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指导英国essay论文—同性恋影片中的文化差异

论文价格: 免费 时间:2014-08-04 10:41:33 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
随着全球化的发展,不同国家和不同人民之间的经济交流和文化交流越来越盛行。在这种情况下,东西方的文化差异正在缩小。然而,东西方之间的文化交流导致的文化矛盾也越来越明显。这种现象吸引了导演们的注意,帮助他们达到了事业的巅峰。越来越多的导演开始集中于文化差异,试图在他们的电影中体现这种差异。其中最有名的导演之一就是李安,他很擅长于处理关于跨文化的素材。文化差异在他的电影中很深刻地体现出来。由于生活在传统中国环境和西方环境中,这样的经历使李安对东西方的文化差异有很深刻地理解。从他的电影中可看出他对这种差异的理解。通过分析思维方式,价值观,行为标准,生活模式的不同,本文将分析李安的同性恋影片中所体现的文化差异:《喜宴》和《断背山》。
 
Introduction介绍
With the development of globalization, the economic communication and cultural exchanges of different countries and different peoples are flourishing. Under the condition, cultural differences between the West and East is shrinking, however, cultural conflicts resulting from the emerging culture communication between the west and east becomes more and more obvious. The phenomenon draws the attention of directors and helps them create the peak of career; more and more directors focus on the cultural differences and try to reflect the differences in their movies. One of the most outstanding director is Ang Lee, who is good at dealing with the affair of the cross culture. The cultural differences are deeply reflected in Ang Lee’s movies. Because of owning the experiences to live under the traditional Chinese environment and western environment, Ang lee has the deeply understanding of the cultural differences between the east and the west. The understanding of the cultural differences is reflected in his movies. Through analyzing the differences of thinking mode, values, standard of behavior and life mode, the present paper is intended to analyze the cultural differences embodied in Ang Lee’s homosexual movie: The Wedding Banquet and Brokeback Mountain. 
 
Main Body主要内容
1. The Brief Introduction of the Movies电影简要介绍

1.1. The Brief introduction of the Wedding Banquet喜宴的简要介绍
Wai-Tong Gao is a 33-year-old unmarried man. He is a Taiwanese who has the real estate business in New York, America. He falls in love with another gay called Simon. However, the homosexual love is unknown by Wai-Tong’s parents, who are in Taiwan. Wei-Tong’s father is a retired officer, who owns the deep traditional Chinese value under the environment of big feudal family. Wei-Tong’s parents strongly want to have grandson to continue the family line. With the thought, they frequently call Wei-Tong to get married as soon as possible. Wei-Wei, who is a illegal immigration from Shanghai. She is poor and has no green card. And she is the renter of Wei-Tong’s house but with no money to pay rent. However, she has a good relationship with Simon. In order to get the win-win situation, Simon asked Wei-tong to have sham marriage with Wei-Wei. In this way, Wei-Wei could get the green card, Wei-Tong’s parents would be happy and Wei-Tong and Simon could be away from marriage nagging from Wei-Tong’s parents. They sent the marriage certificate and marriage pictures to Wei-tong’s parents in order to muddle through. However, Wei-Tong’s parents were so happy that went to New York to preside the wedding banquet.
 
 The wedding banquet was very successful with much hoopla. Guests had rich skills to tease the bride and the bridegroom on the wedding night. The new couple had sex attributing to the bridal chamber. The Wei-Wei was pregnant and was found by Simon. Simon was so angry that can’t help quarrelling with Wei-Tong in English when have dinner with Wei-Tong’s parents. Wei-Tong’s father had s stroke and Wei-tong finally told his mother the truth. His mother told Wei-Tong to keep it a secret for his father as his stroke. However, Wei-Tong’s father understands English and had known the truth. He told Simon that he received Simon but he had Wei-Weil to continue their family life and ask Simon to keep the secret. Finally, Wei-Wei decided to have the baby, Simon and Wei-Tong are still happy together, Wei-Tong’s parents went back to hometown.
 
1.2. The Brief introduction of the Brokeback Mountain断背山的简要介绍
 Ennis and Jack were employed by a rancher to shepherd on the Brokeback Mountain. Ennis is a silent man with traditional value. He hates the gays attributing to his father’s lesson. His father killed a neighborhood gay and took Ennis and his brother to see the merciless death scene and told them that this was the final result of the gay. The lessons impressed deeply on the 9-year old Ennis and reminded him frequently that the gay had bad result. Therefore, Ennis hated gay and also hated himself. Jack was an open guy and wont’ hate himself was a gay. He induced Ennis and they made love in tent. The two 19-year old guys fell in love with each other after spending some days together. However, the affair was soon found by the rancher. The rancher used an excuse to drive away the men. Ennis and Jack separated each other and Jack promised that they would meet again.

