媒体管理Master Coursework:A study on digital economies: taking B

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-05-30 15:17:52 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction介绍
随着世界经济一体化趋势的深化,世界各个行业,各种企业纷纷参与国际发展,已成为大多数案例的选择,整个传媒业也从事国际化的发展。获得国际成功的企业往往是因为他们具有竞争力的品牌形象,产品,销售渠道或促销策略而在当地市场取得成功,然后他们选择进入国际市场。按照一般逻辑,这些公司将采取自己的过去战略参与国际市场的竞争。然而,现实情况是,市场成功的策略在国际市场上并不一定成功,因为世界上每个地方的消费习惯和偏好都是不同的,并且很难让全球消费者得到同样的认同。一套策略。与通常的制造企业相比,媒体在实现国际化的过程中更容易解决这些问题,因为媒体销售的内容包括新闻,电视节目,音乐和其他文化产品,每个地方都有自己的传统文化,每个地方的地方文化都大不相同,如何开发文化产品以满足全球市场的观众是媒体发展全球化的巨大挑战(Galloway,2016; Jordan和Whitney,2016)。
With the deepening of the trend of world economic integration, the world's various industries, various enterprises have been involved in international development, which has become the choice of most cases, and the entire media industry is also engaged in development of internationalization. Often enterprises achieving international successes lie in that they are successful in the local market because of their competitive brand image, product, sales channel or promotional strategy, and then they choose to enter an international market. In accordance with the general logic, these companies will take their own past strategy to participate in the competition in the international market. However, the reality is that a strategy for success in a market is not necessarily successful in an international market, because the consumption habits and preferences of each place in the world are different, and it is difficult to get global consumers’ identification with a same set of strategies. Compared to the usual manufacturing enterprises, it is more obvious for the media to meet these problems in the process of achieving internationalization, because what the media sells includes news, television programs, music and other cultural products, each place has its own traditional culture, local culture of each place is very different, how to develop cultural products to satisfy the audience in the global market is a huge challenge for the globalization of media development (Galloway, 2016; Jordan and Whitney, 2016).
面对媒体国际化发展中遇到的本土化问题,美国学者罗兰·罗伯森(1994)提出了“全球化”的概念,并提出了“全球化思考,本地化”的国际发展方式。他认为,一个国家想要出口自己的文化产品和大众媒体信息,使它们在全球范围内被广泛接受,它必须基于一个国家或地区的文化特征,它的目的是出口到为了使出口产品本地化以满足国家或地区受众的接受,他打算强调,当全球化产品或服务与当地文化相结合时,它更有可能获得成功(Breuch,2015)。In the face of problems of localization encountered in the development of internationalization of the media, American scholar named Roland Robertson (1994) proposed the concept of "globalization" and put forward the "think globally and act locally" international development methods for the media. He believes that it a country wants to export their own cultural products and mass media information, making them be widely accepted in the global scope, it must be based on the cultural characteristics of a country or a region that it aims to exporting to, through making the exported products localized to meet the acceptance of the audience of the country or the region, he intends to emphasize that when the globalized products or services are combined with local culture, it is more likely to be successful (Breuch, 2015).
As the world's oldest public broadcasting and TV network, since its inception, BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) has been actively involved in the world's major social issues reported and broadcasted, and according to the preferences of audience of different regions to adjust the program content, broadcasting channels and the narrative way to promote the globalization of television programs and localized communication (Raimond, Ferne, Smethurst and Adams, 2014), which not only helps it to accumulate a large number of viewers in the world, but also facilitates its establishment of a good credibility, a high degree of concern and influence in the whole world because of its rapid, accurate and more fair news reporting approaches, through promoting the attention and acceptance of the audience in different countries and regions towards the program content to expand their own media discourse and influence  (Raimond, Ferne, Smethurst and Adams, 2014), BBC’s glocalization strategy provides a good reference for globalization of communication of other media. This study takes BBC as a research object, based on the theory of pattern maintenance, cultural adaptation theory and glocalization theory to discuss the advantages of BBC’ glocalization strategy, combining with the experience of BBC, from these aspects: program content, broadcast methods and the needs of local audiences to recommend on glocalization strategy for other media. 
