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人力资源Essay范文翻译:Recruitment and Retention of Knowledge Workers

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-04-08 13:17:13 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是Recruitment and Retention of Knowledge Workers(招聘和保留知识型员工)”,专业服务部门主要由高技能、专业知识工人组成,拥有一系列资质、专业知识和经验(Suddaby, GreenwoodWilderom, 2008)。根据Newell, Robertson, ScarbroughSwan(2009,第18),知识工人,也被称为金领工人,是“具有高水平的教育和专业技能的个人,结合这些技能来识别和解决问题的能力”。正是这些知识工作者的特点,为专业服务组织的人力资源(HR)职能创造了机遇和挑战。知识型员工的高技能特性使他们对寻求利用人力资本获得战略优势的组织非常有吸引力(Kelly, Mastroeni, Conway, Monks, Truss, Flood, and Hannon, 2011)。与此同时,知识工人比他们的低技能同行更不容易在一段时间内停留在一个位置(Vaiman, 2010)。例如,Scarbrough(1999)认为,专业的、熟练的专业工人最显著的特征之一是他们缺乏职业身份。这使得他们在组织和职业上都具有流动性,这给人力资源经理带来了留住人才的挑战。考虑到这一背景,本文确定了一个不断增长的专业服务组织可以用来吸引和留住高技能工人的战略。本文所强调的策略是基于这样一个假设,即专业服务组织不能够或不愿意使用金钱奖励作为增加对这些专家吸引力的手段。

Introduction介绍

The professional services sector is largely comprised of highly skilled, specialist knowledge workers, with an array of qualifications, expertise and experience (Suddaby, Greenwood and Wilderom, 2008). According to Newell, Robertson, Scarbrough and Swan (2009, p. 18), knowledge workers, also known as gold collar workers, are individuals with a high level of education and specialist skills, combined with the ability to apply these skills to identify and solve problems. It is these characteristics of knowledge workers that creates both opportunities and challenges for the Human Resources (HR) functions of professional services organisations. The highly skilled nature of knowledge workers makes them very attractive to organisations seeking to deploy their human capital for strategic advantage (Kelly, Mastroeni, Conway, Monks, Truss, Flood, and Hannon, 2011). At the same time, knowledge workers are less apt than their less skilled counterparts to remain in one position for an extended period of time (Vaiman, 2010). Scarbrough (1999), for instance, suggested that one of the most salient characteristics of specialist, skilled professional workers is their lack of an occupational identity. This makes them organisationally and occupationally fluid, which creates a retention challenge for HR managers. With this context in mind, this paper identifies strategies that a growing professional services organisation could use to attract and retain highly skilled workers. The strategies that are highlighted are predicated on the assumption that professional services organisations are not able or willing to use pecuniary reward as a means of increasing their appeal to these specialists. 人力资源Essay范例

Recruitment is concerned with the set of processes utilised by business organisations to identify a sufficient pool of candidates from which they can select an employee (Wilton, 2013). However, recruiting is not as straightforward as it might seem. There are a plethora of methods and strategies that organisations can use in order to increase their appeal to job hunters, and thereby increase the pool of talent from which they are able to apply their selection procedures (Hiltrop, 1999). What is important is that the recruitment policies, practices and procedures are carefully designed with the needs of both the organisation and the candidates in mind.

招聘是一套流程使用的商业组织,以确定一个足够的候选人池,他们可以选择一个员工(威尔顿,2013)。然而,招聘并不像看起来那么简单。为了增加对求职者的吸引力,组织可以使用过多的方法和策略,从而增加他们能够应用他们的选择程序的人才库(Hiltrop, 1999)。重要的是,招聘政策、惯例和程序是根据组织和候选人的需要精心设计的。

 

This question about the optimal design of recruitment and hiring practices was considered by Horwitz, Heng and Quarzi (2003). Those authors conducted a survey of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and HR directors in a range of organisations that rely on a highly skilled and specialist workforce. The research identified two key strategies that the companies used for attracting skilled workers: carefully designed recruitment strategies and the provision of opportunities for career and talent development. Of the recruitment strategies that were utilised most effective strategies were the use of targeted media advertising, and, to a lesser extent, the use of headhunters (Horwitz et al, 2003). The authors suggested that targeted media advertising is more effective than general advertising because candidates for specialist roles are characterised by occupational fluidity and are therefore more likely to keep an eye on the job market by scanning the recruitment media that are specialist to their roles. Headhunters and other specialist external recruitment agencies are also likely to have access to large databases of potential candidates, many of whom they may have aided in finding work before (Wilton, 2013). The professional services firm may therefore find it easier to identify and locate a pool of suitable candidates for its specialist roles if it outsources its search and hiring activities to an agency that specialises in such activities.

