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社会学essay不会写怎么办?研究范文!

论文价格: 免费 时间:2018-09-19 17:12:13 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
导读: 当你写essay遇到困难的时候,不妨多研究下范文,不仅能够积累写作经验,还能找到写作思路。下文一篇射虎秀儿专业的essay范文,讨论了社会必要劳动时间。社会必要劳动时间首次出现是在《资本论》,其概念就是在现有的社会正常生产条件下,在社会平均的劳动熟练程度和劳动强度下制造某种使用价值所需要的劳动时间。社会必要劳动时间是在同等条件下制造某种使用价值的时间,通过交换商品价值实现,即为他人提供使用价值。这样所有的使用价值全部转换成价值,私人劳动全部得到认可。
Essay范文题目:Necessary labor time for society
Marx mentioned social necessary labor time twice in das kapital, which appeared in volume 1 and volume 3 respectively. Since Marx did not clearly explain whether the two social necessary labor time is the same concept, the meaning of the two social necessary labor time has been controversial in the academic circle.
马克思在资本资本中提到了两次社会必要的劳动时间,分别出现在第1卷和第3卷。由于马克思没有明确解释两个社会必要劳动时间是否是同一个概念,两个社会必要劳动时间的含义在学术界一直存在争议。
As for the social necessary labor time mentioned twice in das kapital, the author summarized relevant literature and materials and found that the core of debate on how to understand the social necessary labor time can be divided into two aspects. Second, if there are two or more different meanings, then whether they all participate in the commodity value decision, the value decision question. In China, the main debates among different scholars on this issue can be summarized as the following three views.
至于在资本史上两次提到的社会必要劳动时间,作者总结了相关文献和资料,发现关于如何理解社会必要劳动时间的争论的核心可以分为两个方面。第二,如果存在两种或两种以上不同的含义,那么它们是否都参与商品价值决策,价值决策问题。在中国,不同学者在这个问题上的主要争论可归纳为以下三种观点。
The first view holds that there is only one meaning of social necessary labor time, such as hu zhiwindow, line of song and wang fengming. The second view holds that there are two meanings of social necessary labor time, and both meanings determine commodity value at the same time. The third view holds that there are two meanings of social necessary labor time, but only the first meaning of social necessary labor time to participate in the decision of commodity value, while other meanings of social necessary labor do not participate in the decision of commodity value, such as wei xinghua, pan shi, Lin gang, etc.
In view of this problem, this paper will analyze the two meanings of social necessary labor time in das kapital from the perspective of the basic contradiction of commodity economy, namely the contradiction between private labor and social labor, as well as the determination of commodity value.
Under the condition of commodity economy, the labor of commodity producer in commodity production has private property and social property. On the one hand, commodity producers carry out commodity production from their own interests. At this time, production labor contains private nature and is private labor. On the other hand, the products produced need to be exchanged in the market to obtain the products they need, which makes the production labor into the total social labor, including social nature, is social labor. The private attribute of labor is not exactly consistent with the social attribute. Therefore, under the condition of commodity economy, there is a contradiction between private and social labor.
To solve this contradiction, the private nature of labor must be recognized by the society, that is, the private nature of labor should be unified with the social nature, which can only be realized in the circulation of commodities. Commodity producers exchange the products they produce on the market, and the exchange is successful. At this time, the use value and value are realized, and the contradiction between private labor and social labor is solved.
