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动机的确保和工作的承诺

时间:2016-02-11 08:43来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

ensuring motivation and job commitment

动机;人力资源管理的一项关键战略很大程度上帮助从业者,足以服从讨论的术语“动机”。引导、Mowday和夏皮罗(2004),从理论上和实际上宣称员工激励在管理领域起着至关重要的作用。据说,人力资源经理的一个重要功能是确保工作承诺在工作场所,它只能通过动机(Petcharak, 2002).

根据Mishra和古普塔(2009)在过去的几年里,由于全球化世界的工作已经发生了巨大变化,组织正在对国际标准评估和进行最佳实践。因此对人民的强调增加了。作者赋予,因为组织通过其员工产生的结果,强调动机和关心人们通过评估,定期反馈,持续的支持和基于经验的计划。动机是很重要的,因为它的重要性作为一个行列式的性能和其无形的性质(Mishra and Gupta 2009).

通常如果工人丧失动力、组织不可能经营情感地实现他们的目标和成功;在汗(2010)的支持下,世卫组织指出,职场的不满,员工通常会导致糟糕的性能,从而影响组织的绩效。因此动机的概念是非常重要的激励员工可以帮助一个组织竞争力更多的附加值,因此盈利和高度自我激励的员工作为公司的竞争优势,因为他们的表现让一个组织实现其目标(Danish and Usman, 2010).

基于这些理由,摘要应包括分析和实证研究,揭示了差异和可行性方面的领域,由Rai提出(2004);

In the fierce era of competition, organizations nowadays are more emphasizing on the management of Human Resources (Robert. L, 2008). Motivation; a key strategy in Human Resource Management has helped practitioners largely enough to subject the term "Motivation" for a discussion. Steers, Mowday and Shapiro (2004), asserted that employee motivation plays a vital role in the management field; both theoretically and practically. It is said that one of the important functions of human resource manager is to ensure job commitment at the workplace, which can only be achieved through motivation (Petcharak, 2002).

According to Mishra and Gupta (2009) the world of work has changed significantly due to globalization over the past few years and organizations are being assessed against international standards and best practices. Consequently the emphasis upon people has increased. Conferring to the authors, since organization has to produce its outcomes through its employees, there is emphasis on motivation and concern for people through assessment, regular feedback, ongoing support and experience based initiatives. Motivation is important because of its significance as a determinant of performance and its intangible nature (Mishra and Gupta 2009).

Generally if workers are demotivated, organizations are unlikely to operate affectively in achieving their goals and success; supported by Khan (2010), who points out that workplace dissatisfaction, usually leads to poor performance of employees and hence affect the performance of the organization as well. Therefore the concept of motivation is very important as motivated employees can help make an organization competitively more value added, hence profitable and highly motivated employees serve as the competitive advantage for any company because their performance allow an organization to well accomplish its goals (Danish and Usman, 2010).

Based on these reasoning, this paper shall include analytical and empirical studies to reveal the discrepancies and feasibility aspect of the domain, as Rai (2004) put forward; motivation is crucial for good performance and therefore it is increasingly important to study what motivates employees for better performance. This section offers a review of literature, which explores the concepts, types and theories of motivation.

动机——Motivation

Motivation is defined as "a human psychological characteristic that add to a person's degree of commitment. It is the management process of in???uencing employees' behavior". (Badu, 2005, p.38)

Conversely, Bartol and Martin (1998) relate motivation to the force that stimulates behavior, provide direction to behavior, and underlies the tendency to prevail. In other words individuals must be sufficiently stimulated and energetic, must have a clear focus on what is to be achieved, and must be willing to commit their energy for a long period of time to realize their aim in order to achieve goals.

However, other than motivation being a force that stimulates behavior, Vroom (1964) emphasized on the 'voluntary actions'. Supported by Steers et al. (2004), Vroom (1964) defined motivation as "a process governing choice made by persons...among alternative forms of voluntary activity." Similarly Kreitner and Kinicki (2004) assumed that motivation incorporate those psychological processes that create the arousal, direction and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal oriented.