Horwitz, HengQuarzi(2003)研究了招聘和招聘实践的优化设计问题。这些作者对一系列依赖高技能和专业劳动力的组织的首席执行官(ceo)和人力资源主管进行了调查。该研究确定了企业用来吸引熟练工人的两种关键策略:精心设计的招聘策略和提供职业和人才发展机会。在使用的招聘策略中,最有效的策略是使用有针对性的媒体广告,在较小程度上,使用猎头公司(Horwitz et al, 2003)。作者认为,有针对性的媒体广告比一般广告更有效,因为专业职位的候选人具有职业流动性的特点,因此更有可能通过扫描专业职位的招聘媒体来关注就业市场。猎头和其他专业的外部招聘机构也可能有机会访问潜在候选人的大型数据库,其中许多人他们可能曾经帮助寻找工作(威尔顿,2013)。因此,专业服务公司可能会发现,如果将搜索和招聘活动外包给专门从事这类活动的机构,就更容易确定和找到适合其专业职位的候选人。

 

Importantly, research suggests that the organisation needs to take into account the nature of the external business environment in designing their recruitment strategies. In particular, the extent to which there exist a tight labour market is vital (Wilton, 2013). A tight labour market is one in which there is intense competition for a relatively short supply of workers, and skills shortages exist. This is certainly the case in the professional services sector (Hor and Keats, 2008). Where a tight labour market exists, a firm may be required to adopt more creative recruitment and hiring practices. One way of overcoming the challenge of recruiting highly skilled professional workers would be to extend the reach of the search (Vaiman, 2010). One of the key features of highly skilled, specialist knowledge workers is their geographical mobility. Since these gold collar workersapply their intellect and intelligence rather than their physical labour to work activities, they are also able to work remotely (Vaiman, 2010). This means that a professional services firm that is struggling to identify appropriate workers locally might be able to find skilled candidates by extending the search in geographical terms (Richardson, McBey and McKenna, 2008).

重要的是,研究表明,在设计招聘策略时,组织需要考虑外部商业环境的性质。特别是,劳动力市场紧张的程度是至关重要的(威尔顿,2013)。紧俏的劳动力市场指的是,相对短缺的劳动力供应存在激烈竞争,技能短缺的情况也存在。这当然是在专业服务领域(Hor and Keats, 2008)。在劳动力市场吃紧的情况下,公司可能需要采取更有创造性的招聘和雇用办法。克服招聘高技能专业人员的挑战的一种方法是扩大搜索的范围(Vaiman, 2010)。高技能、专业知识工人的关键特征之一是他们的地理流动性。由于这些“金领工人”将他们的智力和智慧而不是他们的体力劳动用于工作活动,他们也能够远程工作(Vaiman, 2010)。这意味着,一个专业服务公司在努力寻找当地合适的工人时,可以通过扩大地理范围来寻找有技能的候选人(Richardson, McBeyMcKenna, 2008)

 

Interestingly, one of the most effective ways to attract skilled workers identified in the Horwitz et al (2003) research is for the firm to have a reputation as an employer of choice(p. 32). Reputation is thought to be an important factor in enhancing attractiveness for reasons relating to both the labour market as well as to the characteristics of the knowledge workers (Sutherland, Torricelli and Karg, 2002). First, a good reputation enables an employer to gain a competitive edge when it is competing for scarce talent in a highly competitive labour market. Second, because of their skills and abilities, knowledge workers are in a good position to be selective in their choice of employer. A good reputation, particularly in terms of working conditions is one way in which a growing firm can attract candidates from their rivals. Giauque, Resenterra and Siggen (2010) see reputation as particularly important to young professionals, because these individuals are sensitive to the way in which their own image is projected, and view their own image as reinforced and reflected by the corporate image. For this reason, knowledge workers, very mobile and anxious to retain an important employability, will therefore invest more sustainably in a prestigious organization rather than in an organization that does not enjoy a positive image(Giauque et al, 2010, p. 190). The HR function has a key role here in ensuring that working conditions are organised and arranged in such a way as to support the development of the firms reputation as a good employer (Wilton, 2013). This will include such aspects as managing the relationship between the employees and the employers (through aspects such as ensuring that conflicts are resolved adequately or enhancing employee voice), developing, managing and coordinating appropriate reward packages, providing training and development initiatives and interventions and ensuring safety and wellbeing (Wilton, 2013).