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Pattern maintenance
There is a function of maintaining self-existing patterns inside culture, that is the function of self-existing pattern maintenance (Parsons, 1949). This function makes the cultural circle play a role of choice and self-protection towards foreign culture. When a foreign culture is conducive to the maintenance of the original cultural model, it is easy to be accepted and taken as a new cultural and nutritional supplements to the original culture; and if the foreign culture is harmful or destructive to the original culture, the function of self-existing pattern maintenance will try to prevent the invasion of destructive culture (Parsons, 1949). The problems revealed by the principle of cultural function of self-existing pattern maintenance to a large extent show that in the dissemination of culture, foreign media must encounter the choice of local culture. From this point of view, the principle of cultural function of self-existing pattern maintenance forced foreign media tot adopt a "localization" strategy, so as to obtain the right to speak in participation in competition with local media. Therefore, for the international media, they need to conduct a detailed background investigation towards their audience to understand the local culture, religion, customs, rather than produce and broadcast programs arbitrarily from their own values and preferences, otherwise it will be contrary to the principle of cultural pattern maintenance to stimulate the local audience’s resistance (Paredes, 2016).
For the current television media which interest in internationalization, in order to maximize understanding what the target audience needs and to carry out better internationalization, they need to be based on the local, through cooperation with local television stations, journalists, government agencies, non-governmental organizations and carrying out a series of survey and analysis to grasp audience’s expectations for the content of television, so as to achieve a comprehensive grasp of the external representation and the internal mechanism of audience’s watching behavior, motivation, habits, psychology, and according to this to design program content. In terms of implementation methods, they can use the pilot program to continue to adapt to the local cultural background, having access to the audience data, in order to continuously improve the program packaging and content (Galloway, 2016).
2.2 Glocalization
Glocalization proposes "think globally and act locally”, emphasizing that not only the content should be local, but also the way of broadcasting program should be local. Affected by local habits, geographical conditions, national policy, infrastructure and other factors, countries have different ways to watch programs (Breuch, 2015), such as in Africa, there are people in many places who can not watch TV, but they can watch program through the network, in some countries such as China, there are lots of limitations for television and network programs, but for Radio program, the restrictions are not so strict, due to the problem of time difference, some viewers are difficult to see live show, they need to watching by looking back or on demand. For media involved in international development, it is necessary to adjust their own ways of broadcasting according to the local special circumstances (Breuch, 2015).
In the world today, the boundaries between traditional media and new media are increasingly blurred, and new technologies based on interactive digital technology, including networks, social media, mobile Internet, etc. combine with traditional media to create a new mode of transmission combining mass communication with interpersonal communication (Gordon, E. and Silva, 2011; Li and Wei, 2017). On this basis, the ability of new media development has become an important means for traditional media to participate in market competition and expand the influence of communication in the world. The unique communication characteristics of the new media make it a useful supplement to the international spread of traditional media, because it can not only meet the needs of listening of audience of different regions, but also better break the policy and technical barriers between countries to make spread without borders become a reality. Today, the international first-class media are vigorously developing new media, using the advantages of new media and traditional media to promote glocalization strategy (Gordon, 2008; Li and Wei, 2017).#p#分页标题#e#
2.3 Cultural adaptation theory
In a certain society, if it introduces different systems and cultures from the outside, when a foreign culture contacts with local culture, there will be mutual influence and it will bring some changes to each other, which is called cultural adaptation (Berry, 1992). It is well-known that each society and all ethnic groups have their own cultural characteristics, in the process of cultural contact, it inevitably produces contradictions, in general, the greater the adaptability between the two cultures there is, the less resistance there will be from local culture; the less adaptability between the two cultures there is, the more friction there will be between the two. (Berry, 1992) points out that the level of cultural adaptation usually depends on how a foreign culture balances the conflict between its traditional culture and local cultural, how to change their own to integrate into the local culture, rather than resist, escape or attempt to dominate the local culture. In the process of internationalized dissemination of media, when foreign media carries out communication activities in a local community, they can take a local strategy to actively adapt to the requirements of local culture and integrate into the local market, so as to have access to the right to speak in term of local media transmission.
