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英国战略管理Strategic Management留学作业

时间:2017-05-19 08:50来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
本文是英国留学生战略管理Strategic Management作业范文,主要内容是研究和分析战略管理的基本理论与相应的作用及意义。
战略管理是人类最重要的活动之一。从人类开始形成社会组织来完成他们不能达到的目标和目标的时候,管理已经是必要的,以确保协调个人的努力。随着社会不断依赖团队的努力,任何组织化的组织都变得庞大,管理者的任务越来越重要和复杂。此后,管理理论已成为管理者管理复合组织的关键。
本文中的理论是,尽管在世界不同地区的一些经理可以取得成功的管理没有管理的基础理论知识,必须明确强调,这些管理人员在他们的日常实践和管理理论,有了更好的管理他们的组织更加专业和有效地实现个人与组织目标的机会。因此,现代组织的管理者应该感谢他们在各自的组织中发挥的重要作用,如果他们要达到既定目标。其次,有必要促进卓越的所有人在组织中,特别是在管理者自己。
 
Introduction 简介
Strategic management is one of the most key human activities. From the time human beings began forming social organizations to accomplish aims and objectives they could not achieve as persons, managing has been necessary to ensure the ordination of individual efforts. As society constantly relied on group effort, and as any organized groups have become large, the task of managers has been increasing in importance and complexity. Henceforth, managerial theory has become crucial in the way managers manage composite organizations.
 
The middle theory of this paper is that although some managers in different parts of the world could have achieved managerial success without having basic theoretical knowledge in management, it has to be clearly emphasized that those managers who have mixed management theory in their day-to-day practice, have had better chances of managing their organizations more professionally and effectively to achieve both individual and organizational objectives. Therefore, managers of modern organizations ought to appreciate the important role they play in their respective organizations if they are to achieve set goals. Secondly, there is need to promote excellence among all persons in organizations, especially among managers themselves.
 
Definition of strategic Management 战略管理的定义
Management is the art, or science, of achieving goals through people. Since managers also manage, management can be interpret to mean accurately making sure people do hat they are supposed to do. Managers are therefore, expected to ensure greater productivity or, using the current terms, continuous improvement more broadly, management is the process of designing and maintain an environment in which persons, working together in groups, efficiently achieve selected aims . In its expanded form, this basic definition means several things. First, as managers, people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. Second, management applies to any kind of organization. Third, management applies to managers at all organizational levels. Fourth, the aim of all managers is the same - to create extra. Finally, managing is concerned with output - this implies efficiency and efficiency.
 
Strategic Management Objectives, Functions, Goals, and Essentiality
Management Objectives
There are fundamentally three management objectives. One objective is ensuring Organizational goals and targets are met with least cost and smallest amount waste.
 
The second objective is looking after health and welfare, and safety of staff. The third purpose is caring the mechanism and resources of the organization, including the human resources.
 
Strategic Management Functions
To understand management, it is imperative that we break it down into five managerial functions, namely, planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.
 
Planning:
Planning involves selecting missions and objectives and the actions to achieve them. It requires managerial, choosing future courses of act from among alternatives. Plans range from overall purposes and objectives to the most detailed actions to be taken. No real plan exists until a decision - a obligation of human and material resources - has been made. In other words, before a decision is made, all that exists is planning study, analysis, or a suggestion; there is no real plan.
 
People working together in groups to achieve some goal must have roles to play. Generally, these roles have to be defined and structured by someone who wants to make sure that people put in in a specific way to group effort.
 
Organizing:
It is that part of management that involves establishing an intentional arrangement of roles for people to fill in an organization. Intentional in that all tasks essential to accomplish goals are assign and assigned to people who can do those best. Indeed, the purpose of an organizational structure is to help in creating an environment for human act. However, designing an organizational structure is not an easy managerial task because many problems are encountered in making structures fit situations, including both refining the kind of jobs that must be done and finding the people to do them. Staffing involves filling, and keeping filled, the positions in the organization structure.
 
Leading:
Leading is the influencing of people so that they will give to organization and group goals; it has to do mostly with the interpersonal aspect of managing. Most important problems to managers arise from people their needs and attitudes, their behavior as individuals and in groups. Hence, effective managers need to be effective leaders. Leading involve motivation,
 
Controlling:
Controlling, for example, budget for expense, is the measure and correct of behavior of subordinates to ensure that events conform to plans. It measures performance against goals and plans, shows where negative deviations exist, and, by putting in motion actions to correct deviation, helps ensure achievement of plans. Even though planning must precede controlling, plans are not self-achieving. Plans guide managers in the use of resources to accomplish specific goals, then activities are checked to determine whether hey conform to the plans. Compelling events to conform to plans means locating the persons who are liable for results that differ from planned action and then taking the required steps to improve performance. Thus, controlling what people do controls organizational outcomes.
 
Coordinating:
Finally, coordination is the essence of manager-ship for achieving synchronization among individual efforts toward the accomplishment of group goals. Each of the managerial functions discussed earlier on is an exercise causative to coordination. Because individuals often interpret similar interests in different ways, and their efforts in the direction of mutual goals do not automatically network with the efforts of others, it, thus, becomes the central task of the manager to reconcile differences in approach, timing, effort, or interest, and to go with individual goals to add to organizational goals.
 
Although these management functions concern the internal environment for performance within an organization, managers must operate in the external environment of an organization as well. Clearly, managers cannot perform their tasks well unless they have an understanding of, and are responsive to, the many elements of the external environment economic, technological, social, political, and ethical factors - that affect their areas of operation.
 
Goals of All Managers
First and prime, the logical and publicly enviable aim of all managers in all kinds of organizations, whether business or non-business, should be a spare. Thus, managers must set up an environment in which people can accomplish group goals with the least amount of time, money, resources, and personal discontent or in which they can achieve as much as possible of a desired goal with existing resources. In a non-business venture such as units of a business, such as an accounting department that are not responsible for total business profits, managers still have goals and should strive to achieve them with the minimum of resources or to accomplish as much as possible with available resources. A manager who achieves such an aim is said to be a strategic manager. The second goal or aim of all managers is that they must be creative.
 
The: Essentiality of Management in Any Organization
Managers are charged with the duty of taking actions that will make it possible for individuals to make their best help to group objectives. Thus, management applies to small and large organizations, to profit and not for-profit enterprises, to industrialized as well as service industries. However, a given situation may differ considerably among various levels in an organization or various types of enterprises. The scope of right held may vary and the types of problems dealt with may be significantly different. All managers obtain results by establishing an environment for effective group endeavor.
 
In addition, all managers carry out managerial functions. However, the time spent for each function may differ. Thus, top-level managers spend more time on planning and organizing than do lower-level managers. Leading, on the other hand, takes a great deal of time for first-line supervisors. The distinction in the amount of time spent on controlling varies only slightly for managers at various levels. The manager is, therefore, the dynamic, life-giving element in every business. Without the leadership of the manager, resources of production remain mere resources and never become production. In a aggressive economy, the quality and performance of the managers determine the success of a business, indeed, they establish its survival.


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