指导
网站地图
英国essay 澳洲essay 美国essay 加拿大essay MBA Essay Essay格式范文
返回首页

人力资源Essay结构:Cultural Variables in MNCs

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-02-07 09:21:48 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是Cultural Variables in MNCs(跨国公司的文化变量)”,国际商业文献强调了全球一体化和日益增多的界面的重要性,这些界面存在于现代跨国公司(MNC)内的人、国家和文化之间。管理一个跨国公司需要管理的差异与本地特色日益定位为一个竞争差异化点(哈特曼,FeiselSchober, 2010)Rosenzweig(2006)的工作强调了全球一体化和本地响应的压力,要求跨国公司成功地平衡文化和制度变量。这篇报告,借鉴研究,以批判性地评估三个文化变量和三个制度变量,在这篇文章中被定位为具有影响力的跨国公司的管理和员工行为。对跨国公司的研究通常将其定位为复杂和多层次的性质(Scherer, PalazzoSeidl, 2013)。跨国公司在管理复杂的互动方面面临越来越多的挑战,因此,这要求公司了解员工和管理行为的维度,两者都受到文化和制度变量的影响(Meyer, MudambiNarula, 2011)。这篇文章首先考虑文化变量对跨国公司的重要性。

The international business literature highlights the importance of global integration and the increasing interfaces, which exist between people, nations and cultures within the modern multi-national corporation (MNC). Managing a MNC requires a management of differences with local distinctiveness increasingly positioned as a point for competitive differentiation (Hartmann, Feisel and Schober, 2010). The pressure for global integration and local responsiveness as highlighted in the work of Rosenzweig (2006) requires MNCs to successfully balance both cultural and institutional variables. This report, draws on research in order to critically evaluate three cultural variables and three institutional variables which are positioned in this essay as having the power to influence managerial and employee behaviour within MNCs. Research into MNCs often positions them as being complex and multi-layered in nature (Scherer, Palazzo and Seidl, 2013). MNCs face growing challenges in managing the complexity of interactions and thus, this requires firms to understand dimensions of employee and managerial behaviour and both are influenced by cultural and institutional variables (Meyer, Mudambi and Narula, 2011). This essay begins with a consideration of cultural variables of importance to MNCs.

 人力资源Essay范例

Culture is defined by Hofstede (1980, p. 12) as: Not a characteristic of individuals; it encompasses a number of people who were conditioned by the same education and life experience. When we speak of the culture of a group, a tribe, a geographical region, a national minority, or a nation, culture refers to the collective mental programming that is different from that of other groups, tribes, regions, minorities or majorities, or nations.

Hofstede(1980,第12)对文化的定义是:“不是个人的特征;它包含了一些人,他们受到相同的教育和生活经验的制约。当我们谈到一个群体、一个部落、一个地理区域、一个少数民族或一个民族的文化时,文化是指不同于其他群体、部落、地区、少数或多数或民族的集体心理规划。

 

Broadly speaking, culture refers to the collective mental programming of individuals and this influences the way in which managers and employees behave within the firm. One cultural variable of importance is national culture and in particular as highlighted in the work of Hofstede (1980) five dimensions of culture should be considered: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity and short-long-term orientation. Managerial and employee behaviour within MNCs is inherently influenced by cultural dynamics with employees being a product of the culture they exist within. Two cultural elements in particular require consideration, power distance is a cultural dimension, which refers to the extent that individuals accept differences between people as legitimate and expected. If the population has a high power distance, then this reflects a focus on hierarchical power and differences in status. Employees from this culture would be accepting of different managerial groups and taking lead from those above them. This naturally influences employee behaviour with employees in a high power distance culture able to accept instruction from managers (Farh, Hackett and Liang, 2007). Farh, Hackett and Liang (2007) evidence this by arguing that power distance impacts upon levels of perceived organisational support and the outcome of employee relationships within the firm. Hofstede (1980) also highlighted the importance of individualism/collectivism and the need to understand the extent to which individuals focus on individual needs or the needs of the group. This is a cultural variable, which impacts upon behaviour within the firm. Further, an additional complexity lies in the international operations of the MNC and a firm will have to deal with different cultures. For example, India is viewed as a collectivist culture compared to the UK, which is more individualistic in nature. This will have natural implications on employee behaviour and the management of relationships within the firm.

