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MBA Essay范文:组织战略、文化和领导 Organisational Strategy, Culture and

时间:2018-02-05 14:00来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
本文是留学生MBA Essay范文,主要内容是针对当今二十一世纪的企业所面临的竞争状况提出组织战略、文化和领导等方面的要求。
商业组织未来的挑战将与过去相比有很多不同之处。当今二十一世纪的组织正在采取不同的做事方式来保持竞争或击败对手。在这种快速波动的经济环境中,寻找市场机会并为任何组织建立竞争优势是至关重要的,它需要大量的执行时间和努力。为了确保公司的可持续增长,任何组织的领导人应该在战略战术上满足需要的计划和希望在长期客户和增加股东价值。
在这种情况下,现代组织中的领导力是在这种充满活力的社会和文化环境中的挑战。组织机能的方法是了解自己应该做什么以及不辜负客户的期望和长期繁荣的能力。,一个组织的历史和文化观点对于理解商业环境中的机会和威胁至关重要。因此,很明显,组织的文化是组织战略和实施的中心论题。
为了确保成功的战略制定、实施和评估/测量,在组织内需要合适的人才。这就是该组织的领导层得心应手的地方。给员工一个目标,引导他们心甘情愿地工作,创造一种重要和拥有的感觉,这对于推动组织朝着超级目标前进是非常重要的。因此,很明显,组织中的领导对于组织发展和变革是至关重要的,以实现战略目标。”战略领导能力是塑造组织决策和提供高价值加班的能力,不仅是个人的,而且是组织中其他人的激励和管理。
 
Introduction 简介
Future challenges for business organisation will vary in so many ways compared to the past. Organisations in this 21st century are working on different ways of doing things to stay in the competition or beat it. In this fast moving and fluctuating economic environment, finding market opportunities and developing a competitive edge for any organisation is critical and it involves lots of executive time and effort. To ensure sustainable growth for any company, the leaders of any organisation should plan strategically and tactically to meet the needs and wants of the customer in the long run and increase the shareholder value.
 
In this context, leadership in modern organisations is a challenge in this dynamic social and cultural environment. As Elkin(2007) describes, strategies for organisational wellbeing is their ability to understand what should be done today and tomorrow to live up to customer expectations and prosper in the long run. Jonson et al (2008) argue that historical and cultural perspectives of an organisation are vital to understand the opportunities and the threats in the business environment. So, it is clear that the culture of an organisation is the central thesis of organisational strategy and implementation.
 
To ensure successful Strategy formulation, implementation and the evaluation/measurement, need right talent within the organisation. This is where leadership of the organisation comes handy. Giving employees a purpose, directing them willingly to it and creating a feeling of importance and ownership is very important to drive the organisation towards the super ordinate goal. Therefore, it is evident that leadership in an organisation is vital in organisational development and change to achieve strategic objectives. "Strategic leadership is the ability to shape the organisation's decisions and deliver high value overtime, not only personally but also inspiring and managing others in the organisation." - Lynch R (2009: 9)
 
Lynch's clearly state about delivering high value or increasing shareholder value, ensuring individual and team performance in a stressed atmosphere where the change is the name of the game plan. Therefore, the author of this paper attempts to understand the concepts of organisational strategy, leadership and culture and how each of these concepts and theories can be applied in a practical scenario. Specifically, the author attempts to understand and clarify how organisational culture influence leaders in forming and performing organisational strategies.
 
Organisational Strategy 
 
"Strategy is the direction and scope of an organisation over the long term, which achieves advantage in a changing environment through its configuration of resources and competences with the aim of fulfilling stakeholder expectations" - Johnson et al (2008: pg 3)
 
In simple term literature describes strategy as a long term plan, a course of action to achieve competitive advantage, a path to get from where they are to where they want to be. Elkin (2007) describes strategy as a process of positioning an organisation in its environment to achieve and sustain competitive advantage profitably. Whereas, McGee et al (2005) in their chapter on the concept of strategy, discussing Chandler's (1963) definition on strategy concludes that it as the determination of basic long -term goal and objectives, and the action plan and the allocation of resources to achieve them. Mintzberg (1994) defines strategy as a set of interrelated decisions to achieve articulated results and Appelbaum (1991:pg.41) definition characterises strategy:
 
"As a coherent grouping of actions intended to gain distinct advantage over competition"
 
Why strategy
 
To achieve business stability and growth in this competitive business environment, even a sole trade organisation cannot do things on an adhoc basis. The Pereto Principle (80 - 20 rule) applies to products, customers and markets as well. Therefore, the leaders should plan to invest in 20% value adding markets. This requires logical and creative thinking in place and some extra effort from leaders. According to Jonson et al (2008), Elkin (2007) and Juran (1994), to ensure sustainable growth and to enhance shareholder value, today's organisation should have a long term direction, and a course of action to bridge the competition.
 
Companies who make occasional improvements at a pedestrian pace cannot possibly hope to keep up with their competitors; they need to set ambitious goals - Juran (1994.pg 48)
 
Saying this Juran (1994) further emphasises the need for set goals to keep up with their competitors. Lafley ( 2009), chairman Procter & Gamble (P & G) says that they are purpose driven and values and principle led, he further state that is why they could navigate through two world wars, regional, local wars, periodic panics and recessions. Having formulated five main strategies (Product, Operations, social responsibility, employees, stakeholders - www.pg.com) for P&G, they emphasis the need for a long term direction for survival and sustainable growth and is a living example for a strategy driven organisation.
 
Basic Dynamics of Strategy
 
"Every organisation has to manage its strategies in main three areas;
 
The organisation's internal resources;
The external environment within which the organisation operates;
The organisation's ability to add value to what it does. Lynch R ( 2009:52)
And further, he describes five key elements of strategy which are needed for value addition and create the competitive edge over competitors; those are sustainability, process, competitive advantage, the exploitation of linkages between the organisation and the environment, vision. McGee et al (2005) introduces main three factors that control organisational plans, decisions and actions. In his model of basic dynamics in strategy, he explains that goals are derived considering external environment [PESTEL, Five forces Model (Porter, 1980)] and resources that an organisation has.
 
Strategy formulation, execution and evaluation are highly integrated with organisations external and internal environments. Johnson et al (2008) also takes kind of similar approach and believes them as basic dynamic of organisational strategy.
 
Leadership
 
"Leadership is fundamental aspect of strategic management and paramount in strategy implementation" - Sherman .et al (2007:pg.167)
 
Leadership is the ability to influence, motivate individuals and teams to get the contribution towards organisational strategy willingly. (House et al, 1997; Blanchard, 2007). These are the qualities that Nelson Mandela got even after being in the jail for 28 years (www.anc.org.za, New York Times, 1990), Mother Theresa was another example with a great passion to motivate and persuade people for the end state (nobelprice.org). Hughes and Beatty (2005) state that individuals and teams become strategic as they think, act, influence towards sustainable competitive advantage and he further emphasis that Strategic thinking, Strategic acting and strategic influencing are key skills for a leader. As an example, Martin Luther King's "I have a Dream" changed the America's direction as a country in terms of culture, strategy as well as leadership. It is his acumen as a leader, ability to shape decisions to deliver high value which created this atmosphere (Lynch, 2009). When looking at great leaders in the past and the future, it is clear that the self belief, confidence, courage, integrity and being yourself, with skills (Goffee and Jones, 2000) have guaranteed the sustainability as a nation or any formal or informal organisation.
 
Why leadership
 
In most of the organisations in today's business context, interest of employees and employers are not aligned. As success highly depends on human capital readiness, it is leader's responsibility and the ability to get the right commitment from all in the ship.


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