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英国essay:邮政的简史及发展

时间:2015-10-28 16:32来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

英国essay:邮政的简史及发展
 

邮政的简史
 

邮局的起源可以追溯到1482年,当时快递运送“pacquets”(皇家消息)被授予权力征用马和导游。到1660年,控制“邮政”已经通过的邮政大臣的职位从帝王到议会。从1840年统一便士邮政推出的邮局了,承担了新的责任,直到1950年的大约1/3的公务员工作人员受雇于邮局。邮局是一个团队的三个核心业务,从而形成了英国国家邮政系统。它作为一个公众公司被运行和拥有,但不是由政府来管理。

它的企业:

皇家邮政:信件业务,邮局柜台有限,零售

业务和包裹,包裹业务。还可以订阅服务有限公司,为英国企业提供一系列的服务。

集团作为一个整体,在过去的19年里已经记录了所得的利润,并且是为数不多的几个国家邮政管理部门操作,没有政府补贴。在1994年,在建立了两年前的审查后,政府发表了一篇论文,提出了建立未来邮局的建议。随着长期和强烈的公众辩论后,政府决定,在1995年,从其当前的立法计划中,放弃了英国皇家邮政/私有化的计划,但在第二年宣布的,放松一些金融限制让邮局企业争夺新业务。

1969年10月,邮局不再是政府部门,它已经成为一个公司。负责日常管理的,已经从邮政大臣转向董事会的新组建的公司,尽管新邮电部长仍保留控制邮局的预算。
 

The Post Office
 
The Post Office is a group of three core businesses that form the UK's national postal system. It operates as a public corporation and is owned, but not managed, by the Government.
 
Its businesses are:
 
Royal Mail: the letters business, Post Office Counters Limited, the retail
 
Business and Parcel force, the parcels business. It also runs Subscription Services Limited, which provides a portfolio of services to UK businesses.
 
The group as a whole has recorded a profit for the last 19 years, and is one of the few national Postal administrations to operate without government subsidy. In 1994, following a review set up two years earlier, the Government published a discussion paper that set out proposals for the future of The Post Office. Following a prolonged and intense public debate the Government decided, in 1995, to drop plans for Royal Mail/Parcel force privatisation from its then current legislative programme but in the following year announced it was relaxing some of the financial restraints to allow The Post Office businesses to compete for new business.
 
邮政的简史——A brief history of the Post Office
 

The origins of the Post Office can be traced back to 1482 when couriers carrying "pacquets" (royal messages) were granted the power to requisition horses and guides. By 1660 control of "The Post" had passed from the monarch to Parliament with the creation of the post of Postmaster General. From the introduction of the uniform penny post in 1840 the Post Office grew and took on new responsibilities until by the 1950's about 1/3 of all civil service staff were employed by the Post Office.
 
In October 1969 the Post Office ceased to be a government department and became a corporation. The responsibility for the day to day management passed from the Postmaster General to the board of the newly constituted corporation, although the new Minister for Posts and Telecommunications still retained control of the Post Office's budget. Further reform followed in 1981 when post and telecommunication were separated and The Post Office Corporation was divided into The Post Office (responsible for postal services and National Giro Bank) and British Telecom (responsible for telephones and telecommunications). Again the argument behind this change was that it would make the Post Office more suited and responsive to the needs of the commercial modern world.
 
The Post Office delivery services survived the mass privatisations of the 1980's. However, British Telecom was privatised in 1984 followed by the National Girobank in 1989. Although, The Royal Mail is the letters division of the Post Office, It is obliged to provide a universal service at a uniform price. This is achieved through cross subsidisation of more costly services by less costly and a monopoly on deliveries of letters costing less than £1.00. The Royal Mail has a network of approximately 100,000 post boxes and employs approximately 80,000 postmen.
 
Post Office Counters Ltd is a network of approximately 20,000 sub post-offices. They are mostly privately owned and run by agents (sub-postmasters), many are also shops. They sell stamps and provide other services such as pensions, etc. Parcel force is an independent division of the Post Office that operates without a monopoly and in direct competition with a number of private sector companies. Parcel force employs approximately 13, 00 staff, has 165 depots and a fleet of approximately 9000 vehicles.
 
The reason to tell this entire story to explain the changes went through in this organisation by the time requirement.
 
描述信息系统的本质:——Description of nature of information systems:
 
A Local Area Network (LAN) had been introduced in the Newcastle upon Tyne postal district 18 months earlier and was intended to link together different locations in the Newcastle area and to provide a gateway to other Post Office LAN's nationwide.
 
Initially use of this system was restricted to senior (board level) managers but with the impending restructuring and expected privatisation use of the LAN was extended to other levels in the organisation. At the initial time of the interviews there were 37 terminals in the Newcastle area and 6 at 'remote sites'. The Newcastle LAN could also be used to link to another 20 Post Office LAN's in different parts of the country.
 
The system integrated elements of personnel, administration, recruitment and data on human resource utilisation with data on costing and the volume of business transactions.
 
什么是网络?——What is a network?
 
A 'network' is a generic term for any computer based communications system that links together a number of computers and other devices. A network may be called a LAN (Local Area Network) or a WAN (Wide Area Network). LAN's are networks that connect several devices, usually through a single cabling system, within a clearly defined area such as a single building or a group of adjacent buildings. WAN's on the other hand are networks used to distribute data around sites that may be scattered across or single country or the entire world.
 
WAN's may be composed of interlinked LAN's and may use a number of different communications links (e.g. satellite and telephone lines) to join their component parts. Networks may take many forms although, conceptually, they only consist of two parts.
 
功能使用信息系统的描述和分析:——Description and analysis of functional use of information systems:
 
The networking software defines the "logical" structure of the network: it controls and co-ordinates certain activities in a group of otherwise independent processors (network stations).
At the heart of each network is the fileserver. The fileserver treats the network stations as if they were storage peripherals (e.g. disk drives) while the network stations treat the fileserver as if it were a hard disk - reading from it and writing to it as required. To each machine it appears as though the data had simply come from a disk drive. Communications software and the "physical" link both the network stations and the fileserver run communications software to send data to each other through the physical link. The physical link, i.e. cabling system, defines the physical structure of the network while the communications software carries the data along the physical link; together these two things act as a medium for the communication between fileserver and network station.
 
However networks can facilitate communication between people as well as machines. Electronic mail, diaries and teleconferencing facilities can be used as a medium for communication, control and co-ordination between people. For example, e-mail allows asynchronous communication between individuals or groups and also enables the efficient distribution of text based memos or messages to a group, or groups, of recipients.
 
评估当前使用的信息系统——Assessment of current use of information systems
 
安全和易于管理:——Security and ease of management:

 
Networks, by their nature, impose restrictions on certain actions by certain users at particular times (e.g. two users cannot write to the same file at the same time). This greatly simplifies file management and can provide several layers of additional security, e.g. passwords and or access only via dedicated terminals. Networking software can also provide alarms and audit trails to assist dealing with security problems if they do occur.
 
Resilience Networks are virtually unaffected by local damage. If a network station breaks down it can be simply removed without any disruption to the other users. If the data has been backed up then no data need have been lost; the user can simply move to another network station. The fileserver on the other hand is the hub of the network; if this ceases to function the whole network stops. However, once again, if all the data has been backed up and good recovery procedures exist networks can even survive a fault at the fileserver.



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