 

A second cultural variable refers to cross cultural differences across employees within the MNC. It is important that MNCs are able to develop cross-cultural teams in a manner, which enhances the ability of the firm to integrate innovative thinking with the competitive orientation of the firm. Managers within MNCs have to be able to avoid cultural misunderstandings and adopt a level of cultural sensitivity. Haas and Cummings (2014) argue that due to the multi-layered nature of MNCs there is a need to focus upon person-based differences. The development of cross-cultural teams is often highlighted as being an important condition of competitive performance (Caligiuri and Lundby, 2015). Barner-Rasmussen et al (2013) position cultural skills as a resource, which maximizes organisational human capital. In order to maximize the effective positioning of human capital, managers have to be able to understand the role culture plays in creating an underlying, strong link amongst individuals (Schein, 2012).

第二个文化变量是指跨国公司内部员工的跨文化差异。重要的是,跨国公司能够在一定程度上培养跨文化团队,从而提高企业将创新思维与企业竞争导向相结合的能力。跨国公司的管理者必须能够避免文化误解,并采取一定程度的文化敏感性。HaasCummings(2014)认为,由于跨国公司的多层性质,有必要关注以人为本的差异。跨文化团队的发展往往被强调为竞争绩效的重要条件(CaligiuriLundby, 2015)Barner-Rasmussen等人(2013)将文化技能定位为一种资源,它可以最大化组织的人力资本。为了最大化人力资本的有效定位,管理者必须能够理解文化在创造个人之间潜在的、强有力的联系中所扮演的角色(Schein, 2012)

 

A third cultural variable of consideration is the study of organisational culture (Schein, 2012). Organisational culture refers to the shared values and the inherent norms which exist within the firm (Schein, 2012). Pothukuchi et al (2002) argued that organisational culture could have a negative impact on international business and on the actions of MNCs. Considered to be a mechanism of differentiation; organisational culture is positioned as overseeing and supporting employee behaviour within the MNC. Due to the multi-layered nature of the MNC, Al-Husan, Al-Hussan and Perkins (2014) argue that there is a need to have multilevel human resource management systems in place in order to support different employee groups. This does however raise a challenge with regards to the promotion of consistency while at the same time differentiating on the basis of culture. This is a particular challenge for the MNC where a global, brand image is required amongst the dynamic determinants of employee behaviour within the firm. Sofka et al (2014) argue that for an effective organisational culture to result, MNCs have to be able to focus upon value creation.

 

Cultural variables are a soft consideration, which ultimately have the power to affect employee behaviour within MNCs. Difficulty lies in the intangible nature and the difficulty associated with the measurement of organisational culture (Baird, Hu and Reeve, 2011). Thus, while cultural variables notably are considered to impact upon MNCs and the wider realm of international business, it is difficult to precisely account for difference and this is largely tied up within the power of individuals within the firm. It is important however to utilize frameworks such as those provided by Hofstede (1980) to move towards a more detailed appreciation of culture (Hofstede, 2011).

文化变量是一个软考虑因素,它最终会影响跨国公司的员工行为。困难在于无形的本质和与组织文化测量相关的困难(Baird, HuReeve, 2011)。因此,虽然文化变量被认为对跨国公司和更广泛的国际商业领域产生影响,但很难准确地解释差异,这在很大程度上与公司内部的个人力量有关。然而,重要的是要利用Hofstede(1980)提供的框架,以更详细地欣赏文化(Hofstede, 2011)

 

Aligned to the multi-layered nature of the MNC, culture can also be viewed as having different layers (Steenkamp, 2001). National culture as reviewed in the work of Hofstede (1980: 2011) is one layer but it must be appreciated alongside other elements of culture including more microelements including organisational culture. The study of culture and its impact on international business requires a greater exploration of how different elements of culture interact.

