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澳大利亚coursework范文:定性成本效益分析qualitative cost benefit analysis

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-04-30 14:07:07 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction引言
摩斯曼市是澳大利亚在悉尼的新南威尔士州的一个地区,城市土地面积为90000平方公里,约有27000名公民(澳大利亚统计局,2011年)。莫斯曼湾城市是一个非工业、农业的高级住宅、商业和商业中心,与悉尼奥林匹克城接壤的香港连接悉尼贸易,贸易更加活跃。悉尼共有23个区,其中已与路易斯维尔赫斯特长岛市建立了友好城市关系。莫斯曼城是一个富饶的住宅区,有许多政治人物、大商人、大基金会、大工业家。摩斯曼市是悉尼最受尊敬的市中心,与悉尼和澳大利亚的一些政界人士、商界、文化科学界的高官有着广泛的联系。
Mossman City is a district of Australia New South Wales in Sydney.The urban land area is 90,000 square kilometers, with about 27 thousand citizen  (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011). Mossman Bay City is a city that is a non-industrial, agricultural senior residential, commercial, and business center with Sydney Olympic city bordering Hong Kong is connected to the Sydney trade, trade more active. A total of 23 zones in Sydney, which has been with the Louisville Hearst Chang Island City established a sister city relationship. Mossman City is a rich residential district, home to many political figures, big businessmen, big Foundation, big industrialists. Mossman city is Sydney's most respectable center of the city, with some politicians in Sydney and Australia, business, cultural scientific community dignitaries have extensive contacts.
2013年10月,港务信托公司向公共展览10号航站楼有限公司(Public Display 10 Terminal Ltd)提供了一部分场地方案,该方案由居住养老设施和相关痴呆症日托中心的中头保健私人负责人租赁。该提案涉及对现有建筑进行改造和改造,以供再利用。有些建筑物需要拆除,换成新的建筑物。根据社区的反馈,支持者修改了他们的建议。目前,修改后的方案仅限于中端南砖。两栋木质建筑北侧的中间头不再包含在提案中。港口信托公司打算在北边中部改为绿色。2014年4月,修订后的提案已提交给卫生保健联邦部长,环境保护生物多样性保护法和生物1999(EPBC法)。部长们表示,根据EPBC法案,修改后的提案是“受控操作”,需要评估。(Harbour Trust,2015年)。
In October 2013, the port trust placed on public display 10 terminal Ltd to lease part of the site proposals from Middle Head Healthcare Pty responsible person in the middle of residential aged care facilities and related dementia daycare center. The proposal involves modification and adaptation of existing buildings for reuse. Some buildings need to be demolished, to be replaced with new buildings. Following feedback from the community, supporters revise their recommendations. Currently the amended proposal is limited to Middle Head south brick. Middle Head on the north sides of the two wooden buildings are no longer included in the proposal. Port Trust intends to Middle Head north of the alterations to the green. April 2014, the amended proposal has been referred to Middle Head Healthcare federal Minister of Environmental Protection Biodiversity Conservation Act and biological 1999 (EPBC Act). Ministers expressed that the amended proposal is "controlled operations", according to EPBC Act requires assessment .(Harbour Trust, 2015).
如果这个设施与环境、社会或经济方面的成本和收益平衡相适应,就成为争论的焦点。由于政府非常关注悉尼老年护理中心的床位短缺问题巨大,并且在未来20年内会变得更加严重。If this facility fits the costs and benefits balance on the aspects of environmental, social or economic has become the focus of the debate. Since it greatly concerns the government that the shortage beds of aged care center in Sydney is huge and will become even huger in the next two decades. 
2.0 Cost /benefit analysis
2.1 Environmental Factors
On the aspect of environmental factors, there are several concerns. Is it reasonable to lease the public place to the private organization as for private use or not?Generally, there are three reasons on the aspect of environmental factors. If the barracks will not lease to the private organization for aged care facility, it could have been used for public use, such as park. It will be friendlier to both wild lives and community. One the aspects of wild lives, the rich kinds of wild lives have always been the proud of Australia. If this place could be changed to park, it will provide a much better living condition for wild lives. Meanwhile, if the aged care facility indeed established with about one hundred beds, there will be a lot of related workers, nurses, visitors, etc. being brought to here. It is quit reasonable to expect hundreds of new comers, which will occupy a huge percentage of the total population of Mossman. The small city only have 9 square miles and 27 thousands population. For the small city and the quiet neighborhood of Middle Head, these new comer could be as dangerous as invaders, which seize the limited environment resource such as trees, public spaces, traffic, etc. On the perspective of community, the new comers are invading the public space of the original community. There are quit a lot examples of how dangerous that invading species could bring to the environment. In the following, the harm of this will be illustrated by the example of C. Harfordi and possum. 