Social necessary labor time first appeared in the first volume of das kapital, which can be called time 1. Marx first said: "use value or property has value only because there is abstract human labor embodied or materialized in it." Commodity value is reflected in a kind of homogenous human labor, and how is this quantity of value measured? Marx mentions: "it is only the social necessary labor quantity, or the social necessary labor time of the production use value, that determines the value of the use value." Commodity production cost of social necessary labor time decided to merchandise volume, on the concept of social necessary labor time he clearly explained: "social necessary labor time is in the normal production of the existing social conditions, the social average proficiency in labor and the labor intensity of labor time needed to build a certain use value." The necessary labor time of the society is the time to create some use value under the same conditions, which is realized through exchange of commodity value, that is, to provide use value for others. In this way, all use value is converted into value, and all private labor is recognized. Therefore, it is assumed in time 1 that the private nature of labor can be fully recognized, and the contradiction between private labor and social labor can be completely solved. It is assumed that the premise cannot only be consistent in product supply and demand, because when the product is in short supply and the use value of production is less than the r value required by society, the use value can also be all successfully exchanged and the commodity value can be realized. In fact, the relationship between supply and demand is the external manifestation of the contradiction between private labor and social labor, not the essence of the problem. However, if the contradiction between private labor and social labor is completely solved, other possibilities are excluded. As long as the contradiction between private labor and social labor is completely solved, the use value of production can be successfully exchanged, and the value determined by necessary social labor time can be fully realized. Marx also said, "the quantity of value of goods is not determined by the individual labor time of the producer, but by the necessary labor time of society. A single good is the average sample of that good. It can be seen here that when the contradiction between private labor and social labor is completely solved, the value of a single commodity is not determined by the labor time of any individual, but by the average sample time. The average sample time here is essentially the expression of time 1 on a single commodity. All goods are exchanged equally according to the average sample value, and the contradictions of commodity economy are completely solved. In combination with the contents of the first and second volumes of das kapital, Marx assumed that Commodity Exchange was an exchange of equal value, and it could be seen that he took the complete resolution of the contradiction between private labor and social labor as the premise of time 1.
As for why Marx, in reference to time 1, did not consider the situation that the contradiction between private labor and social labor was not completely solved, he explained: "it is natural for commodities to exchange or sell according to their value, and it is the natural law of commodity balance. The deviation should be explained from this rule, not the other way around. Marx emphasizes on starting from the natural laws such as labor determines value and social necessary labor time determines value, to explain the deviation of value quantity when the contradiction between private labor and social labor is not completely solved, instead of the reverse. In the first volume of das kapital, it is assumed that the contradiction between private labor and social labor is completely solved to define time 1, reveal the internal laws of commodity economy, and elaborate the abstract and general performance of the law of value in the stage of commodity economy. Specifically on the question of value quantity, goods exchange by value equivalent, society necessary labor time to determine the value of goods.
However, with the improvement of productivity and the continuous development of market competition, the handicraft industry is gradually replaced by big machine factories, and the contradiction between private labor and social labor may not be completely solved in practice. The third volume of das kapital makes an overall analysis of the capitalist production process, bringing the value analysis closer to reality. Thus, the necessary labor time in the society reappears in the third volume of das kapital, which may be called time 2, Marx said: "... Not only use the necessary labor time on each commodity, and in the total labor time of the society, also use the necessary proportion of the amount on different kinds of commodities... But it is an expression of the further development of the whole law of value, though necessary Labour time here has another meaning. In order to meet the needs of society, only a lot of working time is necessary... "It can be seen that every commodity only USES the necessary labor time, and all products can only be sold in accordance with the necessary proportion of production, and only the labor time with the necessary proportion of use value of production can become the social necessary labor time here. Then Marx added: "if the output of a commodity exceeds the demand of society at that time This commodity quantity represents on the market the social labor quantity than actually contains the social labor quantity is much smaller... These goods must be sold below their market value. The opposite is true. As you can see this passage, because there is no assumption that the contradiction between private labor and social labor fully solved, inconsistent products appear on the market supply and demand situation, the determination of the social necessary labor time here is different from 1 time, the determination of time 2 considering the contradiction between private labor and social labor are the effects of solution. So time 2 is there. But time 2 how to determine the specific needs from the private labor and social labor between the complete resolution of the contradictions to be specific analysis.#p#分页标题#e#
The above has demonstrated that the social necessary labor time in das kapital has two meanings, and then the time 2 and commodity value will be determined based on the complete resolution of the contradiction between private labor and social labor. Whether the contradiction between private labor and social labor is completely solved or not is embodied in the relationship between product supply and demand. When the contradiction between private labor and social labor is completely solved, the product supply and demand is consistent or in short supply. When the contradiction between private labor and social labor is not completely solved, the supply of products exceeds the demand.
