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申请美国硕士mba论文:文徵明的社会艺术探究

时间:2016-06-03 08:50来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:
1. Introduction介绍
 
众所周知,文徵明作为中国明清时期是最杰出的画家和书法家。在文徵明领导的引领下,在晚明的时期吴派近获得中国画的整个领域。华南美丽的景色吸引着他,使他感到无比自豪。对于他来说,美丽的风景可以带给他无尽的灵感和想象(爱德华兹,2006)。说到文徵明氏在书法上的成就,他不仅从它的前辈和老师受益匪浅,也从明朱、严塘、崇王,等保持密切的友谊。此外,他们互相学习书法技巧,这不仅有助于他们在很大程度上保持一致的思想,而且在一定程度上还形成了一定的审美情趣。也就是说,友谊是他们艺术和进步的重要条件。
It is known to us all that Zhengming Wen is regarded as one of the most outstanding painters and calligraphers in China’s Ming period. Under the auspices of the leading of Zhengming Wen, Wu School nearly obtained the command of the whole field of China painting in the late Ming Dynasty. The beautiful scenery of southern China where always attracts him makes him feel extremely proud. For him, the beautiful landscapes can always bring him endless inspiration and imagination (Edwards, 2006). When it comes to Zhengming wen’s achievements in calligraphy, he not only benefited from its predecessors or the teacher, but also from Yunming Zhu,Yan Tang,Chong Wang, who keep closely friendship with him. Besides, they learn from each other in calligraphy skills, which not only helps them largely keep consistency of ideas, but also form the certain aesthetic taste to some extent. In other words, friendship is an important condition for their artistic and improvement.
This paper will give a brief introduction to Zhengming Wen. And then, it will put its emphasis on his artistic style, great breakthroughs he achieved and influence on China art. In the last, it will be concluded that Zhengming Wen is indeed one of the most distinguished artists of the Ming Dynasty.

2. Zhengming Wen’s philosophy of life and ideologies of making friends and acquaintances文徵明的让朋友和熟人的生活和思想哲学

Zhengming Wen was born in a courtier family, whose early life was not quite successfully. Since he grew 53 years old, he was still unable to acquire any fame, which had a big influence on his philosophy of life. As a matter of fact, Zhengming Wen was a very persistent defender of Confucianism. It was said that he was firmly opposed to the dark politics of eunuch of the Ming Dynasty. He often expresses this kind of thoughts in his works. On the other hand, Zhengming Wen had a caring heart. He made a lot of epitaphs, biography for the incorruptible government officers, describing in detail in recognition that “Edmonton for the heart, the politic will be for real” (Edwards, 2006). He was aboded by Confucian ethics of justice and benefit, and reject buried his father with much money, reflecting ethical performance. In all, his philosophical life can be seen in his performance and works.
To tell the truth, China’s society is completely different from that of other countries. People in China would like to make friends with gifts. "The Gift" and "relationship" are indeed one of the characteristics of Chinese cultures. Generally speaking, it can be seen three obligations in gifts: the obligation to give, the obligation to accept, and the more important is the obligation to return. Only in this way can friends keep long-term relationship at that time.
The paintings of Zhengming Wen are considered to be the social art (Craig Clunas, 2004). During the period of his life, dating was extremely extensive. The communication of arts among friends is conducive to the improvement of his calligraphy. Meanwhile, he established Wu School with friends, such as Zhou Shen, Yan Tang and so on. They made a large quantity of breakthroughs in arts during that time. Wu School had changed the popular pavilion aesthetic since the early Ming Dynasty. Calligraphers of Wu School are relatives, teachers, old friends or close friends, which will nurture each other (Hearn, 2008).
There is a Chinese tradition perspective of art history that Zhengming Wen is a official frustrated artist. By researching the experience of working at the Imperial Academy, it can be emphasized that the ideal of upholding boat is very strong. After the retirement of Zhengming Wen, he chose to go back to Suzhou. Besides, it is found that the reciprocity between southern China two family houses, Huawu Xi and Yuan suggested that patron of arts have money exchanges and friendship relationship between them and further demonstrated the specific context of cultural capital accumulation.  
 
