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Case Study范文:Entrepreneur Case Study - Larry Page

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-09-02 09:25:41 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Case Study范文-企业家案例研究-拉里·佩奇。本文是一篇留学生Case Study案例研究范文,主要内容是讲述《谷歌人:谷歌创始人拉里·佩奇和谢尔盖·布林的智慧内幕》由理查德·L·勃兰特撰写,是一本关于谷歌创始人内部工作的指南。勃兰特研究了谷歌联合创始人劳伦斯·佩奇和谢尔盖·布林在发展和随后的成功过程中的关键特征。谷歌人在斯坦福大学读研究生时探索了他们创业的开始,并克服了他们在建立帝国时遇到的障碍。佩奇以科学和学术为导向,拥有密歇根大学工程学士学位和计算机科学硕士学位。在斯坦福大学攻读博士期间,他开发了BackRub,这是PageRank的前身。PageRank是一种复杂的算法,根据反向链接或指向另一个网站的网站链接的数量和质量对网站进行分析和排序。PageRank类似于研究中使用的引文,其中引用的参考源通常意味着它提供了最相关的信息,并被证明对研究人员最有用。凭借太阳微系统联合创始人安迪·贝奇托尔斯海姆100000.00美元的初始资金,佩奇和布林得以在1998年推出谷歌。拉里·佩奇作为产品总裁,是公司未来方向的主要思考者,在关键的招聘决策中占有重要地位。他雄心勃勃,但务实,有条不紊,但非传统,他坚定地致力于维护道德义务的用户。佩奇把谷歌培育成了一个成功的全球企业巨头。在佩奇这样的领导者的领导下,谷歌取得了巨大的成功,并正在改变现代产业,包括计算机硬件和软件、电信、出版、广播和娱乐。下面就一起通过Case Study范文的全部内容来了解下案例分析Case Study怎么写。

Case Study范文

The Google Guys: Inside the Brilliant Minds of Google Founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin by Richard L. Brandt is a guidebook to the inner workings of Google's founders. Brandt examines the key characteristics that has led Google co-founders, Lawrence Page and Sergey Brin through their progression and subsequent success. The Google Guys explores the beginning of their venture while they were graduate students at Stanford University and through the obstacles that they encountered as they built their empire. Page is scientifically and academically oriented with an undergraduate degree in engineering from the University of Michigan and a Master of Science in computer science. During his doctoral studies at Stanford, he developed BackRub which was the antecedent of PageRank, a complex algorithm that analyses and ranks websites based on quantity and quality of backlinks or website links to another website. PageRank is analogous to citations used in research where a reference source that is cited often means that it provided the most relevant information and proved to be the most useful to researchers. With the initial funding of $100,000.00 from Sun Microsystem’s co-founder Andy Bechtolsheim, Page and Brin were able to launch Google in 1998. Larry Page as President of Products is the primary thinker of the company’s future direction and weighs in heavily on key hiring decisions. He is ambitious yet pragmatic, methodical yet unconventional and he is firmly dedicated to maintaining an ethical obligation to the users. Page has nurtured Google into a successful global corporate giant. With a leader like Page at its helm, Google has been propelled into immense success and has been transforming modern industries, including computer hardware and software, telecommunications, publishing, broadcasting and entertainment.
Characteristic Traits of a Successful Entrepreneur 成功企业家的特征
 Lawrence Page can attribute his success to a combination of his robust academic background, intellectual acuity, and unconventional approach to business. From his early years at Stanford University through the current times, Page has been consistently ambitious, pragmatic, methodical, unconventional, and dedicated to ethical obligation. Many of his characteristic traits are deeply rooted and are implemented in many aspects of his business ventures including Google.
劳伦斯·佩奇将自己的成功归因于他扎实的学术背景、敏锐的智力和非传统的商业方法。从早年在斯坦福大学到现在,佩奇一直野心勃勃、务实、有条不紊、非传统,并致力于履行道德义务。他的许多特征根深蒂固,并在包括谷歌在内的商业企业的许多方面得到了体现。
Page has always been ambitious and passionate about his mission. He and his business partner and college classmate, Sergey Brin met when they were graduate students at Stanford University. Although they were inexperienced in the field of business, they were driven to bring their dreams to fruition through hardwork, perseverance, as well as, with their strong computer science skills. Their ambition of grandeur was to build the world’s greatest library by indexing the world’s books and creating a digital library that would be readily available and accessible to anyone who had access to the internet (Brandt 2011, p.161). Google even began the daunting task of operating on Chinese soil despite censorship from the Chinese government and backlash from the general public, activist groups, and the media. They rationalized this decision because it would benefit the Chinese people and expose them to the idea that other information exists on the internet and that their government is deliberately preventing them from it. Page and his team are proponents of transparency of information for the masses and they were willing to intrude into perilous territory to achieve it. Another of Page’s ambitious ventures is when Google dabbled with the idea of providing internet for entire cities, beginning with San Francisco but plans were terminated due to political and telecommunications company opposition (Brandt 2011, p.210). Google has had setbacks in many of their projects due to copyright or various other political or corporate obstacles but this never barred them from pursuing their vision and they continued pushing forward with unabated intensity.