2.4 Debate 
Pattern maintenance theory, glocalization theory and cultural adaptation theory have emphasized the importance of media localization in the process of globalization, the debate is that in addition to emphasizing the importance of localization, the latter also stresses how a foreign culture adapts to a local culture, it believes that localization does not mean to give up the characteristics of a foreign culture itself to completely succumb to the local culture, but trying to find the similarities between the foreign culture and the local culture to improve the degree of mutual adaptation between the two (Berry, 1992). Its importance to the international media is that it emphasizes the use of an open and inclusive, sincere and confident perspective to spread the value of information and shape their own image, to seek a worldwide cultural consensus (emotions, values, topics, etc.), with "world discourse" rather than a single "national discourse" to talk about the common values of mankind, according to cultural differences between audience of different countries and regions to find the emotional point of contact, considering the standards of value of their own news based on local consciousness to make interaction with the audience, so as to reduce misunderstanding, contradictions, hostility and even conflict caused by cultural differences between different countries and regions, so as to maximize the effectiveness of glocalization communication (Robertson, 1994).
3.0 BBC case study
3.1 Glocalization program content
BBC broadcasts television programs 24-hour a day, BBC's news and topics mostly reflect the international appearance, covering international politics, economy, sports, science and technology, culture and other different areas, it is not only concerned about the world's major events, but also focuses on the latest in the field of science and technology culture, dynamic introduction of the most cutting forward. More importantly, BBC is actively playing the role of journalists around the world, every hour there are news reports, in-depth reports and topics around the world from the front, a large number of senior investigators, editors, directors and documentary producers become the core resources of the program, the globalized narrative strategy ensures the global vision of its television program and timely, efficient communication of the international news and topics (Raimond, Ferne, Smethurst and Adams, 2014).
In addition, the television programs that BBC broadcasts also adapt to the acceptance psychology and acceptance habit of audience of different countries and regions in the way of reporting, the perspectives of cutting into, interpretation of topics, the narrative styles. Taking BBC’s one of the only two Swahili language programs named Haba Na Haba in Africa as an example, the program content is closely integrated with local social development, it aims to promote dialogue between the general population and the leaders, there are both reports from journalists and ordinary people’s own stories (World Service, 2014). In the program, people have the opportunity to ask government representatives to answer questions about food and water, career and poverty, roads, electricity, corruption, education and health, the program also emphasizes the progress has been made to report the improvement of government services. It can be said that the BBC's concern on the African topic makes it more like a local media, but it has more advantage than the local media, it has a global perspective to invite more authoritative experts to discuss the future of Africa (World Service, 2014).
3.2 Build a glocalization marketing channels 
As early as the 1990s of last century, BBC has formed a TV content industry chain, which is around TV content to deal with investment, research and development, production, sales and supporting services, through the acquisition of intellectual property rights, investment, development and copyright licensing trade to carry out brand promotion and value-added projects. For example, as the world's most successful reality show created by BBC, "strictly come dancing" was officially recorded in the Guinness Book of Records 4, nearly 40 countries in the world have bought the copyright of the form of the program, in addition to Europe and the United States and other countries, it also includes China, India and Japan. In addition, the BBC also permits copyrighted trade of television programs, in addition to broadcasting television programs in the UK, it permits foreign television media to broadcast and it sells the rights of broadcasting. At the same time, BBC also make full use of the broadcast of the documentary, history, entertainment programs and other huge resource advantages, the TV program are copied into DVD, CD and other audio and video products for publishing, through developing the publishing business and creative products related to program content to achieve value added of television programs to expand the brand's influence outside the field of television in the world, so that the vitality of the program can be extended (Raimond, Ferne, Smethurst and Adams, 2014).
In addition, BBC integrates independent television, radio and online news operation platform into an advanced cross-platform multimedia news center. Taking BBC News Center for example, all the information collected by journalists around the world is send to the news integration platform, according to their needs, news editor of each area obtain news sources from the news gathering platform, and then according to the different needs of the audience of different regions and differences in communication channels to edit, making it suitable for broadcast through multiple terminals such as television, radio, network, mobile phone, interactive TV and so on (Bunz, 2010). In addition to BBC.com and other network platforms, BBC in December 2007 officially launched a new player: iPlayer, it can be used on the Internet, and it can also be used through the iPad and mobile phones. By 2012, audiences around the world can achieve real time watching and replay of the BBC TV program with over 40 kinds of mobile devices and platforms. BBC has also increased the development of news APP used for smart phones, iPad and Internet TV, through digital technology to carry out all media and cross-industry business development, in order to achieve the maximum value of products and brands (Haddou, 2014).