与跨国公司的多层次本质相一致,文化也可以被视为具有不同的层次(Steenkamp, 2001)Hofstede(1980: 2011)的作品中所回顾的民族文化是一个层面,但它必须与其他文化元素一起欣赏,包括更多的微观元素,包括组织文化。文化及其对国际商务的影响的研究需要对文化的不同元素如何相互作用进行更大的探索。

 

Managerial and employee behaviour is also influenced by a number of institutional variables. This essay discusses three institutional variables in particular: political, religious and economic. Each institution affects firms differently dependent upon the country of operation. Morgan, Kristensen and Whitley (2001) argue that a multinational firm must be able to organize across institutional devices and this requires an understanding of different economic, political and religious considerations. While increased attention has been directed towards the value of standardized approaches, in reality, adaptation is considered to be the most effective way to deal with different dynamics in the external environment (Teece, 2009).

管理和员工行为也受到一些制度变量的影响。本文主要讨论三个制度变量:政治、宗教和经济。每个机构对公司的影响因经营国家的不同而不同。摩根、克里斯滕森和惠特利(2001)认为,跨国公司必须能够跨机构组织,这需要理解不同的经济、政治和宗教考虑。尽管越来越多的人关注标准化方法的价值,但在现实中,适应被认为是处理外部环境中不同动态的最有效方式(Teece, 2009)

 人力资源Essay怎么写

The political environment is widely considered to influence the environment within which MNCs operate. Luo (2004) highlights the importance of developing a platform built on co-operation between the MNC and the host government. An inclusive, integrated partnership is often positioned as being the most effective platform from which to build relationships. Present within a particular political institution, individuals will align to a particular political identity. A political institution such as the leadership of the Conservative government in the UK has the power to influence the way in which employees and managers behave. Largely, the influence on behaviour is fuelled by regulation and the design of policies and practices. Any new regulation implemented will have a natural effect on behaviour within the firm. Difficulties however arise when change is resisted within the firm and this can often arise through a collection of individuals promoting the status quo within the firm (Hayes, 2007). Offering a different viewpoint to that of Luo (2004), Heikkilä, Brewster and Mattila (2014) argue that while largely political institutions affect the larger operation of the MNC, what is needed is a more micro exploration as to how political conflicts can influence employee behaviour. They, in particular, argue that political conflicts within a given country or amongst individuals within the firm can result in inherent challenges related to the overall effectiveness of human resource management within the firm. From a critical perspective, the work of Heikkilä, Brewster and Mattila (2014) highlights the importance of both a macro and micro exploration of the political institution. Too often the political institution is viewed as having a higher-level influence on the firm.

 

A consideration of religion is needed within any MNC. An internalized look at an individual is needed in order to understand and then manage individuals at work (Hollway, 1991). An analysis of employee behaviour promotes an understanding of individuals and, importantly what makes up that individual. Lund Dean, Fornaciari and McGee (2003) explore the influence of religion on employee behaviour and argue that religion plays a core role in influencing employee behaviour and should therefore be given more consideration than it currently is across the academic community. More specifically, McGhee and Grant (2008) explore the link between religion and work and argue that individuals behaviours interpret their own individual actions through a religious lens. Increasingly, attention has been directed towards the links, which exist between the religious orientation of an individual and their ethical behaviour in the workplace. Playing an important role in the global economy, increased attention is directed towards the brand image of MNCs and their responsibility to the wider community. Religion as an institution thus becomes important to consider how this influences the way in which individuals interpret decisions and perhaps behave in an ethical manner due to their religious affiliations. Another consideration related to religion refers to the prominence of diversity and, in particular the levels of diversity MNCs have to deal with. The modern day MNC must be able to manage this diversity and use it to their advantage by promoting difference across the firm within cross-cultural teams.