佩奇一直雄心勃勃,对自己的使命充满激情。他和他的商业伙伴、大学同学谢尔盖·布林是在斯坦福大学读研究生时认识的。虽然他们在商业领域缺乏经验,但他们通过努力、毅力以及强大的计算机科学技能实现了梦想。他们宏伟的目标是建立世界上最大的图书馆,为世界上的书籍编制索引,并创建一个数字图书馆,任何人都可以随时访问互联网。尽管受到中国政府的审查以及公众、维权组织和媒体的强烈反对,谷歌甚至开始了在中国领土上运营的艰巨任务。他们为这一决定辩护,因为这将使中国人民受益,并使他们认识到互联网上存在其他信息,他们的政府正在故意阻止他们这样做。佩奇和他的团队是大众信息透明度的支持者,他们愿意闯入危险的领域来实现这一目标。佩奇的另一项雄心勃勃的事业是,谷歌从旧金山开始尝试为整个城市提供互联网,但由于政治和电信公司的反对,计划被终止。由于版权或其他各种政治或公司障碍,谷歌在其许多项目中都遇到了挫折,但这从未阻止他们追求自己的愿景,他们继续以有增无减的力度向前推进。
Larry Page made business decisions based on data and he takes a scientific approach to problem solving. He is a firm believer that more information provided for analysis yields better tools for decision making. Page was born into an intellectual and technologically adept family and had an extensive background in computer science and this placed him at an advantageous position. He was especially analytical and he applied this to his business approach and expected no less from his employees (Sergey Brin and Larry Page | Lemelson, 2020). Page and Brin also favoured head hunting for employees with similar ideals and ethics at their alma mater. According to Jennifer Widom, a professor at Stanford University, during the first three years after the conception of Google, a considerable number of Stanford graduates in the database group went to work for Google (Brandt 2011, p.57). Prospective Google employees undergo a rigorous hiring process to ensure that they share a common goal and their skills are aligned with the company’s vision and culture, hence, the founder’s expectations of thorough and complete analysis of ideas proposed. Larry and Sergey wanted Google to thrive and be propelled with the same elevated level of analytical thinking that they themselves possessed. There is unanimous agreement between Google employees including previous CEO Eric Schmidt, that Page and Brin set the bar high and were brutal in their critiques of proposed ideas, projects, and designs (Brandt 2011, p.178).
拉里·佩奇根据数据做出商业决策,他采用科学的方法解决问题。他坚信,为分析提供的更多信息会产生更好的决策工具。佩奇出生在一个知识渊博、技术娴熟的家庭,拥有广泛的计算机科学背景,这使他处于有利地位。他特别善于分析,并将其应用于商业方法,对员工的期望也不亚于此。佩奇和布林还支持在母校寻找具有类似理想和道德观的员工。斯坦福大学教授Jennifer Widom表示,在谷歌诞生后的前三年,数据库组中相当多的斯坦福毕业生前往谷歌工作。未来的谷歌员工将经历一个严格的招聘流程,以确保他们有共同的目标,他们的技能与公司的愿景和文化相一致,因此,创始人期望对提出的想法进行全面彻底的分析。拉里和谢尔盖希望谷歌能够蓬勃发展,并以他们自己拥有的同样高水平的分析思维来推动谷歌的发展。包括前首席执行官埃里克·施密特(Eric Schmidt)在内的谷歌员工一致认为,佩奇和布林对提议的想法、项目和设计提出了很高的要求,并对其进行了残酷的批评。
 Google claims to be an idea machine and the company prides itself on this claim. Google implemented an employee program that allotted time once a week for engineers to work on their own projects or what they deemed important. The purpose of this “twenty percent time” is to allow workers to share new ideas, analyse new projects or join projects they were interested in (Brandt 2011, p.177). Page believed in this program because it offered a variation to the work and encouraged continued, dynamic stimulation which could potentially lead to innovation (Vise, 2007). At the same time, this was beneficial to the company as this may have prevented employees from becoming stagnant in their roles. 
谷歌声称自己是一台创意机器,公司对此感到自豪。谷歌实施了一项员工计划,每周为工程师分配一次时间,让他们从事自己的项目或他们认为重要的工作。“20%时间”的目的是让员工分享新想法、分析新项目或加入他们感兴趣的项目。佩奇相信这项计划,因为它为工作提供了一种变体,并鼓励持续、动态的刺激,这可能会导致创新。同时,这对公司有利,因为这可能会防止员工在其角色上停滞不前。
 Page and his counterpart, Brin are highly intelligent but they did not invent search engines. Their intention was to create a system to search through databases of published research papers but instead, they stumbled upon a better way to sift through the data on the internet (Brandt 2011, p.5). Page developed the PageRank system which determines the importance of a website by the link structure or the number of other websites that link it. It also takes into account the quality of websites that link to it and returns results in the order of importance (Page et al., 1999). Prior to PageRank, search engines like AltaVista presented results based on the number of times a searched word appeared on a website (Brandt 2011, p.42). PageRank was an innovative approach that revolutionized search engines and provided an efficient and user-friendly way for people to find relevant results to searches.
