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语境分析在中国的煤炭开采公司和汽车汇编员工的选择参与计划

时间:2016-05-08 17:29来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:Dr Huang Wei 点击:
Abstract 摘要

它的目的是产生对员工参与计划,深入的案例研究,煤炭开采及汽车装配企业反映在工作场所层面的改变劳动关系的程序和制度,劳动力市场紧缺的汇合下,加强法律法规,如劳动合同法,工会活动的集体谈判和青年工人的集体行动。本文包括两个主要部分:首先,它回顾了执政的工人的各种方案的法律,法规和政策文件的参与,以描绘工人的法定框架“对于中国的企业参与;第二,它也包括了四个案例的公司员工参与的实证研究。本文发现,本案公司的广度和员工参与实践的深度在很大程度上是受管理的承诺。因此,在这些公司员工的参与仅限于信息和咨询。证据,然而,表明,在组织内部的车间级员工的参与深度明显增强,主要专注于班组的工资和奖金分配的科目。This paper analyses the contextual determinants of employee participation schemes in China’s enterprises. It focuses on the breadth and the depth of employee participation schemes. It aims to produce in-depth case studies on employee participation schemes in coal mining and automotive assembly enterprises to reflect the changing labour relations processes and institutions at the workplace level, under the confluences of labour market shortage, strengthened legal regulation such as Labour Contract Law, trade unions campaigns for collective bargaining and young workers' collective actions. This paper encompasses two main parts: first, it reviews the legal, regulatory and policy documents governing various schemes of workers’ participation, in order to depict a statutory framework of workers’ participation for China’s enterprises; second, it includes empirical research on employee participation in four case companies. This paper finds out that the breadth and depth of employee participation practices in the case companies were largely subject to the commitments of management. As a consequence, employee participation in these companies was confined to information and consultation. The evidence, however, showed that the depth of employee involvement at the shop floor level within the organisation was enhanced, with the main focus on the subjects of wages and bonus distribution in teams and groups.  

1 Research Background and Objectives 研究背景和目标

The developed economies have a considerable history of effective employee participation models, albeit with different trajectories and outcomes(Zoghi and Mohr, 2011, Dundon et al., 2006). The study of employee participation, which usually means various mechanisms for information sharing and consultation at the workplace (Freeman and Medoff, 1984, Wilkinson and Fay, 2011), has formed a separate track of research from traditional collective bargaining, which has a long history dating back to 19th century(Chamberlain, 1944, Clegg, 1976). In China, however, collective bargaining is relatively new novelty, while the notion of democratic management, embedded in workers’ (representatives) council, has been widely practiced in the traditional state-owned enterprises. As Chinese workplaces try to cope with challenges of market-based employment relations, China has embraced idea of collective bargaining, while expanding institutional mechanisms under the overarching term of ‘democratic management’ to include the mechanisms of information sharing (that is, transparency management), workers’ evaluation of managers’ performance, workers’ (representatives) council, employee representation at the management and supervisory board level , as well as collective bargaining. There are some anecdotal studies which look at one or two components of the complex web of industrial relations institutions at the workplace (Warner and Ng, 1999, Clarke et al., 2004, Clarke, 2005, Ding et al., 2002, Ng and Warner, 1998, White, 1996, Lee, 2009). Nevertheless, to date, there is little systematic, in-depth case study which try to look at how each component of old and new IR institutions actually function, what factors enable these institutions to function properly and what outcomes these IR institutions at the workplace actually process in both state and non-state sectors. Some papers published in Chinese academic journals quantitatively examined the link between employee participation schemes and outcomes, such as, organisational performance, employee satisfaction, budge management performance, employee loyalty, strategic decision making, etc. (Liu, 2010, Wu and Chen, 2010, Qian and Yu, 2007, Xie et al., 2010, Li and Hu, 2006). Zhang and his colleagues (2002) explored the relationship between the antecedence of employee involvement, that is, organisational climate, and employee involvement, by analysing the data obtained from questionnaires distributed to 148 enterprises. Zheng and his colleagues (2008) conducted a research on the impact of Trust on employee silence via the methods of interviews and survey. These quantitative studies, however, offer little understanding of the nature, arrangements, processes and outcomes of employee participation in Chinese enterprises. Franzosi (1995) addressed the weakness of regression analysis: ‘as regression results are merely interpreted, not explained, hardly any cumulation of knowledge is obtained’(quoted by Hyman, 2001:206). Some qualitative papers on employee participations schemes have also been published in the Chinese academic journals: for example, employee participation in the start-up(Chen and Chu, 2010), and union’s investigation reports on promotion of information sharing scheme in enterprises (Yi, 2001, Fang, 2000, Liu and Han, 2001). These short papers were very descriptive and did have much theoretical values. To fill in this gap, this paper analyses the contextual determinants of the employee participation schemes in China’s enterprises. It focuses not only on the breadth, but also the depth of employee participation schemes, that is, the extent of influence  
employee participation schemes exert over the decision making. This paper aims to produce in-depth case studies on employee participation schemes in coal mining and automotive assembly enterprises to reflect the changing labour relations processes and institutions at the workplace level, under the confluences of labour market shortage, strengthened legal regulation such as Labour Contract Law, trade unions campaigns for collective bargaining and young workers' collective actions. As a part of the research, we looks at how companies are adapting their HRM strategies and practices, as well as changing combination of different elements of flexibility (numerical, functional and wage) in response to the above challenges, and also how domestic management schemes at the workplace are channeling those HRM changes and affecting different combination of flexibility at the workplace. The structure of this paper encompasses two main parts: first, it reviews the legal, regulatory and policy documents governing various schemes of workers’ participation, in order to depict a statutory framework of workers’ participation for China’s enterprises; second, it includes empirical research on employee participation in four case companies, including two coal mining group companies and two assemblers within one automotive group company. The objectives of empirical research are to explore: . Environmental determinants in shaping, considering both internal organizational context and external legal environment; . Strategic choices/response of the key actors (party, management, trade unions and employees) to environmental determinants in shaping the organisation’s approach to introduce and implement employee participation; . Practical operation of employee participation arrangements under the term of “democratic management” including collective bargaining as well and other indirect employee participation schemes, including the respective roles and approaches of the key actors and the relationships between them, the issues most commonly dealt with and the nature of the employee participation processes used; and . Outcomes of employee participation practices in terms of quality of management decision-making, employee commitment, employment relations climate and organizational effectiveness. . More specifically, the changing HRM strategies and practices as well as combination of different elements of flexibility (numerical, functional and wage), especially after 2008, and whey they made these changes; . How domestic management schemes at the workplace have been channeling those HRM changes and affecting different combination of flexibility at the workplace.  


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