During the separating 4 years, both of Ennis and Jack had their own family. Ennis got married with a traditional woman, Emma and Jack got married with a rich woman, Laureen. After 4 years, Jack came to find Ennis and they were together again. They usually went to Brokeback Mountain to spend lover’s world.  Ennis’ wife Emma found the affair and finally divorced with Ennis. However, Ennis and Jack were not together because Ennis was afraid that they would be the same result as his neighborhood gay. Finally, Jack was killed by others attributing to gay’s identity. Ennis could just forever miss Jack with only left two shirts they had wear when first met.
 
2. The Cultural Differences Embodied in Ang Lee’s Homosexual Movie.李安的同性恋影片中所体现的文化差异
Everyone is a carrier of a person, when the carrier comes into a new contrast environment, cultural differences will occur.( Bok-Myung,2010 ) The cultural conflicts between west and east are obvious attributing to the representative different environment. In general idea, the Western world is inclined to advocate individualism, while Chinese culture pays more attention to family and the whole environment. Due to the different important point, the Cultural conflict happens when these two point are in the same environment. The Cultural differences between the western world and Chinese culture mainly shows in the following aspects: different modes of thinking, values, modes of behaviors.
 
2.1. Different Mode of Thinking思维方式的不同
In the past feudal society, Confucianism holds the deep-rooted dominant position in China. It has profound influence on the Chinese for a long time. Chinese holds the view that one should be self-effacing and his or her action should follow the “Golden Mean”( Terrence,1999).“Golden Mean” is the ideal realm of Confucianism. Confucianism advocates that one should follow the standard of behavior which covers benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom. Besides, one should be warm and kind when talking with people. One should be modest and avoid being self-proud and self-expression. Therefore, the Chinese mode of thinking focuses on group culture. The group culture is not allowed to put personal values in a higher state than group interests Brown, 2001).
 
The formation of the western values can be traced back to the Renaissance. The guiding ideology of the Renaissance is humanism. In other words, it advocates individualism and encourages people to express themselves.( Adrian,2010 ) The concept of modesty is ignored in the western culture. In daily life, people worship the one who is strong and hero. Talented people are popular while weak people are ruthlessly eliminated. Therefore, the outstanding character of western world value is individualism. It advocates that individual interest should outmatch the group interests.
 
In the movie of Wedding Banquet, Wei-Tong did not tell his parents he was a gay but Simon did obviously shows the cultural differences. Wei-Tong held the value of group interest; he should take his parents’ thought into consideration. Under the group interest society, Wei-tong would be elbowed out because of the different sex orientation. However, Simon was individualism, he focused on his own mood and thought, and he will not be considered crazy attributing to the difference under the individual environment. Under the society, it encourages everyone has a different character and different pursuit. The different mode of thinking also reflects in the scene of sending presents. When Simon gave sphygmomanometer to Wei-Tong’s father as a present, Wei-Tong’s father seems to be angry. In China, the sphygmomanometer seems to remind people that he or her is ill. It is unlucky. It is also reflects that Chinese people care others’ thought. They don’t want others think they are not health when are ill. However, western people will think that the sphygmomanometer is a good present to send people who are in high blood pressure. They care the function and care the individual health, but ignore others’ thought. ( Lustig and Koester,2012)
 
In the movie of Brokeback Mountain, Ennis’s mode of thinking represents the traditional Chinese thinking mode, while Jack’s represents the western culture. Ennis was silent and press his inner thought. His considered more about his family and the public’s opinion. However, Jack was more likely to express his own thought. In the movie, Jack expressed his love bold and unstrained. When Jack heard Ennis had divorced, he urgently met Ennis and thought that they could be together then. However, Ennis kept the love in mind and asked Ennis to go back because he did not want his daughter to know their affair. In world, Ennis is more inclined to care group interests like traditional Chinese value, while Jack is more likely to focus on individual interests like western world.#p#分页标题#e#
 
2.2. Different values价值观的不同
Different culture directly leads to different values. The different values are strongly embodied in attitude on sex.
 