佩奇和他的同行布林都非常聪明,但他们并没有发明搜索引擎。他们的意图是创建一个系统来搜索已发表研究论文的数据库,但相反,他们偶然发现了一种更好的方法来筛选互联网上的数据。佩奇开发了PageRank系统,该系统通过链接结构或链接它的其他网站的数量来确定网站的重要性。它还考虑了链接到它的网站的质量,并按重要性顺序返回结果。在PageRank之前,AltaVista等搜索引擎根据搜索词出现在网站上的次数给出结果。PageRank是一种创新的方法,它彻底改变了搜索引擎,为人们找到与搜索相关的结果提供了一种高效且用户友好的方式。
 Page is a sensible entrepreneur.  This is an imperative trait to have in business and it started when he began this venture at Stanford and he and Brin worked with a limited budget. At that time, they had to be conscious of their spending but they continued to maintain consistent frugality as they grew their empire. Even with their immense success, Page continues to be cost conscious and as a company, Google does not buy the newest of computers, they utilize off the shelf PCs that they can modify to give them the most computing power per dollar (Brandt 2011, pp.175, 194). Google as a company has an enormous amount of resources but Page believes that creating and modifying technology is just as effective as buying new products.
佩奇是一位明智的企业家。这是商业中必须具备的特质,从他在斯坦福开始创业时开始,他和布林的工作预算有限。当时,他们必须意识到自己的支出,但随着帝国的发展,他们继续保持一贯的节俭。即使取得了巨大的成功,佩奇仍然具有成本意识,作为一家公司,谷歌并不购买最新的电脑,他们使用现成的个人电脑,可以对其进行修改,使其每美元的计算能力达到最高水平。作为一家公司,谷歌拥有大量资源,但佩奇认为,创造和修改技术就像购买新产品一样有效。
 Google has had continued success because it is a dynamic company that progresses with the time. Page is methodical but he is not resistant to change and is willing to diversify Google’s business ventures to ensure the company is diversified, competitive and continues to advance in the technology field. Google is known to buy up smaller companies to acquire innovative ideas or technology others may have and Google improves upon it. Google invests in various industries and holds over fifty companies in its portfolio that includes mobile phone applications, blogging services, social networking companies, photo sharing and editing programs, maps, e-mail clients, browsers, cloud storage, automotive companies research and development group for renewable resources and other analytical software to facilitate ease of running a business (Brandt 2011, p.189).
谷歌之所以继续取得成功,是因为它是一家与时俱进的充满活力的公司。佩奇做事有条不紊,但他不抗拒变革,他愿意让谷歌的业务多元化,以确保公司多元化、有竞争力,并在技术领域继续前进。众所周知,谷歌会收购一些较小的公司,以获取其他公司可能拥有的创新想法或技术,而谷歌会在这些想法或技术的基础上进行改进。谷歌投资于多个行业,在其投资组合中拥有50多家公司,包括手机应用程序、博客服务、社交网络公司、照片共享和编辑程序、地图、电子邮件客户端、浏览器、云存储、,汽车公司可再生资源研发小组和其他分析软件,以方便企业运营。
 Page has proven to be an unconventional strategist and he does not adhere to accepted business etiquette. He is elusive and is notorious for being tardy to meetings, habitually changes terms of negotiations and sometimes refuses to meet with other executives or give interviews (Braha, 2018). An executive from another company once said that the Google founders are, “horrible to deal with” and that “their approach is to push you to the point where you will walk away. They’d hold you over a barrel because they had the power to” (Brandt 2011, p.87). Larry Page is thoroughly aware of the power he has over other companies and uses that to his advantage. He maintains his sights on his goals and does not submit to the whims of overs or conform to industry standards and this has kept him in a powerful position and his companies are kept at an advantage.
佩奇已被证明是一个非传统的战略家,他不遵守公认的商业礼仪。他是一个难以捉摸的人,因迟迟不参加会议而臭名昭著,经常改变谈判条件,有时拒绝与其他高管会面或接受采访。另一家公司的一位高管曾表示,谷歌创始人“很难对付”,“他们的做法是把你推到一个地步,让你离开。他们会把你关在一个桶里,因为他们有权力这么做”。拉里·佩奇充分意识到自己对其他公司的影响力,并将其发挥到了自己的优势。他将目光放在自己的目标上,不屈服于别人的奇思妙想,也不符合行业标准,这使他处于强大的地位,他的公司也保持着优势。
 “Don’t be evil” is one of the Google founders' early motto as they wanted to ensure that they maintained the integrity and ethical obligations of their budding company. Larry Page was committed to making sure that Google was a trustworthy company by maintaining the privacy of its users. Because of the amount of data Google collects from its users, it is responsible for protecting user data from hackers, spammers, spies as well as the government (Brandt 2011, p.13). For users to trust and continue to use Google’s services, the company must uphold the responsibility of maintaining user privacy. 
