英国人力资源管理MBA Essay:Case study on leadership and HRM-Take Jian

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1.0 Analysis on HRM and leadership of Jianglu Company江陆公司人力资源管理与领导分析
1.1 Blake Mouton leadership theory布莱克·茅顿领导理论
布莱克-茅顿领导理论认为,在企业管理的领导中,往往有一些极端的方式,有些以生产为中心,有些以人为中心(布莱克和茅顿,1964年)。理论指出,生产型领导与人本型领导在一定程度上可以相互融合(Brown,1992)。克莱门特(1994)根据布莱克-茅顿领导理论,将领导方式分为五种基本类型:差领导、俱乐部领导、城市小资产阶级领导、独裁领导和理想领导。其中,俱乐部领导对人的关注较少,对生产的关注较少。独裁的领导者注重生产,而忽视人。Gregoire和Arendt(2014)认为,最理想的领导者非常关心生产和人,在管理过程中,企业的生产需求与个人的需求紧密结合,既能带来生产力的提高,又能带来利润的增加,使员工获得职业成就和满足。Blake Mouton领导理论为企业领导者优化领导风格提供了一个良好的分析框架和方法。本部分以布莱克•茅顿领导理论为基础,分析江陆公司管理层的领导风格,对企业如何优化其领导风格提出建议。
Blake Mouton leadership theory believes that in the leadership of enterprise management, there are often some extreme ways, some take production as the center, or some are people-centered (Blake and Mouton, 1964). The theory points out that the two kinds of production-centered and people-centered leadership can be mutually integrated to certain extent (Brown, 1992). According to Blake Mouton leadership theory, Clement (1994) divides ways of leadership into five basic types: poor leadership, club leadership, urban petty bourgeois leadership, autocratic leadership and ideal leadership. Among them, club leaders pay attention to people and pay less attention to production. Autocratic leaders pay attention to production but ignore people. Gregoire and Arendt (2014) figure that best ideal leaders are very concerned about production and people, in management process, the production needs of enterprises are closely combined with the needs of individuals, which can both bring the increase of productivity and profits, and enable employees to get career achievement and satisfaction. Blake Mouton leadership theory provides a good analytical framework and a way for corporate leaders to optimize leadership styles. This part is based on Blake Mouton leadership theory to analyze the leadership style of Jianglu Company’s management to recommend on how the enterprise optimizes its leadership style. 
1.2 Problems in HRM and leadership of Jianglu Company江陆公司人力资源管理和领导存在的问题
 Jianglu is a medium-sized mechanical assembly plant whose manager is responsible for the strategy formulation and execution of the company, and his daily workflow is based on a list listed various things that he has to deal with every day. Some of the items on the list are what the management of the headquarters requires him to do, and others are what he needs to deal with when there are unusual situations found in his on-site inspection or reported by his subordinates. The first thing he does every day is to review the job reports from the factory supervisors. His factory is working 24 hours a day, and the supervisors of each shift are asked to submit a report at the end of the shift to indicate what has happened during this period. After reading a previous day's report, he will personally decide what measures should be taken for the various problems reflected in the report, requiring the staff to make regular rectification, and if they fail to meet his requirements, he will take a fine, dismissal or other punitive measures. He almost does not listen to the staff’s excuse and opinion, he believes that only strong management measures can enable employees to complete their work on time. In addition, he often goes to the front line to inspect to find problems at work, he often directly order the front-line staff, which makes some middle-level staff complain about his leadership over the head of the direct superiors. With the slowdown of China's economy and the increasing emphasis on environmental protection, the enterprise needs to adjust the structure of the product and production process. The headquarters requires the manager to formulate the development plan and strategy for the next five years, the content includes market research, product development, talent introduction and so on, but the manager found himself obviously has no time to take into account the long-term planning work, his working hours are filled with affairs listed in his list that he needs to deal with daily, he needs to optimize his leadership way in order to better complete his own work.
1.3 Analysis
According to Blake Mouton leadership theory, the manager's leadership style belongs to autocratic leadership. He is more concerned about the staff’s work performance and less concerned about the staff, his leadership is a dictatorship style, he rarely listens to what the employees said, all his work goals and motivation take how to improve the work performance as the principle. His leadership ignores what employees need, making the staff have more complain about his management, which is not conducive to improving the enthusiasm of the staff, it also reduces the staff's sense of responsibility for the work, thus the manager needs to spend more energy to urge the employees to improve job performance, which further increases the manager’s burden at work, forming a vicious circle.