In China, people inhibited sexual desire. They avoid talking about sex desire in public. In According to Confucianism, everything should be follow courtesy even sex. It’s obvious that sex is normal living experience that everyone desires. However, In China, people are actually restrained to express sex desire and conservative to talk about sex. They even treat sex as a synonym to obscenity (Tan, 2005). If a couple were kissing in the public, it would seem to be not courtesy. Conservativeness has been a lasting theme for Chinese values.  In feudal society, women should have concept of chastity. Unmarried women should be virgins and windows may not get married anymore. Women who keep the chastity rules are considered to be good, however, if not, they will be elbowed out by others.
 
In western countries, people are extremely open to sex. They understand sex. They think premarital sexual behavior is normal and few people care virginity(Clem,1995). They will have sex relationship with lovers at anytime in anywhere if they love each other. Compare to virginity, they pay more attention to spiritual combination. It’s normal to see lovers hugging and kissing in public. They don’t care virginity, what they do care is love.
 
The strong contrast between conservative Chinese value and open Western value is very obvious in The Wedding Banquet.
 
The wedding of Wai-Tung and Wei-Wei is a typical Chinese banquet, with a fully festive atmosphere and an abundant of entertainments. There is a scene that guests bustle to let bride kiss bridegroom. It seems to be abnormal to foreign guests. Because kiss in public is very normal for them and they confused that why those Chinese are very enjoyed in the booing and hooting in the kiss scene. 
 
Therefore, a foreign guest confusedly said:“I had thought that all Chinese were introverted math genius.”; Then anther guests answered: “That’s the result of five thousand years sexual-repression.” The expression of the sexual-repression reflects fully in bridal chamber. The guests left until the new couple took off their clothes. However, such reckless behavior certainly be forbidden in Chinese life.
 
Besides, the value on sex also reflects in sex orientation. In China, the mainstream sex orientation is heterosexuality and few people support and receive the homosexuality. They treat homosexuality as abnormal and being sick (Clem, 1994). However, it is inevitable that homosexuality still existing in China. But they won’t expose their sex orientation in public to avoid being discriminated. In Wedding Banquet, Wai-Tong and Simon has a happy life in New York, although their neighborhood showed the despise on their kiss, he wont’ stop them. The homosexuality is legal in Western and more open in western country. However, If in China, Wai-tong won’t be so relaxed. He would be the object of strong criticism if he lived in China. That’s the reason why Wai-tong can not tell the truth to his parents that he is a gay. The attitude on sex orientation also reflects clear in Brokeback Mountain. Ennis has a traditional sex orientation like Chinese people. He hates homosexuality and can not receive himself being a gay. His environment tells him that gay has no good result. Therefore, after the day he made love with Jack, he said that it’s an accident and even hit Jack. Jack is more open than Ennis, he even tells his parents that he and Ennis’s love. He pursuits the true love and be regardless of others’ opinion.
 
2.3. Different standard of behaviors行为标准的不同
Chinese people care the family relationship very much; they treat it as the most significant part of the society. The group interests are much higher than individual interests. Therefore, their standard of behaviors objects to hierarchical class. They would like to follow the seniority’s suggestions and respect them. They even treat seniority’s advice as an order to follow (Benedict, 1991).Besides, they pay more attention to courtesy. Courtesy means that should be have a good manner in public. The good manner means should not show ruthlessly in public. The deep meaning is that they should be follow the seniorities and had better not oppose them. Furthermore, “four generations” , “family reunion”,“parents live , not go far way” is advocated in China. They enjoy a big family and pay more attention to continue the family line. 
 
However, in western countries, they worship individualism and encourage self-reliance (Evangelista, 2003). They advocate that elder generation and younger generation have the equal status. They treat each other as friends. They give enough space to their children and won’t restrain their mind. Over 18-year old men should go out of home to make money by themselves in western, and their parents won’t give money to them anymore. Besides, the old parents will not require their son and daughter to care them; they prefer to live in old-folk’s homes rather than to be cared by their children.
 
In The Wedding Banquet, Wei-Tong’s parents spoil Wei-Tong. It is clear in the scene before the Wedding. Wei-Tongs’ parents would like to play children games with Wei-Tong and treat him as a little child. And although Wei-Tongs’ father know the truth about Simon and Wei-Tong, he won’t tell Wei-Tong and Wei-Wei attributing to continue their family line. On the other side, Wei-Tong cannot tell his father the truth because of he should follow the filial piety.  On the contrast, Simon is more open. In the beginning of the movie, he told Wai-Tong that he had already tell his parents that he and Wai-Tong’s love story.  And after knowing Wei-Wei is in pregnancy. He could quarrel with Wai-Tong before Wai-Tong’s parents. All of these reflects that people in western countries’ standard behavior is to follow their mind.
 