 

Strategies to aid retention of highly skilled specialists帮助保留高技能专家的策略

Empirical research suggests that the way in which work activities are designed should be commensurate with the nuanced needs of specialist skilled workers (Newell et al, 2009). Since highly skilled professionals tend to rely on their intellect and expertise in the performing of their workplace tasks and activities, they may demand and require less in the way of workplace monitoring and control, and greater autonomy (Holland, Hecker and Steen, 2002). Indeed, there is some evidence that granting skilled workers autonomy over the way in which they approach their organisationally designated tasks can lead them to be more committed both to their jobs and to their employers (ODonohue, Sheehan, Hecker and Holland, 2007). This could include delegating these workers managerial control over tasks and activities or allowing them flexibility and mobility in terms of their work schedules. Furthermore, skilled workers seem to prefer to work in organisations with flatter organisational structures, for these are facilitative of trust-oriented relationships and hierarchical structures undermine their need for autonomy (Newell et al, 2009). The new, Strategic Human Resources function can help to support job design and organisational (re)structuring because of its role as a strategic business partner (Teo, Lakhani, Brown and Malmi,2008). The design of work should be considered as a key HR practice that supports the achievement of the organisations goals. More specifically, it is recommended that the organisation offers its skilled workforce autonomy and control over their mandated tasks and activities, and that the organisation moves towards a flatter structure if it is serious about wishing to retain its specialist workers.

实证研究表明,工作活动的设计方式应该与专业技能工人的细微需求相称(Newell et al, 2009)。由于高技能的专业人员倾向于依赖他们的智力和专业知识来执行他们的工作场所任务和活动,他们可能会要求和要求在工作场所监控和控制的方式更少,和更大的自主权(Holland, HeckerSteen, 2002)。事实上,有一些证据表明,给予熟练工人在处理组织指定任务的方式上的自主权,可以使他们更致力于他们的工作和他们的雇主(O 'Donohue, Sheehan, HeckerHolland, 2007)。这可能包括授权这些工人对任务和活动的管理控制权,或者允许他们在工作安排方面的灵活性和灵活性。此外,熟练工人似乎更喜欢在组织结构更扁平的组织中工作,因为这有利于信任导向的关系,而等级结构削弱了他们对自治的需求(Newell et al, 2009)。新的战略人力资源功能可以帮助支持工作设计和组织(重组)结构,因为它的角色是一个战略业务合作伙伴(Teo, Lakhani, BrownMalmi,2008)。工作设计应该被认为是一个关键的人力资源实践,支持组织的目标的实现。更具体地说,它建议组织为其熟练的劳动力提供自主权,并对其授权的任务和活动进行控制,如果组织真的希望保留其专业工人,则应向更扁平的结构迈进。

人力资源Essay怎么写

Alvesson (2000) has argued that while knowledge workers may not necessarily have an occupational identity, they do have a professional identity and seek communitarian and peer collegiality through their employment choices. This suggests that skilled workers that are provided with a sense of belonging will be more likely to remain with the organisation and resist the enticements of the firms competitors (Alvesson, 2000). There are a number of ways in which the development of a social and professional identity can be supported through HR initiatives. First, skilled workers can be supported to join and progress through the ranks of relevant professional bodies or learned societies (Hor and Keats, 2008). This might mean paying membership fees, providing workers with time off so that they are able to take up learning and training programmes, or providing internal training to support workersupskilling ambitions (Newell et al, 2009). Benson and Brown (2007) add that supervisor and co-worker support are key to the development of peer collegiality, and reducing turnover intentions. Co-worker support can be stimulated by the organisation of workers into teams, as appropriate to the task, and providing workers with adequate training to undertake team-based work whilst maintaining individual levels of autonomy. Supervisor support can also be encouraged through the careful design of line manager training schemes.

