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英格兰企业社会责任essay:A Comparative Study of Chevron’s and Sinopec’

时间:2019-06-24 11:00来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
Chapter I Introduction第一章引言 企业社会责任(CSR)是指企业在创造利润和对股东和员工承担法律责任的同时,也要对消费者、社区和环境承担责任,企业社会责任要求企业超越传统的以利润为唯
Chapter I Introduction第一章引言
企业社会责任(CSR)是指企业在创造利润和对股东和员工承担法律责任的同时,也要对消费者、社区和环境承担责任,企业社会责任要求企业超越传统的以利润为唯一目标的观念,它要求企业在创造利润的过程中,必须以利润为唯一目标,以利润为主要目标,以利润为主要目标,以利润为主要目标,以利润为主要目标,以利润为主要目标,以利润为主要目标,以利润为主要关注生产过程中人们的价值,关注对环境、消费者和社会的贡献(Nekhili、Nagati、Chtioui和Rebolledo,2017年;Wang和Sarkis,2017年)。
20世纪80年代,欧美发达国家开始兴起企业社会责任运动。一些参与绿色和平、环境保护、社会责任和人权以及公众舆论的非政府组织一直呼吁企业承担社会责任(Raufflet、Cruz和Bres,2014年)。在压力不断增加和自身发展需要的推动下,许多欧美跨国公司制定了履行社会责任的措施(Palazuelos和Fern_ndez,2012年)。雪佛龙公司是美国的一家跨国公司,由于公司认真履行了环境保护的社会责任,公司造成的环境污染问题大大减少,这对改善自然环境和改善自身社会有很大的帮助。L Prestige(Buccina、Chene和Gramlich,2013年)。
随着我国经济的发展,自然环境日趋恶化,大气、水、海洋污染日益严重。环境问题已成为经济发展的瓶颈,为了人类的生存和经济的可持续发展,中国政府也开始要求中国企业积极履行环境保护的社会责任(吴林刘,2016)。中石化集团作为中国的跨国公司,2001年也制定了企业社会责任措施,但近年来,公司的环境问题仍然暴露在外(董、皮、马、东,2017)。
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) means that enterprises in the creation of profits and bearing legal responsibility for shareholders and employees should also bear the responsibility for consumers, communities and the environment, CSR requires that enterprises should go beyond the traditional concept of taking profit as the sole goal, it emphasizes the focus on the value of people in production process and it is concerned about the contribution to the environment, consumers and the society (Nekhili, Nagati, Chtioui and Rebolledo, 2017; Wang and Sarkis, 2017).
In the 1980s, CSR movement began to rise in developed countries in Europe and America. Some non-governmental organizations involved in green peace, environmental protection, social responsibility and human rights, as well as public opinion, have been calling for enterprises to assume CSR (Raufflet, Cruz and Bres, 2014). Forced by increasing pressure and their own development needs, many European and American multinational companies have developed measures to fulfill social responsibility (Palazuelos and Fernández, 2012). Chevron Corporation is a multinational company in the United States, since the company seriously fulfilled the social responsibility of environmental protection, environmental pollution problems caused by the company reduced significantly, which have a great help for the improvement of the natural environment and the improvement of their own social prestige (Buccina, Chene and Gramlich, 2013). 
With the development of China's economy, the natural environment is deteriorating, the atmosphere, water, marine pollution is increasingly serious. Environmental problems have become the bottleneck of economic development, for the survival of mankind and economic sustainable development, Chinese government has also begun to require Chinese enterprises to actively fulfill the social responsibility of environmental protection (Wu, Lin and Liu, 2016). Sinopec Group as a multinational company in China, has also developed CSR measures in 2001, but in recent years, the company's environmental problems have still been exposed (Dong, Pi, Ma and Dong, 2017).
This study aims to discuss the differences between the two companies in fulfilling CSR and to analyze why both companies have fulfilled their social responsibilities but an enterprise could protect the environment well and the other could not. This research then reviews the relevant literatures and theories relating to CSR, through the questionnaire survey on the two enterprises to understand the status quo of the two companies in fulfilling their CSR. Finally, according to the literature review and the results of the questionnaire survey, it reveals the differences between the two companies in the performance of fulfilling CSR to show why Chevron Corporation could protect the environment well while Sinopec Group failed.
 