Quite differently from the other definitions, Locke and Latham (2004) identified that motivation influence people's acquisition of skills and the extent to which they use their ability. According to the authors "the concept of motivation refers to internal factors that impel action and to external factors that can act as inducements to action. The three aspects of action that motivation can affect are direction (choice), intensity (effort), and duration (persistence). Motivation can affect both the acquisition of people's skills and abilities; and also the extent to which they utilize their skills and abilities" (Locke and Latham 2004, p.388).

In a nut shell, different authors have put forward the concept of motivation differently. Nonetheless, these definitions have three common aspects, that is, they are all principally concerned with factors or events that stimulate, channel, and prolong human behavior over time (Steers, Mowday and Shapiro, 2004).

内在动机和外在动机——Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation

Following Lakhani and Wolf (2005), Lakhani and Von Hippel (2003) and Lemer and Tirole (2004), the current scholarly thinking favors a framework that considers two components of motivation given by intrinsic and extrinsic components. Accordingly, Lawler (1969) has defined intrinsic motivation as the degree to which feelings of esteem, growth, and competence are expected to result from successful task performance. This view bounds intrinsic motivation to an expectancy approach and expectancy theory which clearly indicates that intrinsic and extrinsic motivations summate (Porter &Lawler, 1968).

Moreover, according to Amabile et al. (1993) Individuals are said to be intrinsically motivated when they seek, interest, satisfaction of curiosity, self expression, or personal challenge in the work. On the other hand individuals are said to be extrinsically motivated when they engaged in the work to gain some goal that is part of the work itself. As per to the author this definition of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is based on the individual perception of the individual perception of task and his or her reasons for engaging in it. Moreover, Amabile et al. further argued that intrinsic motivators arise from an individual's feelings with regards to the activity and they are necessary to adhere to the work itself. Conversely, extrinsic motivators although they may be dependent on the work, they are not logically an inherent part of the work. Extrinsic motivators refer to anything, coming from an outside source that designate to control work performance and include examples such as promised reward, critical feedback, deadlines, surveillance or specifications on how to do the work.

Furthermore, in line with the concept of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, De Charms (1968) suggest that external rewards might undermine intrinsic motivation. He further proposed that man's primary motivation is to be effective in developing changes in his environment and individuals seek for personal causation. According to the author because of the desire to be the "origin" of his behavior, man keeps struggling against the constraint of external forces. Thus, De Charms hypothesized that when a man perceives his behavior as originating from his own choice, he will value that behavior and its results but when he perceives his behavior as originating from external forces, that behavior and its results, even though identical in other respects to behavior of his own choosing, will be devalued. De Charms (1968) further argued that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation may interact, rather than summate that is the introduction of extrinsic rewards for the behaviors that was intrinsically rewarding may decrease rather than enhance the overall motivation. The introduction of an extrinsic reward put the individual in a dependent position relative to the source of the reward. The locus of causality for his behavior changes from self to the external reward and thus the individual's perception of self-control, free choice, and commitment deteriorate and hence do his motivation. De Charms (1968) also anticipated an interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions given if rewards are withheld. The motivation to perform a task undertaken originally in order to obtain an extrinsic reward may increase if the reward is subsequently withdrawn. This inexplicable effect develops because of the liberation of the individual's intrinsic motivation following the reduction of extrinsic controls over his behavior.

In addition Frey (1997) note that high intrinsic work motivation evolving from work which is interesting involves the trust and loyalty of personal relationships and is participatory. However, under certain circumstances, intrinsic motivation can be diminished, or ''crowded-out'' by external interventions like monitoring or pay-for-performance incentive schemes. This was also supported by Frey and Jegen (2001) who reviewed the literature on intrinsic motivations and found that the evidence does suggest that incentives sometimes do ''crowd-out'' intrinsic motivations. Besides, Frey (1997) suggests that the important matter is whether the external intervention is in the form of a command or a reward. Commands are most controlling in the sense that they seize self-determination from the agent, while rewards might still allow autonomy of action.



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