Alvesson(2000)认为,虽然知识工作者不一定有职业身份,但他们确实有职业身份,并通过他们的就业选择寻求社群主义和同侪共同执政。这表明,有归属感的技术工人更有可能留在组织,并抵制公司竞争对手的诱惑(Alvesson, 2000)。通过人力资源倡议,可以通过多种方式支持社会和职业身份的发展。首先,可以支持技术工人通过相关的专业团体或学术团体的行列加入和进步(Hor and Keats, 2008)。这可能意味着支付会员费,为工人提供休息时间,以便他们能够参加学习和培训项目,或提供内部培训,以支持工人提高技能的雄心(Newell et al, 2009)BensonBrown(2007)补充说,主管和同事的支持是同伴共同合作关系发展的关键,并减少离职意愿。根据任务需要,将员工组织成团队,并为员工提供适当的培训,以承担团队工作,同时保持个人的自治水平,可以激发员工的支持。通过精心设计直线经理培训计划,也可以鼓励主管的支持。

 

Aside from salary, the aspect of work that was identified in the Horwitz et al (2003) research as making the greatest contribution to knowledge workersorganisational commitment were opportunities for promotion and personal and professional development. As Giaque et al (2010, p. 191) note, a willingness to develop skills, whether by means of training or other career development activities, indicates to employees that the organization considers its human capital to be a source of competitive advantage. Offering skilled workers the ability to engage in continuing professional education serves two purposes. First, it communicates to the employee the desire on the part of the company to forge long term relationships with the employee (Giaque et al, 2010). Second, it communicates to the worker the notion that the employer is supportive. Both aspects are thought to enhance feelings of commitment and loyalty on the part of the worker and may prevent them from defecting to competitors.

除了工资,在Horwitz等人(2003)的研究中确定的对知识型员工的组织承诺做出最大贡献的工作方面是升职和个人和专业发展的机会。正如Giaque等人(2010,第191)所指出的,“无论是通过培训还是其他职业发展活动,员工发展技能的意愿表明,组织将其人力资本视为竞争优势的来源”。为技术工人提供继续职业教育的能力有两个目的。首先,它向员工传达了公司希望与员工建立长期关系的愿望(Giaque et al, 2010)。其次,它向员工传达了雇主是支持他们的想法。这两方面都被认为能增强员工的责任感和忠诚感,并能防止他们投奔竞争对手。

 

Finally, developing an organisational culture that is conducive to information sharing is thought to bring about enhanced organisational commitment in knowledge workers (Benson and Brown, 2007). To a greater extent than their traditional blue or white collar counterparts, gold collar workers rely on readily available information in order to undertake their work because they tend to work autonomously and exert greater control over decision making (ODonohue et al, 2007). In addition, a culture in which information is easily disseminated creates a climate of trust, confidence and respect, which is known to facilitate affective attachment in highly skilled workers (Giaque et al, 2010). Thus, HR policies and practices should be designed in such a way as to stimulate information sharing in order to prevent loss of specialised workers to competing firms.

 

Conclusion结论

To conclude, recruiting and retaining highly skilled gold collar workers is increasingly difficult as the rate of growth of the professional services sector of the economy appears to be outstripping the rate at which individuals are acquiring and accruing the skills necessary to sustain it. In this climate, it is vital that firms identify and deploy strategies designed to attract highly qualified suitable candidates to the organisation, and put into place policies, practices and procedures that will engender those workersloyalty and commitment once they are there. Drawing on the extant literature in Human Resource Management, this paper has identified a number of strategies and methods available to professional services organisations including enhancing the firms reputation, outsourcing recruitment activities, developing the corporate culture and offering these vital workers opportunities for upwards progression and development.

总而言之,招聘和留住高技能的金领工人越来越困难,因为经济中专业服务部门的增长速度似乎超过了个人获得和积累维持该行业所需技能的速度。在这种环境下,企业识别和部署战略,吸引高素质的合适候选人进入组织是至关重要的,并实施政策、实践和程序,一旦这些员工进入组织,就会产生他们的忠诚和承诺。利用现有的人力资源管理文献,本文确定了一些可供专业服务组织使用的战略和方法,包括提高公司的声誉,外包招聘活动,发展企业文化,为这些重要员工提供升职和发展的机会。

 

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