“不要作恶”是谷歌创始人早期的座右铭之一,因为他们希望确保自己保持其新兴公司的诚信和道德义务。拉里·佩奇致力于通过维护用户的隐私来确保谷歌是一家值得信赖的公司。由于谷歌从用户那里收集的数据量很大,它有责任保护用户数据免受黑客、垃圾邮件发送者、间谍以及政府的攻击。为了让用户信任并继续使用谷歌的服务,该公司必须承担维护用户隐私的责任。
 Another of Page and Brin’s philosophy is to “focus on the user and everything else will follow” (Brandt 2011, p.79). When other search engines were taking advantage of the profitability of advertisements, Google focused on small advertisers and kept advertisements relevant to the search results and this set them apart from the other search engine sites. They believed that search engines should not be influenced by financial interest, which would inevitably provide results biased towards the advertisers who paid more (Brandt 2011, p.40). Page believed that the quality of information was more important than receiving a large number of results that matched the search query but with less relevant information presented. Both Larry and Sergey disliked pop-up ads and obnoxious sites and wanted to maintain a simple user interface that was straightforward and easy to use for the masses. To this day, Google maintains that simplicity. Page and Brin built their company to benefit the people and this is shown by their way of testing their new products or services. Instead of creating and perfecting products in secrecy, Google depends on the feedback and opinions of users to improve their products (Brandt 2011, p.195). Utilizing the general public to participate in beta testing was unusual since it was normally a task completed by industry experts. This method allows the company to cater to the actual standards of the users instead of a professional.
佩奇和布林的另一个哲学是“关注用户,其他一切都会随之而来”。当其他搜索引擎利用广告的盈利能力时,谷歌专注于小广告商,并保持广告与搜索结果相关,这使它们与其他搜索引擎网站不同。他们认为,搜索引擎不应受到财务利益的影响,这将不可避免地导致搜索结果偏向于支付更多费用的广告商。佩奇认为,信息的质量比接收大量匹配搜索查询但相关信息较少的结果更重要。拉里和谢尔盖都不喜欢弹出式广告和令人讨厌的网站,并希望保持一个简单的用户界面,简单明了,易于大众使用。直到今天,谷歌仍然保持着这种简单性。佩奇和布林建立他们的公司是为了造福人民,这表现在他们测试新产品或服务的方式上。谷歌没有秘密地创造和完善产品,而是依赖用户的反馈和意见来改进产品。利用公众参与测试是不寻常的,因为这通常是由行业专家完成的任务。这种方法使公司能够迎合用户的实际标准,而不是专业人士。
 Larry Page’s pacesetting leadership style developed as a culmination of a combination of his many personal traits. A pacesetting leader is a high performing head who expects the same performance from everyone in their team (Murray, 2010). Google as a company is known for having high expectations of their employees. As a corporation, Google maintains a vague hierarchy and project managers move around to gain exposure into each area of the company to remain versatile within the company (Brandt 2009, p. 59). Page and Brin are involved in all the important decision-making processes of their company and they set the pace of the projects but they also allow their employees wide berth and plenty of liberties. Because of the standards set by the leaders of the company and their commitment to yield to the intellectual process, they are able to expect the best efforts from their employees and the best outcome for projects. As a leader, Larry Page pushes his employees hard but also rewards them greatly for their achievements.
拉里·佩奇引领潮流的领导风格是他许多个人特质的完美结合。领跑者是一个高绩效的领导者,他期望团队中的每个人都有同样的表现。作为一家公司,谷歌对员工的期望很高。作为一家公司,谷歌保持着模糊的层级结构,项目经理四处奔波,以接触公司的各个领域,从而在公司内保持多才多艺。佩奇和布林参与了公司的所有重要决策过程,他们设定了项目的进度,但他们也让员工有更广阔的空间和更多的自由。由于公司领导制定的标准以及他们对知识过程的承诺,他们能够期望员工做出最大努力,并为项目取得最佳成果。作为一名领导者,拉里·佩奇努力激励员工,但也会对他们的成就给予极大的奖励。
 Larry Page once said, “My parents taught me that many of the great scientists throughout time succeeded because they ignored conventional wisdom and followed their own instinct. I now realize that entrepreneurship is no different. The people who break the current orthodoxy make others uncomfortable. And they are also the ones who change the world.” (Brandt 2011, p228) Page, armed with exceptional intelligence and strict adherence to the wisdom his parents instilled in him has become one of the most powerful and influential entrepreneurs of our time. With the great wealth he has acquired, we can expect that he will continue to make great strides that humankind will continue to benefit from in the future.