Biological introductions have been topical composition by changing the composition and ecology, promoting destroy it eventually could lead to the homogenization of biological diversity in the world, and through the promotion of local residents to increase the size of biological diversity of many habitats change.For example, this complex is the introduction of the Argentine coast wakame seaweed provides a new habitat. At the same time, it increases the local species diversity and richness. Despite its potential ecological impacts may affect many non-native species (NIS) or environmental development in Sydney Harbour, Mossman Australia.
C. Harfordi native to the North Pacific, in California it is one of the most common species of amphipods coastal. So far, this is only described as nonindigenous species in Australia. It was in 1972 in Belize Bay, Sydney Harbour, New South Wales, first discovered in Australia. In addition, C.Harfordi once widespread in Sydney Harbour, from Balmain small to Manly, peak abundance of Belize Bay area. Other representatives of the habitat in the area were investigated did not. In contrast, in its native range, C Harfordi reportedly occurred in Dafeng degrees in a variety of habitats, such as algae, polychaete inner tube, in mussel beds and among the barnacle dead shells. It was found that, in order to achieve more than 20 people per square centimeter between the tube worms and mussels bed 1.4 individuals per square centimeter density. Therefore, this study’s primary objective is to determine the influenceand abundance of different species in Sydney Harbour. C. Harfordi density and the relationship between the amount of oyster beds of sedimentary organic matter. As the density of organic matter and C Harfordi can also relate to the thickness, the thickness of oyster beds Oyster beds has been quantified.
Now the most important thing is to find a humane solution to control "nuisance" Possum, while ensuring the future viability possum population. Relocation has been proven largely unsuccessful and possums moved into the jungle revealed that most of the animals were predatory foxes or unable to establish a new area died of release monitoring, due to the competition from the station opossum. The public can tolerate economic loss or personal security threats, often to their own views of wildlife negative impact, and may even promote nuisance aspects of their lethal control measures to support the coexistence of wildlife and activities. Age, gender and family composition were investigated to determine whether these demographic factors in shaping the attitude of the residents of Mosman opossum played a role  (McAdam,1997). While there is little prospect of a significant effect of these parameters, including notable exception of gender bias inherent freedoms and rights of scale scores compared to women, men. In addition, women are more likely to watch the object animal feelings, and expressed concern about exploitation and cruelty to animals. Recent surveys show that gender perspective, these differences extend to conservation priority, so that women are more to support the efforts of the legislative and wildlife agencies, the protection of animals.
Respondents said that the nearest open space will not affect the frequency of visiting possum nor the possibility to live in the ceiling cavity. However, analysis of attitudes in life closer to the open space of the respondents 'negative experience' scale scores were significantly higher. Similarly, the frequency of access or occupation opossum ceiling cavity is not a dog after dark reportedly spend time outdoors there is a significant effect. However, analysis shows that the attitude of the residents who have dogs, spend time outdoors after dark score scale "negative experience" significantly reduced. These observations suggest that deep-rooted concept, rather than the actual damage is affecting the attitude of Mossmanresidents opossum. Affected stakeholders have conflicting views of wildlife often proved to be the extent of the damage actually caused inconsistencies  (Taylor, Fairfax,  &Suthers, 2013).
Assess respondents' views opossum determine strategies, particularly access to education, to improve relations residents between Mosman and opossums prove useful. For example, although the majority of residents agreed to relocate opossum will meet their needs, people have similar proportions were ambiguous or not opossum demand will be the relocation of the best service. It would appear that the responsible legislative changes prompted the fatal consequences of this control method, whether the information has not reached the wider community members or residents do not care about the welfare and play dead. Although wild revealed in this study suggests that the former is positive valuation advantage, but it is also less likely to expect the residents to understand and meet the 150 meters final rule.#p#分页标题#e#
Therefore, similar to the condition of C Harfordi and opossum issues, though the proposal of building aged care facility has been adjusted to be smaller, the environmental cost is unpredictable. 
2.2 Social factors
About city opossum threat to the statement stressed another potential area for raising awareness. Although many residents believe, possums from respondent cats, dogs and foxes risk significant proportion of this statement were neutral. Similarly, a larger proportions of respondents who believe that the possum is no threat of a car or neutral this statement. Although some studies have shown that predatory dogs, cats and foxes and road kill this information does not seem to reach respondents. In our study, the opossum question one respondent used or not, had a neutral position, should be protected by law, and said, "I suspect possums become a threat, but if it is then I address this issue I will be strongly agree”. The person who took a neutral position to threaten a matter of opinion may be similarly shaken, if the correct information. Who has the upper limit minus the chamber rat many respondents only six have been installed in their backyard possum nesting boxes occupied views on this issue spontaneous show understanding possums box and purpose lacking. What is the opossum box, what would be achieved if it is beneficial? For those who seek it, because the information and opossums box line free readily available and can be transmitted from the local council request, wildlife protection groups and DEC fact table.
