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英国预科测试assignment:Why does Jamaica focus on sprints?基因和牙买加短跑的

时间:2019-07-18 11:51来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
关于“短跑现象”的报道和研究主要集中在基因、政策、环境、贫困、饮食等几个方面,如地形、总体、研究报告和牙买加的“奥运会”略显粗糙、支离破碎,缺乏对短跑运动的深入系统的论证。西非的种族表现优于其他种族,西非血统的表现优于西非种族,牙买加的表现优于其他西非血统,而牙买加最优秀的运动员来自科克-皮特地区“这一现象不是合理解释。本研究将从遗传学的角度,通过追踪牙买加“奥运会”以来跨大西洋奴隶贸易的演变,试图揭开“最快种族”诞生的奥秘。
Reports of "sprint phenomenon" and the research mainly focused on gene, policy, environment, poverty, diet, and several aspects, such as terrain, in general, research reports and slightly rough, fragmented, "Olympic" of Jamaican lack of in-depth and systematic argumentation for sprint movement in the west African race performance is superior to other species, the performance of west African descent is superior to the west African species, Jamaican performance is superior to other west African descent, and most outstanding athletes in Jamaica from the cork Pitt area "this phenomenon is not a reasonable explanation. This study will from the perspective of genetics, through tracing the Jamaican "Olympic" since the transatlantic slave trade evolution, trying to the mysteries of the birth of "the fastest race".
 
Methodology方法论
以下来源和主观性可以应用:它们来自报纸和其他。
The following sources and subjective could be applied: they are coming from newspapers and others. 
 
Objective /source 目标/来源
1948年,牙买加选手辛西娅·汤普森创造了伦敦奥运会女子200米世界纪录,获得牙买加历史上第一枚金牌,牙买加短跑才艺秀遍布世界各地。在随后的几十年里,牙买加在短跑项目上的统治地位逐渐加强,2012年第30届夏季奥运会(英国)、伦敦奥运会上的一次惊艳,牙买加赢得了男子100米金牌和银牌,男子200米金牌、银牌和铜牌,女子100米金牌和铜牌,女子200米金牌和铜牌。银牌,以及男子、女子4×100米接力金牌,也使牙买加奥运会奖牌总数增加到67枚,其中田径比赛66枚,属于400米以下短跑项目。更让世界震惊的是,2009年世界田径标准赛(德国),柏林赛恩先生,博尔特,9.58秒创造了新的100米世界纪录,牙买加成为最快的“比赛”(牙买加短跑明星乌塞恩博尔特和中距离,2014年)。
In 1948, the Jamaican Cynthia Thompson created in the London Olympic Games women's 200 m world record, won the first gold medal in the history of Jamaica, Jamaican sprint talent shows all over the world. In subsequent decades, Jamaican dominance in sprint events gradually strengthened, and the 30th summer Olympic Games in 2012 (UK), London on a stunning, Jamaican won the men's 100 m gold and silver, the men's 200 m gold, silver and bronze MEDALS, the women's 100 m gold and bronze, the women's 200 m silver, as well as the male, the female 4 x 100 m relay gold medal, it also makes the Jamaica Olympic medal counts increased to 67, among them, 66 from the track and field competition, and belong to under 400 m sprint events. Even more shocked the world, the 2009 world athletics standard "(Germany), Berlin on Mr Thain, bolt, time of 9.58 s to create a new world record of 100 m, Jamaican became the fastest" RACES "'(Jamaican sprint star Usain Bolt and middle-distance', 2014).
Objective /source 
Excellent sprint performance gain is a complicated social phenomenon, it is influenced by race, diet, physical training, the influence of multiple factors such as social culture, the race is the most critical factors. It is often seen that in the 100m final runways of the Olympic and world athletics championships, it is almost a black race. In the black race, the west African is the most prominent in the sprint race (Harris, 2012). In the last seven Olympic Games, 55 of the 56 men in the 100m final were black, all of them west African. The only one standing in the Olympic 100 m final on the runway of the black athlete is France's Christopher matt ray, he is also a track and field world championships in the history of the only one standing in the 100 m of the white on the runway. In the 100m history, 87 people ran into 9.85s, tracing the race origins of the athletes and finding that they were all of west African descent. If by a 10 s, there is no from Asia or Africa in east and north of sprinters open 10 s mark, instead of athletes in the west African ancestry and only four people open 10 s mark. As a result, the west African race has dominated the field of sprinting, and it is hard for other RACES to gain a foothold in sprinting (Horace, n.d).
 
Objective /source 
In 600 BC, "Jamaica" was known as "the land of water and trees", a gathering place of the Indian arawaks('Felix ends Jamaican sprint reign', n.d). In 1494, Columbus declared that "land of water and trees" belonged to Spain. In the decades that followed, the original Jamaicans were wiped out and gradually replaced by Africans for reasons of disease, kidnapping, slavery, and race. In 1513, the Spanish and Portuguese colonialists brought the first slaves from west Africa to Jamaica, and opened the trade. Beginning in 1692, the British colonists in order to maintain the normal operation of many plantations, to a large number of west African slaves trafficking in Jamaica, mainly including akan, yoruba, asante, mande, to the end of the 18th century, the number of black African Jamaica reached 300000. Thus, the Jamaicans are predominantly of west African descent. The United States is a predominantly white country, with only 12.4 percent of the population. But in sports, African Americans have been a mainstay. The history of black Americans began in the 16th century, 20, 1619 restricted by contract workers of Jamaica and the Caribbean islands are transported to the James, Virginia, has become the first batch of "Jamaica - Americans". Since then, with the expansion of the sugar industry in the Caribbean region of European and American colonists, a large number of Jamaican and west African laborers have been imported; Between 1700 and 1810, about 60,000 west African slaves were directly trafficked to the United States. Between 1881 and 1914, the United States recruited about 250,000 Caribbean people to work in the panama canal, of which 90,000 were Jamaicans. Since the 20th century, about 300,000 Jamaicans have immigrated to the United States for socio-economic reasons. In 1990, the Jamaican government claimed that the illegal immigrants to the United States were about 800, 000 to 1 million. Thus, black Americans are mainly from west Africa (Rai, 2008).
 
Reference list
'Felix ends Jamaican sprint reign', n.d., Toronto Star (Canada), n.d., Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, EBSCOhost, viewed 28 February 2018.
Harris, JC 2012, 'US and Jamaican sprint feud will continue at Rio in 2016', New York Amsterdam News, 16 August, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 28 February 2018.
Horace, H n.d., 'Jamaican 'sprint factory' in party mode', Toronto Star (Canada), n.d., Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, EBSCOhost, viewed 28 February 2018.
'Jamaican sprint star Usain Bolt and middle-distance', 2014, Maitland Mercury, 22 July, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, EBSCOhost, viewed 28 February 2018.
Rai, R 2008, 'JAMAICAN SPRINT STARS RACE IN FOR PARTY AT PALACE', Daily Mail, 25 July, Regional Business News, EBSCOhost, viewed 28 February 2018.


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