拉里·佩奇曾说过:“我的父母教会我,许多伟大的科学家从古到今都取得了成功,因为他们无视传统智慧,遵循自己的本能。我现在意识到创业无异于此。打破当前正统观念的人让别人感到不舒服。他们也是改变世界的人。”佩奇拥有超凡的智慧,并严格遵循父母灌输给他的智慧,他已成为我们这个时代最强大、最有影响力的企业家之一。凭借他获得的巨大财富,我们可以期待他将继续取得巨大进步,人类将继续从中受益。
Stages of Entrepreneurship  创业阶段
 Being an entrepreneur is not an easy role and according to Entrepreneur.com a new entrepreneur encounters eight major challenges before achieving success (Alton, 2016). In The Google Guys, Richard L. Brandt discusses the challenges that Google’s co-founder, Larry Page faced from inception of Google to the challenges that he faces as a successful modern-day businessperson.
企业家认为,成为一名企业家并非易事。一位新企业家在取得成功之前面临八大挑战。在《谷歌伙计》一书中,理查德·勃兰特讨论了谷歌联合创始人拉里·佩奇从谷歌成立到作为一名成功的现代商人所面临的挑战。
 The first major challenge of a new entrepreneur is to make the start-up business the primary focus. "If you are going to dedicate yourself to starting and nurturing a business to success, it is going to be nearly impossible to simultaneously manage another career” (Alton, 2016). Although Larry Page completed his undergraduate and Master of Science in computer science, he discontinued his doctoral course at Stanford University in order to commit his full time into establishing Google. Page wanted to focus his energy on growing his new business (Rogers, 2019). It was important for the founders to dedicate their time into their business in order to show the investors that this was a serious venture. This was a decision that was proven to be valid, given the proportion and strides that Google has made in technology today.
新企业家面临的第一个主要挑战是将创业作为首要重点。“如果你要全身心投入到创业和培育一个成功的企业,那么几乎不可能同时管理另一个职业”。尽管拉里·佩奇完成了计算机科学的本科和硕士学位,但他还是中断了在斯坦福大学的博士课程,以便将全部时间用于创建谷歌。佩奇希望将精力集中在发展新业务上。为了向投资者表明这是一次严肃的冒险,创始人必须将时间投入到自己的业务中。考虑到谷歌在当今技术领域所占的比例和取得的进步,这一决定被证明是有效的。
 Financial challenges are significant obstacles that entrepreneurs face when they begin their enterprise, especially when they are seeking initial investors. "As a new entrepreneur, you will start from scratch, which means you will need to start networking like crazy and think about all possible funding options before you get into one" (Alton, 2016). With Larry and Sergey this was no different, they had to work hard in their search for investors. Their first investor was a Silicon Valley entrepreneur, Andy Bechtolsheim, who was introduced to them by a computer science professor and second investor, David Cheriton. Bechtolsheim provided them with $100,000.00 to begin their venture and other investors soon followed (Strom, 2018). Even after the initial sum of investment, in 1999, Page and Brin began seeking out $25 million in venture capital. With such a large amount of capital they required Google co-founders had to be assertive in their efforts and were willing to concede to give up one fifth of the company’s equity (Brandt 2011, p.49). Larry and Sergey were unrelenting in their terms and managed to receive the funding from many different individual investors and firms. Because of Google’s incredible financial accomplishments, those who invested or believed in their passion and product were rewarded with prosperous wealth.
财务挑战是企业家创业时面临的重大障碍,尤其是在寻找初始投资者时。“作为一名新的企业家,你将从零开始,这意味着你需要疯狂地开始建立人际网络,并在进入其中之前考虑所有可能的融资选项”。对于拉里和谢尔盖来说,这没有什么不同,他们必须努力寻找投资者。他们的第一位投资者是硅谷企业家安迪·贝克托尔斯海姆,他是由一位计算机科学教授和第二位投资者大卫·切里顿介绍给他们的。Bechtolsheim为他们提供了100000.00美元,以开始他们的创业,其他投资者很快跟进。即使在最初的投资总额之后,佩奇和布林也在1999年开始寻求2500万美元的风险投资。有了如此大量的资金,他们要求谷歌的联合创始人必须在努力中保持果断,并愿意放弃公司五分之一的股权。拉里和谢尔盖在他们的条件下不屈不挠,并设法从许多不同的个人投资者和公司获得资金。由于谷歌令人难以置信的财务成就,那些投资或相信自己的激情和产品的人获得了丰厚的财富。
 With the growth and development of Google, the initial team was formed. The need to hire new employees arise and with that comes a new challenge, team building. A cohesive team can be one of the key contributing factors to the success of any business. Page and Brin borrowed a recruiting tactic that Bill Gates used while building Microsoft. They opted to give opportunities to recent college graduates. In addition to their great intellectual value to the company, new graduates are young, career oriented and willing to work long hours for lower salaries (Brandt 2011, p.62). The founders veered away from hiring experienced employees as they believed, they were less likely to be able to break the mould or adjust to their management methods. It is also easier to train and shape the skills of the inexperienced to fit the needs of the company. Page and Brin wanted to staff their business with employees who were compatible with the company and whose skill and passion lined up with their own.
