television and network programs, but for Radio program, the restrictions are not so strict, due to the problem of time difference, some viewers are difficult to see live show, they need to watching by looking back or on demand. For media involved in international development, it is necessary to adjust their own ways of broadcasting according to the local special circumstances (Breuch, 2015).
In the world today, the boundaries between traditional media and new media are increasingly blurred, and new technologies based on interactive digital technology, including networks, social media, mobile Internet, etc. combine with traditional media to create a new mode of transmission combining mass communication with interpersonal communication (Gordon, E. and Silva, 2011; Li and Wei, 2017). On this basis, the ability of new media development has become an important means for traditional media to participate in market competition and expand the influence of communication in the world. The unique communication characteristics of the new media make it a useful supplement to the international spread of traditional media, because it can not only meet the needs of listening of audience of different regions, but also better break the policy and technical barriers between countries to make spread without borders become a reality. Today, the international first-class media are vigorously developing new media, using the advantages of new media and traditional media to promote glocalization strategy (Gordon, 2008; Li and Wei, 2017).

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