Chapter II Literature review
2.1 Theoretical basis
Sustainable development theory refers to the development which both meets the needs of contemporary people and avoids harm of the ability of the future generations to meet their needs, it takes fairness, continuity, commonality as the three basic principles (Caiado et al., 2017). From the perspective of environmental protection, sustainable development pursues the harmony between man and nature, it reduces the consumption of natural resources and makes it lower than the rate of regeneration, such as the use of clean technology and the production of non-polluting products, guiding consumers to adopt sustainable consumption, and promoting the reform of production methods (Patlins, 2017). If the environment is not properly protected, the costs for repairing the environmental damage will be very large, which will even offset the results of economic growth, enterprises’ fulfilling CSR of environmental protection is an important measure to achieve economic, social and natural sustainable development (Nekhili, Nagati, Chtioui and Rebolledo, 2017).
2.2 Social responsibility of environmental protection
Wu, Lin and Liu (2016) believed that the purpose of an enterprise’s fulfilling social responsibility of environmental protection is through the adjustment of human behavior to achieve the harmonious development of human society and the nature. From the perspective of the substantive content, a company's environmental responsibility is defined as: in the maximum pursuit of shareholder interests and enhancing the interests of social-related groups, a company should also maximize the consideration of the carrying capacity of the ecosystem to avoid the physical damage caused by its corporate management to the entire ecosystem.
Essah and Andrewsfrom (2016) were from the perspective of a company's social responsibility to take the environmental responsibility as a part of CSR. They figured that protection and rational use of the environment and resources is not only related to the vital interests of contemporary human beings, but also related to the survival and development of future generations, it is the premise and the key to achieve the sustainable development of human society, enterprises’ protection and reasonable use of the environment is their responsibility for the whole of mankind and future generations, so the responsibility of enterprises is a typical CSR.
Śmiechowski and Lament (2017) further pointed out that a company's environmental responsibility is a broad concept, including environmental legal responsibility and environmental moral responsibility, it is not just the traditional sense of environmental responsibility; it is a company's commitment to the long-term goal of social development, and it is also a set of integrated responsibility system, including legal responsibility and moral responsibility.
2.3 Summary
In short, the theory of sustainable development is the theoretical basis for enterprises to fulfill and assume the social responsibility of environmental protection. Enterprises in fulfilling social responsibility of environmental protection need to reduce the destruction to the environment to achieve the harmonious development of enterprises and nature, and enterprises’ acts of fulfilling society responsibility of environmental protection is not just a matter of law but also a moral issue.
 
Chapter III Methodology
In this study, it made use of a quantitative study, it was through questionnaires to collect data. Questionnaires help a researcher to collect more first-hand data easily in a short period of time, and the results of questionnaires facilitate quantitative analysis (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007). The questionnaires in this study were distributed and taken back through the questionnaire survey website: SurveyMonkey. The questionnaire survey was conducted towards employees from Chevron Corporation (Chevron for short) and Sinopec Group (Sinopec for short). Only employees from the two companies were allowed to complete the questionnaire. A total of 23 pieces of questionnaires were distributed and recovered. The questionnaire includes 10 questions, the main purpose of the questionnaire was to investigate the views of the respondents on their companies in fulfilling the responsibility of environmental protection.
 
Chapter IV Findings
Q1. What company do you belong to? (Chevron/ Sinopec)
In this investigation, 12 respondents were from Chevron, the other 11 were from Sinopec.
Q2. How long have you worked in the company? (1-3 years/4-6 years/More than 6 years)
Figure 1Years of working in the two companies
The questionnaire results showed that considering the respondents from Chevron, 7 respondents worked for 1-3 years in the company, 4 respondents worked 3-6 years and a respondent worked more than 6 years in the company. In terms of respondents from Sinopec, 6 respondents worked for 1-3 years, 5 respondents worked 3-6 years and no respondent worked more than 6 years in the company.


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