随着谷歌的成长和发展,最初的团队形成了。雇佣新员工的需求出现了,随之而来的是新的挑战,即团队建设。一个有凝聚力的团队可能是任何企业成功的关键因素之一。佩奇和布林借用了比尔·盖茨在创建微软时使用的招聘策略。他们选择给刚毕业的大学生提供机会。除了对公司的巨大智力价值外,应届毕业生还年轻,以职业为导向,愿意长时间工作以获得较低的工资。创始人们不再雇佣有经验的员工,因为他们认为,他们不太可能打破模式或调整管理方法。培训和塑造无经验者的技能也更容易,以适应公司的需要。佩奇和布林想让与公司相容、技能和激情与自己相匹配的员工来管理他们的业务。            
 Every company needs to have firm ground rules to follow. An entrepreneur must know how to maintain a balance between customer satisfaction, the needs of the company, and that of their employees. Larry and Sergey found this balance by giving flexibility to their employees amid the need for results. They also had a novel approach to the work setting by providing a more relaxed and comfortable environment for their young talents. Another example of the company's flexibility is Google’s lenience in allowing pets in the workplace (10 Reasons Google Is One of the Best Employers, 2020). By making sure their employees are happy and comfortable, they are more likely to be productive. According to Greatplacetowork.com, 97% of Google employees are happy to work in the company and this obviously reflects the company’s progression (Working at Google Inc., n.d.).
 每一家公司都需要有严格的基本规则来遵循。企业家必须知道如何在客户满意度、公司需求和员工需求之间保持平衡。拉里和谢尔盖找到了这种平衡,他们在需要结果的情况下给了员工灵活性。他们还采用了一种新颖的工作方式,为年轻人才提供了一个更轻松舒适的环境。该公司灵活性的另一个例子是谷歌允许宠物进入工作场所的宽容态度。通过确保员工快乐舒适,他们更有可能提高工作效率.97%的谷歌员工乐于在公司工作,这显然反映了公司的进步。
 Every company needs a visionary behind it. A new entrepreneur needs to have a clear vision in order to maintain a business plan with concise goals. It is imperative that there are strategies in place to be able to compete with competitors and it takes creativity to show the uniqueness of your enterprise and maintain an edge in the market. Google maintains market competitiveness by continually developing new technologies and the company left its first major competitor behind by creating email clients, map services and various other tools. As great visionaries, Larry and Sergey were able to take advantage of the high visibility of their website and saw revenues increase dramatically when they managed to incorporate ad sales on their platform. Google does not display the most expensive advertisements, they display ads that are relevant to the user and the search results (Brandt 2011, 103). Page and his team believe that they are making a difference in the world with the technologies that they develop or innovate. They were staunch believers of their vision and although they occasionally have to make concessions, they try to adhere as closely to their ethical standards while continuing to progress.
每个公司背后都需要一个有远见的人。一个新的企业家需要有一个清晰的愿景,以保持一个具有简明目标的商业计划。必须制定能够与竞争对手竞争的战略,并且需要创造力来展示企业的独特性并保持市场优势。谷歌通过不断开发新技术来保持市场竞争力,该公司通过创建电子邮件客户端、地图服务和各种其他工具将其第一个主要竞争对手甩在了后面。作为伟大的梦想家,拉里和谢尔盖能够利用其网站的高知名度,当他们设法将广告销售纳入其平台时,收入大幅增加。谷歌不会显示最昂贵的广告,他们会显示与用户和搜索结果相关的广告。佩奇和他的团队相信,他们开发或创新的技术正在改变世界。他们坚定地相信自己的愿景,尽管有时不得不做出让步,但他们在继续进步的同时,尽量坚持自己的道德标准。
 An entrepreneur should excel at making crucial daily decisions that may directly impact the business as well as always be prepared to handle the unknown. Problems within the business can arise at any time and without warning and a business owner should always be ready to face these contingencies. Possible problems can occur due to many reasons such as internal issues with employees, logistical problems, external factors like political or social opposition, competitors, backlash from the masses or with the media. With the growth of the internet, users are always concerned about the protection of their data. Google collects and analyses our data to enhance our experience with their applications and various programs. They regularly face criticism for retaining data but Google justifies this as a necessity to maintain security although, in 2008, they reduced data retention from eighteen months to nine months (Brandt 2011, p.148-9). With Page and Brin as the leaders of Google, the company, as a whole, stands firm in maintaining the integrity and reliability of their company despite any competitive, social, political or governmental opposition. Google has been under close scrutiny especially by federal and global regulators. Armed with a team of lawyers, Google is able to secure loopholes to continue disseminating their technology and is always ready to fight to uphold their vision.