任何跨国公司都需要考虑宗教因素。为了理解和管理工作中的个体,需要对个体进行内化的观察(Hollway, 1991)。对员工行为的分析促进了对个体的理解,重要的是,是什么构成了个体。Lund Dean, FornaciariMcGee(2003)探讨了宗教对员工行为的影响,并认为宗教在影响员工行为方面起着核心作用,因此应该比目前学术界给予更多的考虑。更具体地说,McGheeGrant(2008)探讨了宗教和工作之间的联系,并认为个人的行为通过宗教的视角解释了他们自己的个人行为。人们越来越注意个人的宗教倾向与其工作场所的道德行为之间存在的联系。跨国公司在全球经济中发挥着重要作用,其品牌形象及其对社会的责任受到越来越多的关注。因此,宗教作为一种制度,考虑它如何影响个人解释决定的方式,以及由于他们的宗教信仰而可能以道德方式行事,就变得很重要。另一个与宗教有关的考虑是突出多样性,特别是跨国公司必须处理的多样性水平。现代的跨国公司必须能够管理这种多样性,并通过在跨文化团队中促进公司内部的差异来利用它的优势。

 

A final institutional variable considered is the role of the economic institution in influencing employee and managerial behaviour. The economic institution captures all institutions that are a player in the economy. This includes everything from competitors, consumers to those providing financial services. Focusing upon one specific economic institution, this essay argues that it is important to focus upon manufacturers and how this particular economic institution influences employee and managerial behaviour. In a global market, which is often positioned as being highly, dynamic and adaptable, there is a need for firms to understand how the actions of manufacturers will influence the behaviour of individuals within the firm. For example, any changes in manufacturing resulting in a change of process within the firm would have a natural influence on employee behaviour and importantly the way in which managers approach change within the firm (Hayes, 2007). Managers need to be closely aligned to manufacturers they are working with and use this to guide an integrated approach to behaviour. Within the economic setting, any economic institution has the power to influence the objectives and future of the firm. A focus on the sustainable future of the firm is required to ensure that if changes in the market exist for example changes to demand and supply, managers must be able to adapt in a timely manner. Economic institutions are thus often positioned as driving flexible and adaptable decision making from managers (Liu, 2009).

 

In conclusion, research into MNCs suggests that they are complex and multi-layered in nature. The role and prominence of MNCs requires attention to be directed towards the individuals, which make up the actions of the firm. As discussed in the essay a number of cultural and institutional variables can be identified as having an influence on the way in which employees and managers behave. A running theme throughout the discussion is the importance of balancing micro level considerations with a higher-level understanding of macro phenomenon. This therefore promotes the need to conduct research at multiple levels within the firm most notably starting with individual employees.

总之,对跨国公司的研究表明,跨国公司在本质上是复杂和多层次的。跨国公司的作用和突出需要注意构成公司行动的个人。正如文章中所讨论的,一些文化和制度变量可以被确定为对员工和管理者的行为方式有影响。贯穿整个讨论的一个主题是平衡微观层面的考虑与宏观现象的更高层次理解的重要性。因此,这就需要在公司内部进行多层次的研究,尤其是从单个员工开始。

 

留学生论文相关专业范文素材资料,尽在本网,可以随时查阅参考。本站也提供多国留学生课程作业写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


此论文免费


如果您有论文代写需求,可以通过下面的方式联系我们
点击联系客服
推荐内容
  • MBA Essay作业:Ad...

    本文是MBA专业的留学生Essay范例,题目是“AdvantagesandDisadvantagesoftheSERVQUALModel(SERVQUAL模型的......

  • MBA Essay怎么写:S...

    ​本文是MBA专业的留学生Essay范例,题目是“SafeguardsAgainstSexualAbuseofFemaleWorkersinMNCs(防止跨国公......

  • MBA essay 模板:T...

    ​本文是MBA专业的留学生论文范例,题目是“TheCustomerSatisfactionModel(顾客满意度模型)”本章将描述因变量顾客满意如何与自变量感知......

  • 人力资源Essay范文翻译:...

    本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是“RecruitmentandRetentionofKnowledgeWorkers(招聘和保留知识型员工)”,专业服......

  • 人力资源Essay结构:Cu...

    ​本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是“CulturalVariablesinMNCs(跨国公司的文化变量)”,国际商业文献强调了全球一体化和日益增多的界......

  • MBA Essay要求:Ov...

    本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是“AReviewofAnti-BullyingandAnti-HarassmentMeasuresinAustrali......