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Essay的body paragraph如何写

时间:2018-09-21 17:06来源:未知 作者:quanlei_cai 点击:
之前的文章中,我们已经详细介绍过essay的写作要点、写作注意事项、格式规范、常见类型写作方法等问题(有兴趣的朋友可以起网站找找看),相信大家对于如何写essay已经有了很多心得体会。今天小编给大家带来的是essay中body paragraph(正文段)的写作攻略。Body paragraph占了70%以上的篇幅,是essay的价值所在。下面我们详细分析写作方法。 一般来说,essay 的body paragraph (正文段)写作结构如下: Topic Sentence:主题句(一句话阐明本段的论点) Assertion statements:主张句(几句话阐述你的论点) eXample(s):举例(列举一些事实) Explanation:解释(说明以上事实为什么
之前的文章中,我们已经详细介绍过essay的写作要点、写作注意事项、格式规范、常见类型写作方法等问题(有兴趣的朋友可以起网站找找看),相信大家对于如何写essay已经有了很多心得体会。今天小编给大家带来的是essay中body paragraph(正文段)的写作攻略。Body paragraph占了70%以上的篇幅,是essay的价值所在。下面我们详细分析写作方法。
一般来说,essay的body paragraph(正文段)写作结构如下:
 Topic Sentence:主题句(一句话阐明本段的论点)
Assertion statements:主张句(几句话阐述你的论点)
eXample(s):举例(列举一些事实)
Explanation:解释(说明以上事实为什么能支撑你的论点)
Significance:意义(总结说明为什么本段论点能论证全文的主题)
也可以更简单地分为三个部分,在美国这被称为“汉堡包结构”:
Topic Sentence:主题句
Supporting Evidence:证据
Conclusion Sentence:总结句
 
这两种结构能让essay始终围绕主题来写作。下面,我们挑重点来一一分析。
 
1.主题句的写作要点
首先,注意主题句应该是一个观点,而不是事实。比如:
✖ 事实:Plagiarizing is to steal and pass off the ideas or words of another as one's own.
✔ 观点:People can avoid plagiarizing by taking certain precautions.
其次,主题句应该是一个观点,而不能仅仅包含一个话题。比如:
✖ 只包含话题:Today I'm going to discuss the benefits of gardening.
✔ 包含观点:Gardening gives us pleasure and is very effective to our minds.
最后,你的观点不能是泛泛的,而应该是确切的。
✖ 模糊:The United States suffered a lot during the Civil War.
✔ 确切:Sherman's destruction in the South during the Civil War also caused incredible suffering.
 
2.如何引述证据
在列举证据时,首先我们应当保证所有的论据都是与主题相关的。
证据可能包括以下类型:
事实(Facts)
公开发表的观点(Published opinions)
书刊网站等媒体上的调查研究(Research from books, journal articles, websites, etc.)
公开的案例(Published case studies)
研究数据(Research data)
引用证据有三种方法:
引用(Quoting):逐字逐句地复制原信息
复述(Paraphrasing):按自己的语言重新组织
概括(Summarising):更简洁的语言概括原信息
但无论采用哪种方法,我们都需要注意:一、让证据自然地穿插在文中;二、注明来源。
 
 
 
比如使用这样的表达:
Further insight into income inequality is provided by Dr. Delaney, an economist at Stanford, who is of the opinion that…
 
3.过渡的重要性
无论是句与句之间,还是段落与段落之间,都需要过渡。过渡能让文章连贯统一,没有过渡的文章就仅仅是一些句子随机地组合在一起。下面我们通过一个例子来感受下。
我们先看一个没有过渡的段落:
Students who write academic essays need to provide effective transitions. Transitions allow writers to connect the main ideas that are present in an essay. Using conjunctive adverbs and other introductory elements allow a writer to connect one sentence to the next. The use of these words will make the writing more fluent and less choppy.  Many students fail to use effective transitions, and the essay comes across as disconnected. Writers should always be aware of the need to connect both sentences and paragraphs together.
加上过渡之后的版本:
Students who write academic essays need to provide effective transitions. It is the use of these transitions that allow writers to connect the main ideas that are present in an essay. For example, by using conjunctive adverbs and other introductory elements, a writer can easily connect one sentence to the next. Moreover, the use of these words will make the writing more fluent and less choppy. Unfortunately, students often fail to use effective transitions, and, as a result, the essay comes across as disconnected. To avoid this, writers should always be aware of the need to connect both sentences and paragraphs together, and they should strive to find creative ways to do so.
可以看出,加上了这些过渡词之后,整段文章变得连贯了许多。我们可以在写作完成之后,再通读一遍,在不够连贯的地方加上过渡。
 
4.最后,我们通过一个例子看下body paragraph的具体写法。
# 第1句:主题句——阐述与本文主题相关的论点:
Students who learn how to write well will earn better grades in most classes.
# 第2句:主张句——对主题句进行进一步阐述:
This is true because most instructors assign a variety of written assignments, and depending on the class, these written assignments often encompass a large percentage of a student’s final grade.
# 第3句:举例一
For instance, all college students seeking a degree will be required to take a composition class. In this class alone, students will write five different essays.
# 第4句:举例二
Furthermore, other classes, such as history, psychology, nursing, etc., also require students to write multiple essays.
# 第5句:给出更具体的信息(此处可以引述权威人士):
According to John Doe, a Professor of English at Aims Community College, the average undergraduate student will write twenty-five different essays while seeking a bachelor’s degree. This number increases dramatically for students who go on to seek a graduate degree(s).
# 第6句:总结
Because all students, regardless of major, will be required to compose a large number of essays, it is important that they learn how to write well.
 



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