Blake Mouton leadership theory hints that to achieve the best way of leadership needs to create a organizational structure with collaborative effect (Brown, 1992). Problems that the manager meets in management are closely related to their organizational structure of the company. They take a straight line in the form of organizational structure, linear enterprise organizational structure refers to the organization and management structure that in an enterprise, a subordinate is only responsible for a higher level management. Its advantages lie in that there is a concise and clear relationship between the upper and lower levels, there is a higher efficiency in decision-making and implementation (Clement, 1994). The disadvantages include that there is non-professional division of labor in the management, management at all levels must be omnipotent managers, managers at all levels have heavy burden, when they are in a large enterprise, it is difficult to effectively lead and manage the staff (Brown, 1992). In the above-mentioned case, the factory has adopted a linear organizational structure, because there is no good professional division of labor, so the manager needs to deal with a lot of things, it is unable for him to do all things well, especially for his own work, he fail to have not enough energy to do it well.
Blake Mouton leadership theory comments that not to believe staff and to manage staff by only supervision towards staff is wrong (Gregoire and Arendt, 2014). The manager in the case does not trust the employees, he does everything personally, and he does a lot which do not belong to his own work. According to the manager's position in the organization, the manager is a senior manager, the rise and fall of the organization depends on their analysis on the environment, as well as their decision-making of goals and resource utilization decision-making. In accordance with the responsibility of the manager, he should belong to the decision-making commander with the power to directly transfer subordinates and arrange a variety of resources. He should first of all does his own work well, that is, he should do a good job of corporate strategic planning, personnel arrangements and coordination of staff to work for the success of the company, and he should not spend too much time and energy on the specific work, but allocate this part of work to other middle and grassroots management.
2.0 UrPhone4Everything case
2.1 Importance of human resources management and leadership
With the advent of the knowledge economy era and the increasingly fierce international competition, talents have become a key factor for the development of enterprises, enterprises with high - quality talents are able to have a strong competition (Kaufman, 2014). Therefore, modern enterprises must pay attention to the management and utilization of human resources to optimize enterprises’ human resources management system, so as to achieve sustained and healthy development of the enterprises (Kaufman, 2015). Enhancing leadership of management is an important part of human resource management (Hoch and Dulebohn, 2013). Leadership is the ability to inspire team members' enthusiasm and imagination, and it is also the ability to command team members to accomplish their goals (Aga, D. A., Noorderhaven, N. and Vallejo, 2016). Leadership can be described as a combination of behaviors that will motivate team members to achieve goal (Bird and Mendenhall, 2016). In short, leadership will affect whether an enterprise can develop right HRM strategies, whether an enterprise can adhere to the implementation of HRM strategies and policies, HRM is really the key factor playing a positive role in the growth of an enterprise (Hoch and Dulebohn, 2013; Aga,  Noorderhaven and Vallejo, 2016).#p#分页标题#e#
2.2 Deficiencies in HRM of UrPhone4Everything and changes it faces
UrPhone4Everything's strategic goal is to be the market leader in the field of intelligent home control. However, UrPhone4Everything also has deficiencies in the following areas. Firstly, the smart home is the market with a great development potential, UrPhone4Everything relies on its concept and technical advantages to obtain a preliminary success, but in the future, there will be certainly more and more powerful competitors to enter into this market, therefore, for UrPhone4Everything, it should continue to improve their research and development capabilities to ensure its technical advantages in this field, but considering from the current situation, UrPhone4Everything lacks adequate scientific research and technical personnel, which is unfavorable for UrPhone4Everything to ensure their technical advantages. Secondly, intelligent home control is still a blue ocean market, in this industry, there are many competitors with strength, thus UrPhone4Everything should seize the opportunity to quickly establish the brand awareness and image in the industry, while increasing marketing efforts to promote more order production, rather than passively waiting for customers to consult. And UrPhone4Everything currently lacks enough marketing staff, which makes the enterprise fail to implement active sales promotion. Finally, if UrPhone4Everything wants to be the leader in the market, it must meet the needs of different types of consumers. Thus, UrPhone4Everything needs to use marketers to investigate the needs of consumers in each segment markets and rely on the technical staff to upgrade or transform the products to ensure that their products can meet the needs of consumers in different market segments, which is important for the enterprise to expand market share, but judging from the current situation, UrPhone4Everything’s product types are too single, which is a hidden danger for the enterprise.