企业家应该善于做出可能直接影响业务的关键日常决策,并时刻准备应对未知情况。企业内部的问题可能会在任何时候、在没有任何警告的情况下出现,企业所有者应该随时准备好面对这些突发事件。可能出现的问题可能是由于许多原因造成的,如员工内部问题、后勤问题、政治或社会反对派等外部因素、竞争对手、群众或媒体的强烈反对。随着互联网的发展,用户始终关注其数据的保护。谷歌收集并分析我们的数据,以增强我们对其应用程序和各种程序的体验。他们经常因保留数据而受到批评,但谷歌认为这是维护安全的必要条件,尽管在2008年,他们将数据保留期从18个月减少到了9个月。佩奇和布林是谷歌的领导者,尽管存在竞争、社会、政治或政府方面的反对,但作为一个整体,谷歌坚定地维护其公司的诚信和可靠性。谷歌一直受到严密审查,尤其是联邦和全球监管机构。有了一个律师团队,谷歌能够确保漏洞,继续传播他们的技术,并随时准备战斗,以维护他们的愿景。
 The final challenge is having to face the loneliness of being at the top of the hierarchy. “Entrepreneurs have to build a path and keep moving forward, without any idea of the direction. It may work or it may not work. Unlike a traditional job, nobody validates your progress” (Jhala, 2019). An entrepreneur should be able to maintain equanimity despite hurdles they may face. They may have to bear the weight and stress of the repercussions of their business actions. If at any point, a business begins to struggle, changes need to be implemented and difficult decisions must be made. Employees may need to be laid off and this affects everyone involved including the person being discharged, their family and the business who may be losing a skilled worker. At one point, Page and Brin had to pare down employee benefits and they received significant disapproval. Google removed the $5000 offer for employees who bought hybrid vehicles, they shut down free meals in certain cafeterias within their complex and they reduced subsidized daycares for their employees which was costing the company $37,000 per child (Brandt 2011, p.66). Although these were difficult decisions for the founders, they had to make the decision that would best benefit their company.
最后一个挑战是必须面对处于最高等级的孤独感。“创业者必须在不知道方向的情况下,开辟一条道路并不断前进。它可能有效,也可能无效。与传统工作不同,没有人会验证你的进步”。企业家应该能够保持冷静,尽管他们可能面临障碍。他们可能不得不承受其商业行为的影响的重量和压力。如果在任何时候,一个企业开始挣扎,需要实施变革,必须做出艰难的决定。员工可能需要被解雇,这会影响到所有相关人员,包括被解雇的人、他们的家人和可能失去熟练工人的企业。有一次,佩奇和布林不得不削减员工福利,他们受到了极大的反对。谷歌取消了为购买混合动力汽车的员工提供的5000美元的优惠,他们关闭了其建筑群内某些自助餐厅的免费用餐,并减少了对员工的日托津贴,这使公司每个孩子的成本达到37000美元。虽然这些对创始人来说是艰难的决定,但他们必须做出对公司最有利的决定。
The Role of Entrepreneurship in an Economy and Society 创业在经济和社会中的作用
 From a behavioural perspective the entrepreneur can be described as creative, innovative and disciplined. Entrepreneurs are exploiters, they identify opportunities that appear in the environment. Then the entrepreneur finds the necessary resources be it natural, human or financial to pursue these opportunities for financial gain. Entrepreneurs are inherently risk takers by starting a new company they are potentially facing loss and failure of the business. The entrepreneur takes calculated risk for the reason that the reward is greater than the potential loss (Dollingir 1995, pp.8-9).
从行为角度来看,企业家可以被描述为具有创造性、创新性和自律性。企业家是剥削者,他们识别环境中出现的机会。然后,企业家会找到必要的资源,无论是自然资源、人力资源还是财务资源,以追求这些财务收益机会。创业者天生就是风险承担者,创办一家新公司时,他们可能面临业务损失和失败。企业家承担计算风险的原因是回报大于潜在损失。
Entrepreneurs are critical to the effective function of the economy. Entrepreneurs play a key role in the development of the economy and they bring about growth, prosperity and transformation. They create markets by combining resources, processes and products in new ways. Some of the world’s most successful economies are entrepreneur-driven. Entrepreneurs create jobs which in turn stimulate the economy. They create wealth and initiate change. Economies are revitalised because of the establishment of new businesses and the jobs that are generated from that. The economy revolves around the production of products and services that create jobs.
企业家对经济的有效运行至关重要。企业家在经济发展中发挥着关键作用,他们带来了增长、繁荣和转型。他们通过以新的方式组合资源、流程和产品来创造市场。世界上一些最成功的经济体都是企业家驱动的。企业家创造就业机会,反过来刺激经济。他们创造财富并引发变革。由于新企业的建立和由此产生的就业机会,经济得以振兴。经济以创造就业机会的产品和服务的生产为中心。
 Throughout history, the traditional provider of work was government organisations and other large enterprises and they have now been replaced by small and medium businesses. In the United States, small and medium sized businesses employ more than 85 percent of the workforce (Friedman 2006, pp.88-90).  Small and medium sized business create jobs whereas large corporations are cutting jobs. These small businesses created by entrepreneurs have been responsible for most of the creation and innovation of products and services across the globe. Some of the products created by entrepreneurs include: vacuum tubes, colour film, Zip’s, computers, Velcro and helicopters.