In Brokeback Mountain, Ennis did not choose to be together with Jack even divorced with his wife. Because his standard of behavior is to follow the society’s rules and follow his father’s order. He did not want to make himself trap into the homosexuality affair. However, Jack is open. He did not conceal his homosexuality orientation. He even told his parents that his goal was together with Wai-Hong to have a farm in Brokeback Mountain. And his parents even support him and respect his thought.
 
3.  The way to shrink the cultural differences缩小文化差别的方法
Nowadays, with the development of economic and cultural globalization, the cultural difference between east and west cultures is inevitable. Therefore, how to shrink the cultural difference plays a key role in friendly cross-culture communication. There are three ways to improve the situation (Güney, 2010).
In the first place, both of the cultures should respect each others’ culture and respect each others’ traditional manner. Only in this way could avoid culture conflicts.
In the second place, should strengthen the mutual communication. Mutual communication is very important in cultural understanding. Understand more about the each others’ culture could help shorten the mind distance.
 
Last but not least, should learn from each other.  Under the globalization society, both Chinese and Western cultures should learn from each others’ virtues. Only in this way, the two cultures could shrink the cultural difference and could leads to culture integration.
 
In the Wedding Banquet, Although Wei-Tong is a gay, he should also follow his father’s order to get married and to continue the family line. And his father also forgive his son to be a gay and receive his boy friend Simon. In the Brokeback Mountain, Ennis finally love Jack without concealing and went to Jack’s home to invite his parents. And Jack’s parents also receive him. All of these means that when two cultures have conflict, each other should be respective and understand each other.
 
Conclusions总结
In conclusion, cultural differences are inevitable in modern society. 
 
The cultural conflicts between west and east are obvious attributing to the representative different environment (Sparrow, 2008). In general idea, the Western world is inclined to advocate individualism, while Chinese culture pays more attention to family and the whole environment. The Cultural differences between the western world and Chinese culture mainly shows in the following aspects: different modes of thinking, values, and modes of behaviors. In regard to mode of thinking, Confucianism holds the deep-rooted dominant position in China, while the formation of the western values can be traced back to the Renaissance. Confucianism advocates the group interests, while Renaissance advocated individual free. Then the different values are strongly embodied in attitude on sex. In China, people inhibited sexual desire. In western countries, people are extremely open to sex. They understand sex. They think premarital sexual behavior is normal and few people care virginity. Finally, in regard with standard of behavior, Chinese people care the family relationship very much; they treat it as the most significant part of the society. However, in western countries, they worship individualism and encourage self-reliance. There are three ways to shrink the cultural differences: In the first place, both of the cultures should respect each others’ culture and respect each others’ traditional manner. In the second place, should strengthen the mutual communication. Finally, should learn from each other’s virtues.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Reference参考文献
1. Bok-Myung Chang(2010). "Cultural Identity in Korean English". Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics 14 (1): 131–145. 
2.Terrence N Tice(1999). "Cultural Identity",The Education Digest ,USA;BAC Press.
3. Brown C. (2001) Understanding International Relations. Hampshire, Palgrave
4.Holliday, Adrian (2010). "Complexity in cultural identity". Language and Intercultural Communication, 10 (2): 177
5.Lustig, M. W. & Koester, J. (2012). Intercultural Competence: Intercultural Communication Across Cultures (7th ed.). Pearson.(131-133).
6.Tan, S.-h. (2005). Challenging citizenship: group membership and cultural identity in a global age. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate
7.Robyns, Clem (1995). "Defending the national identity". Literaturkanon, Medienereignis, Kultureller Text. Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag 
8.Robyns, Clem (1994). "Translation and discursive identity". In Poetics Today 15 (3), 405–428. 
9.Anderson, Benedict (1991). Imagined Communities. London: Verso. 
10.Evangelista, M. (2003). "Culture, Identity, and Conflict: The Influence of Gender," Conflict and Reconstruction in Multiethnic Societies, Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press 
11.Güney, ü. (2010). "We see our people suffering: the war, the mass media, and the reproduction of Muslim identity among youth". Media, War & Conflict 3 (2): 1–14. 
12. Sparrow, Lise M. (2008). Beyond multicultural man: Complexities of identity. The Global Intercultural Communication Reader. New York: Routledge. 239-261
 
 
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