2.3 Leadership strategy
Through the above analysis, it can be learned that leaders of UrPhone4Everything have deficiencies in the strategic decision-making, and in future, it may face challenges and risks, thus UrPhone4Everything needs to enhance the management’s ability and sense of cohesion of staff, as well as improving the management’s innovation sense and ability. For UrPhone4Everything, it is necessary to enhance the leadership in the following aspects. First of all, it should improve the strategic decision-making capacity of the management and improve the management’s capabilities to design the long-term goals and short-term goals of the enterprise. Then, it should improve the management’s ability of influence, appeal and cohesion of the employees, which can effectively improve the efficiency of decision-making and execution. Finally, it should enhance the innovation capacity of the management, which helps to lead the team to achieve a more efficient survival and development in the rapidly changing, highly uncertain economic environment.
2.4 HR goal and strategy
The above analysis shows the strategic objectives of UrPhone4Everything and the deficiencies it has in human resources management, the following content is the recommendation on HR goals and strategy of UrPhone4Everything in future.
2.4.1 HR goals 
Goal 1: to introduce and nurture the talents needed for the future development of the enterprise, especially R & D personnel and marketing talents;
Goal 2: to improve the enterprise's HRM system by improving management efficiency and controlling management costs;
Goal 3: to promote mutual cooperation and trust among employees to build learning and innovative organization.
2.4.2 HR strategy
First, it should attach importance to the introduction of scientific and technological talents, especially giving priority to staff with unique and advanced technology and ideas in the field of intelligent home control, and it should establish science a technology sector which focuses on intelligent home control upgrades, and research on how to make products better meet all kinds of consumer demand.
Second, it should pay attention to introduction of marketing talents, a marketing department should be set up, by recruitment of brand planning personnel to be responsible for the promotion of brand image of UrPhone4Everything, sales staff will be responsible for the promotion of products of new orders, customer service staff will be responsible for consumer consulting.
Third, according to the different staff positions and what staff contributes to the enterprise, it should take different incentives to stimulate staff’s enthusiasm at work. For instance, the salary for R & D staff should include job wage, scientific and technological achievements reward and stock right; marketing staff should be rewarded by salary and sales percentage, so that employees at all levels can get effective incentives.
Fourth, the organizational structure of the enterprise should be transformed by using a flat organization structure. A flat organization structure can greatly improve the speed of dissemination of information within the organization, which is conducive to the rapid response and decision making of the enterprise to changes in the market to maintain the competitive advantage of the enterprise (Roberts, 2004). In addition, a flat organization structure gives the lower units the full autonomy to be responsible for the results of the production, which helps to improve their sense of responsibility and motivation in their work (Raghuram and Wulf, 2006). Adopting a flat organizational structure helps to reduce redundancy to improve management efficiency and reduce management costs (Roberts, 2004; Raghuram and Wulf, 2006).
Finally, to create a good corporate culture, to encourage and create a mutually communicating and respecting corporate atmosphere among employees help to improve the staff's enthusiasm and loyalty. In addition, it should create a pragmatic innovation, open learning corporate culture to enhance the enterprise’s core competitiveness.
Aga, D. A., Noorderhaven, N. and Vallejo, B. (2016). Transformational leadership and project success: the mediating role of team-building. International Journal of Project Management, 34(5), 806-818. 
Bird, A. and Mendenhall, M. E. (2016). From cross-cultural management to global leadership: Evolution and adaptation. Journal of World Business, 51(1), 115-126. 
Blake, R. R. and Mouton, J. S. (1964). The managerial grid. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.
Brown, A. (1992). Organizational culture: the key to effective leadership and organization development. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 13 (2), 3-6.
Clement, R. W. (1994). Culture, leadership and power: the keys to organizational change. Business Horizons, January-February, 33-39.
Gregoire, M. B. and Arendt, S. W. (2014). Leadership: reflections over the past 100 years. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(5), 10-19.
Hoch, J. E. and Dulebohn, J. H. (2013). Shared leadership in enterprise resource planning and human resource management system implementation. Human Resource Management Review, 23(1), 114-125. 
Kaufman, B. E. (2014). The historical development of American HRM broadly viewed. Human Resource Management Review, 24(3), 196-218.
Kaufman, B. E. (2015). Market competition, HRM, and firm performance: The conventional paradigm critiqued and reformulated. Human Resource Management Review, 25(1), 107-125. 
Raghuram, R. G., and Wulf, J. (2006). The flattening firm: evidence on the changing nature of firm hierarchies from panel data. Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(4), 759-773.
Roberts, J. (2004). The modern firm: organizational design for performance and growth. New York: Oxford University Press.

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