纵观历史,传统的工作提供者是政府组织和其他大型企业,现在已被中小型企业所取代。在美国,中小企业雇佣了超过85%的劳动力。中小企业创造了就业机会,而大公司却在裁员。这些由企业家创建的小企业负责全球大部分产品和服务的创造和创新。企业家创造的一些产品包括:真空管、彩色胶片、拉链、电脑、魔术贴和直升机。
Throughout eastern Europe, thousands of new entrepreneurs are attempting to alter and restructure liberated communist economies. Examples of this include Cuba and China. Entrepreneurs are penetrating these upholders of communist economies. Corporate entrepreneurship, also known as “intrepreneurship” is key to economic sustainability. Corporate entrepreneurship is a technique for introducing innovative and diversified products and services to an existing business. This is important because corporate entrepreneurship enables investment through the establishment of new businesses within a business. The benefit of this method is that the initial capital is sufficient.
在整个东欧,数千名新企业家正试图改变和重组解放后的共产主义经济。这方面的例子包括古巴和中国。企业家正在渗透这些共产主义经济的支持者。企业创业,也称为“无畏创业”,是经济可持续发展的关键。企业创业是一种将创新和多样化的产品和服务引入现有企业的技术。这一点很重要,因为企业创业通过在企业内建立新企业来实现投资。这种方法的好处是初始资本充足。
The role of entrepreneurship in society is to put in motion the self-efficiency, imagination and potential of individuals in society. Because of entrepreneurship, this production machine is put into action. Individuals who do not have an entrepreneurial orientation are those who are employed by individuals who poses those entrepreneurial skills set. Each are critical to the functioning of society. Entrepreneurs mobilise production resources and this causes the production of products and services which are essential to society. 
创业在社会中的作用是激发社会中个人的自我效能、想象力和潜力。正是因为创业精神,这台生产机器才得以投入使用。没有创业导向的个人是指那些由具备创业技能的个人雇用的人。每一个都对社会的运作至关重要。企业家动员生产资源,这导致生产对社会至关重要的产品和服务。
Conclusion 结论
 Entrepreneurs are essential to the function of the economy and society. They provide a valuable and unique skill set and they have the ability to appropriately allocate resources to maximize the opportunity of profitability. Being an entrepreneur requires a balance of ambition, intellectual prowess and hard work. The traits of an entrepreneur aid them as they navigate their way through the challenges and stages of building a business and in Larry Page’s case, an empire.  Through his ambition and intense propensity for success and the unrelenting convictions that he has abided by throughout his career, Page has transformed the technology industry. He is one of the most powerful and wealthy entrepreneurs of our time and he continues to make a difference in the world today. As laymen, the complexity of his contributions may be out of comprehension but it impacts the daily lives of the majority of the masses. His key traits have been a contributing factor to his success as he has implemented it to strengthen his business and encouraged his company to function with the same intensity to climb high up the technological and business ladder. Despite the challenges that he faced during different stages of business development and growth, Page has always been consistent about his vision.
References 参考文献
Alton, L., 2016. The 8 Biggest Challenges For New Entrepreneurs. [online] Entrepreneur. Available at: [Accessed 3 December 2020].
Barringer, B. and Ireland, R., 2008. Entrepreneurship: Successfully Launching New Ventures. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson, p.412.
Braha, M., 2018. Larry Page: From X to Y. International Journal of Commerce and Finance, [online] 4(2), pp.1-11. Available at: [Accessed 28 November 2020].
Brandt, R., 2011. The Google Guys. New York: Penguin Group USA.
Great Place to Work®. n.d. Working At Google Inc.. [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 December 2020].
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Jhala, G., 2019. Highly Successful Entrepreneurs And Their Encounters With Loneliness.[online] Medium. Available at: [Accessed 3 December 2020].
Lemelson.mit.edu. 2020. Sergey Brin And Larry Page | Lemelson. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 November 2020].
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Case Study总结企业家对经济和社会的功能至关重要。他们提供了一套宝贵而独特的技能,并且能够适当地分配资源,以最大限度地增加盈利机会。作为一名企业家,需要在雄心壮志、才智和努力工作之间取得平衡。企业家的特质有助于他们在创业的挑战和阶段中前行,在拉里·佩奇的案例中,是一个帝国。通过他的雄心壮志和强烈的成功倾向,以及他在整个职业生涯中坚持的不懈信念,佩奇改变了科技行业。Case Study范文中提到他是我们这个时代最强大、最富有的企业家之一,他继续在当今世界上有所作为。作为一个门外汉,他的贡献的复杂性可能是无法理解的,但它影响了大多数群众的日常生活。他的关键品质是他成功的一个重要因素,因为他通过实施这些品质来加强自己的业务,并鼓励自己的公司以同样的强度运作,在技术和业务阶梯上攀登高峰。尽管在业务发展和增长的不同阶段面临挑战,佩奇始终坚持自己的愿景。

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