Urban wildlife to determine the "information seekers",each requires a different motivation tips four segments. Although freedom of information readily available to only those who are already somewhat knowledgeable passion without any additional incentive to seek such information  (Curley, et al, 2013). Even more encouraging is the result, the outlook for further information most respondents in the "possum nuisance / possums not welcome my property" category welcomed. These results suggest that wildlife managers should take the initiative to undertake the distribution of information to provide the current method does not effectively achieve household interest.
Therefore, considering the huge social pressure will be brought along with the aged care facility, which will bring hundreds of aged people, even sick ones to Middle Head, the negative influence the facility bring to the community is too big. It will break the social balance of the community. 
2.3 Economic factors
Online shopping has been slower than anticipated initial take-up in Australia, but the momentum has increased considerably, which spells shopping belt like Mossman further challenges. Challenges differentiation and / or repositioning combinations shopping experience are maintaining core local services and respond to local needs are becoming more apparent  (Bravo, et al,2015). Military Road in turnover, especially near the intersection spit in the past year has been quite clear, although there are still seems to be a reasonable take-up of available space, including the time limit pop-up windows. Such as monthly Mossman village crafts market alternative shopping experience is still very popular, although it is necessary to re-examine and revitalize the market, in order to ensure its continued popularity.
New South Wales state government has made it very clear that it is more likely to address regionalParliament rather than individual regions, when it comes to its strategic business plan. New South Wales 2021 are pushing the government "to rebuild the economy and restore the quality of service, the transformation of infrastructure, strengthening of the local environment and communities, and to restore accountability in government," the strategic plan of action.
Therefore, though the aged facility will bring a considerable tax income to the local government, the cost is too high. 
3.0 Evaluation
Regional Action Plan (Tools of the country, providing NSW 2012 target more local) is North Beach Mossman issued relevant and North Sydney earlier this year, although the latter Mossman original packet, it is understood, Northern Beaches Mossman program will now be covered  (Carroll, et al, 2014).Independent local government review team, in its consultation papertargets 2036 results, presented regional cooperation and increased capacity with the ability to provide services and infrastructure - resource sharing and shared services. Some people think this is a real alternative to the merger, allow local governments - or strengthening of regional government launched just another layer? Another view is that it provides a framework for future amalgamations of local development.
The challenge facing Mossman, despite SHOROC already in its "Shaping the Future" strategy, a lot of savings and future development of the agenda shared services through a joint contract very effective lobbying, which is a packet Mossman right?There are several issues that need to be solved, including the governance structure of a member of the board of directors advantages of scale, and whether the region will be better together SHOROC and NSROC services. Transportation and land use issues have to promote collaboration and the beach north of Mossman, but it will get better service, if North Sydney and Willoughby were also in the group?
4.0 Conclusion
In conclusion, from the respective of the environment, social and economic, it is not a sound option for the local government to make such decision. From the respective of the environment, pollution and wild animal are both contents of reasons; from the respective of the social, interpersonal relationship is key reason; from the respective of the economic, it is not a choice of the government policy for the decision.  

 

Reference
1. Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011, ‘2011 Census/Mosman’, retrieved on April 29, from<http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/quickstat/SSC11603>
2. Harbour Trust, 2015. ‘LATEST NEWS ON THE PROPOSED RESIDENTIAL AGED-CARE FACILITY AT MIDDLE HEAD’, retrieved on April 29, from<http://www.harbourtrust.gov.au/news/2014/08/04/latest-news-proposed-residential-aged-care-facility-middle-head>
3. McAdam, J 1997, 'CREATING AN IDENTITY: THE BEGINNINGS OF MOSMAN AND AUSTRALIAN LOCAL HISTORY', Journal Of The Royal Australian Historical Society, 83, 2, pp. 153-166, Historical Abstracts with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 29 April 2015.
4. Taylor, M, Fairfax, A, &Suthers, I 2013, 'The Race for Space: Using Acoustic Telemetry to Understand Density-Dependent Emigration and Habitat Selection in a Released Predatory Fish', Reviews In Fisheries Science, 21, 3/4, pp. 276-285, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 29 April 2015.
5. Curley, B, Jordan, A, Figueira, W, & Valenzuela, V 2013, 'A review of the biology and ecology of key fishes targeted by coastal fisheries in south-east Australia: identifying critical knowledge gaps required to improve spatial management', Reviews In Fish Biology & Fisheries, 23, 4, pp. 435-458, Environment Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 29 April 2015.
6. Bravo, G, Márquez, F, Marzinelli, E, Mendez, M, &Bigatti, G 2015, 'Effect of recreational diving on Patagonian rocky reefs', Marine Environmental Research, 104, pp. 31-36, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 29 April 2015.
7. Carroll, G, Slip, D, Jonsen, I, & Harcourt, R 2014, 'Supervised accelerometry analysis can identify prey capture by penguins at sea', Journal Of Experimental Biology, 217, 24, pp. 4295-4302, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 29 April 2015.
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