When the expression Ts=tsQs is introduced, Qs denotes the quantity of supply, Ts denotes the average labor time necessary to produce unit products under normal circumstances, and Ts denotes the total labor time necessary to produce quantity Qs products. It is uncertain whether the contradiction between private labor and social labor can be fully resolved, so the ts or ts here are not necessarily the final time 2. Similarly, the expression Td=tdQd is introduced. Qd represents the quantity demanded, Td represents the average labor time necessary for products with unit demand, and Td represents the total labor time necessary for products with Qd quantity. It is also uncertain whether the contradiction between private labor and social labor can be completely resolved, so the td here or the td is not necessarily the final time 2.
The contradiction between private labor and social labor can be completely solved. The first case is that the supply and demand of products are consistent. In this case, Qd =Qs, Td=Ts. Td=Ts means that the total labor time of social demand is equal to the total necessary labor time of social supply, which is embodied in the equality of commodity supply and demand, namely Qd =Qs. The essence of successful exchange of products here is that the use value is exactly converted into the value required by the society, and eventually the total necessary labor time of the society is Td or Ts. By ts=td, td and ts have not only considered the necessary labor time from the supplier side or the demand side, in fact, td and ts all represent the social necessary labor time required to produce the unit product. So time is 2 in the contradiction between private labor and social labor can be completely resolved and consistent product supply and demand situation is determined by Td, Ts or Td, Ts, Td, Ts attention here from the contradiction between private labor and social labor can be completely resolved and product supply and demand in all social necessary labor time perspective, and Td, Ts from unit product necessary labor time perspective. Td, Ts and Td and Ts are only two different external manifestations of time 2, which are essentially the same. At this point, the total value of all products in the society is determined by Td and Ts, while the value of individual goods is determined by Td and Ts. Marx said: "to sell a good according to its market value, according to the social Labour necessary for it to contain, the total amount of social Labour expended on the total amount of such goods must be commensurate with the amount of the social demand for such goods... The market price of a single good is sold at its value, and the market price is exactly equal to its value.
The contradiction between private Labour and social Labour can be fully resolved. At this point, the social supply is less than the social demand, and all the products can be sold. In essence, the social demand has not been fully satisfied after all the use value is converted into the value of social demand. Therefore, the contradiction between private labor and social labor can be completely solved here, and time 2 is determined by the total labor time Ts necessary to produce the Qs quantity product or the labor time Ts necessary to produce the unit product in Qs. Ts and Ts are only two different external manifestations of time 2, essentially the same. At this point, the total value of all products in the society is determined by Ts, and the value of a single commodity is determined by Ts. It should be noted that in this case, the market price of a single commodity is generally sold at a price greater than its r value, the market price is greater than its value, and the total social labor consumed is less than the original social need and equal to the amount actually satisfied by the society.
If the contradiction between private labor and social labor cannot be completely solved, the supply of products exceeds the demand. The social supply is greater than the social demand. The products produced cannot all be sold, and the use value cannot all be converted into the value needed by the society. The surplus of products, in essence, is that the contradiction between private labor and social labor cannot be completely solved, only part of them can be solved. Specifically, the contradiction between private labor and social labor of Qd quantity product is completely solved, while the quantity product cannot be solved. At this point, time 2 is determined by Td of the total labor time necessary to realize the exchange of Qd quantity products or Td of the labor time necessary to realize the exchange of Qd quantity products. Td and Td are only two different external forms of time 2, essentially the same. Therefore, the total value of all products in society is determined by Td, and the value of individual goods is determined by Td. In this case, the market price of a single commodity is generally sold at a price less than its value, and the market price is less than its value, consuming more total social labor than the actual social need.
From the above three situations, it can be seen that whether the contradiction between private labor and social labor can be completely solved will make a difference in the determination of time and the determination of its value, and at the same time, the relationship between commodity market price and commodity value is also different.
Based on the overall logical framework of das kapital, this paper also discusses the meaning of social necessary labor time according to the actual development process of commodity economy. The analysis shows that the two meanings of social necessary labor time do exist, and their existence, determination of each other's quantity and determination of value are closely related to the contradiction between private labor and social labor. Time 1 is analyzed under the assumption that the contradiction between private labor and social labor is completely solved, while time 2 is analyzed under the assumption that the contradiction between private labor and social labor cannot be completely solved, which is specifically affected by the relationship between supply and demand. The law of commodity value is different in the necessary labor time of different meanings. In time 1, market price equals value. In time 2, the relationship between market price and value quantity should be discussed according to whether the contradiction between private labor and social labor is completely solved.

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