3. The artistic styles of Zhengming Wen文徵明的艺术形式
 
Zhengming Wen is very accomplished in painting, figures, trees, flowers, etc, especially the fine landscapes. For the reason that his teachers were changing in different times, his style also got changed. His early teacher was Zhou Shen(1427, Ming Dynasty); soon after that, he learned from Mengfu Zhao(1254, Ming Dynasty),Meng Wang(1385,Yuan Dynasty),Zhen Wu(1280,Yuan Dynasty).
Landscapes painting style can be divided into two kinds of faces: thick style and fine style. Thick style originates from Zhou Shen, Zhen Wu. This kind of style shows a vigorous drip and is wiped with a dry cracked, which reflects the level and charm in thickness and simplification. In addition, the fine style emulates Mengfu Zhao, Meng Wang, which shows dense scenery, less space depth. Besides, its modeling is angular and slightly deformed. Although the style is slightly jerky, plain can still be seen in mastery. The color is often heavily green, shallowly purple and elegant. Stable composition and emotional appeal are the generally characteristics of the art (Mok ﹠ Harold, 2009). Even as for the natural and unrestrained ink spectacular magnificent momentum, it also does not lose rigorous statues. There are still quiet and elegant temperaments in the extensive, which is considered to have the fun of fluttering and elegance. The load landscape belongs to the fine qualities of painting, with decorative, lyrical flavor and the characteristic of plain, which laid basic foundation to the characteristics of Wu. After middle times, whether green or ink, Zhengming Wen all gave priority with exquisitely, forming a typical fine appearance.
Frankly speaking, the artistic styles can be divided into 2 kinds according to the course of learning: the first is his early life. Zhengming began to learn all various arts since he was a child. On one hand, he absorbed the understanding; on the other hand he tried to create in his own way. At that time, he learned “artistic conception” that can be taught only in painting from Zhou Shen. The so-called “artistic conception” means the ability to construct a scene. The second is his late life. After 1523, during the four-year stay in Beijing, Zhengming Wen was not lucky enough. He did not realize political ambitions. So the poem in painting suggested a vision for the southern China. After 1954, his paintings apparently lost the original edge glare. He became steady and more imaginative, openly expressing his feelings. For some subtle reasons, dazzling style was replaced. The most parts of the robustness of paintings came from the realization of space of Song Dynasty paintings.
 
4. The great breakthroughs Zhengming Wen had achieved in the artistic attainments aspect文徵明在艺术造诣方面取得伟大的突破
 
Indeed, Zhengming Wen was a versatile artist. But his greatest achievement is his painting. He extensively absorbed and learned techniques from predecessors and formed a variety if art styles depended on the subject matter. In revealing the beauty of the natural objects and combining landscape, flowers and bird painting art with valentine and pursuing lyrical creation of ink paste, they have made great achievements (Murashige, 2005). He created elegance, beautifulness, brightness and freshness of art features, reversing the Chinese landscape painting from the natural tendency of the craziness and voidness as well as creating a new generation of wind.
He coordinated the rigorous compositional style and layed the foundation to the next generations. Wu School explored the formation for the main aim, doing a lot of useful exploration in the form. Zhengming Wen took the ancient paintings, bolded innovation and strengthened the sense of form into careful consideration, making the screen shape integrated (Dist, 2004). Local parts kept appropriate relationships with local parts. Besides, he made a summary of previous work. He systematically summed up the composition of the experience of their predecessors so that the next generations could follow his summarized route and it is easy to reach a new height for them.
Zhengming Wen led genre painting in a nuanced fine expression. Fine style belongs to the most representative expression of Zhengming Wen, reflecting in many of his works. Most of his works are famous for the rigorous and meticulous of the description of scenery of nature and life. Those works provide him with play space for performance. His brushstrokes are slender, finely divided form. Additionally, he was good at specializing in carving. Although the physique of figures looks like thin, they are all spirit-filled. He changed the coloring method of traditional richly nuanced green landscape into the method of literati elegant taste, applying green colors and not concealing the ink with ink-based. The fine style of picture with pale and clear expressions is popular among scholars
So that fine style gradually dominated the painting of Wu School. The influence of Zhengming Wen also exceeded that of Zhou Shen. Later, the painters of Wu School also absorbed this style into their work practices. That is to say, this kind of style has become the mainstream of Wu School.


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