3.3 Pay attention to local consumer demand
At present, the traditional news communication process has become a news sharing process, television viewers change from those being informed to those who take the initiative to find news. Therefore, paying attention to participation, respect for users, sharing the news has become the important conditions for BBC to carry out the spread of localization in the world. In this context, BBC in 2003 set up a "marketing, communication and recipient" department to further increase the research on international audience (The Scotland blog, 2016). After that, BBC has invested millions or even tens of millions of dollars in annual research work, at least a large-scale audience research involved in dozens of countries was implemented to deeply explore the number of effective audience, program satisfaction, listening and watching needs of the audience, visibility of BBC in the local, and so on, through a national ratings survey in the main target countries and regions, using the arrival rate, objectivity, proximity and a series of indicators for performance evaluation, and according to the feedback and needs of the audience to make adjustments on the content of the program and broadcasting ways (The Scotland blog, 2016).
3.4 Balance cultural differences
The theory of cultural adaptation points out that the level of cultural adaptation usually depends on how a foreign culture balances the conflict between its traditional culture and a local culture, how it changes itself to integrate with the local culture, rather than resist, escape or attempt to dominate the local culture (Berry, 1992). This theory shows that media in the internationalization process can not attempt to dominate a local culture, nor can it completely succumb to the local culture, but balance the difference between the two to find common ground. For BBC, if a local culture is consistent with its own culture, its glocalization strategy may be more likely to succeed, and if the two cultures are inconsistent, the glocalization strategy may be prone to problems. In recent years, because of improper remarks, BBC caused some controversial events. For example, in 2011, in a world-renowned program of BBC name Top Gear, the host in the program ridiculed the Mexican way of life, commenting that the Mexican lazy way of life and attitude led to Mexico’s failure to produce high quality cars, such remarks have been protested by the Mexican audience and even the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Meadows and Sayer, 2013). On the one hand, it is certainly not appropriate for the host based on his own life experiences and values to mock Mexican way of life, but on the other hand, the host does not need a high degree of recognition and affirmation of the Mexican way of life. The correct approach may be to invite more authoritative experts to explore the problems in Mexican auto industry from a global perspective, through summing up the experience of the successful development of the German, Japanese and British auto industries, and viewing the Mexican auto industry from a local perspective, analysis of the differences between Mexican society and other countries to find reasons for why the Mexican auto industry have such problems. This approach not only respects the local people's habits, but also from a global perspective to provide a valuable reference for the development of the local auto industry (Berry, 1992). #p#分页标题#e#
4.0 Conclusion
Each place has its own traditional culture, local cultures of different places are different to a large extent, how to launch cultural products which can satisfy audience of different countries in the global market is a huge challenge for the glocalization development of media. BBC is one of the most successful media in the application of glocalization strategy. In this study, BBC is used as the research object, based on pattern maintenance, cultural adaptation theory and glocalization theory to explore the advantages and disadvantages of BBC’s glocalization strategy. The advantage lies in its good job of localization strategy, it focuses on the needs of local audiences, make targeted adjustments towards program content, broadcast channels to meet their needs. Its drawback is that there are deficiencies in the work of balance of culture differences, and for some areas in which there is conflict with their own culture, it sometimes took too strong measures and failed to find the common ground between the two, which has affected BBC's influence in the local communities, damaging the international image of the BBC.
Berry, J. W. et al. (1992). Cross-cultural psychology: research and applications. Cambridge University Press.
Breuch, L. K. (2015). Glocalization in website writing: the case of MNsure and imagined/actual audiences. Computers and Composition, 38(12), 113-125.
Bunz, M. (2010). BBC tells news staff to embrace social media.
Haddou, L. (2014). BBC targets social media users with Instagram video news.
Galloway, C. (2016). Media jihad: What PR can learn in Islamic State’s public relations masterclass. Public Relations Review, 42(4), 582-590.
Gordon, E. and Silva, A. (2011). Net locality: why location matters in a networked world. John Wiley and Sons, 1-18. 
Gordon, E. (2008). Towards a theory of network locality. First Monday, 13(10). 326-335.
Jordan, J. and Whitney, J. G. (2016). The internet in “their” language: South Korea and the internationalizing web. Computers and Composition, 42(12), 95-109.
Li, H. and Wei, L. (2017). Functions and roles of social media in media transformation in China: a case study of “@CCTV NEWS”. Telematics and Informatics, 34(3), 774-785.
Meadows, B. and Sayer, P. (2013). The Mexican sports car controversy: an appraisal analysis of BBC's Top Gear and the reproduction of nationalism and racism through humor. Discourse, Context & Media, 2(2), 103-110.
Paredes, M. (2016). The glocalization of mining conflict: cases from Peru. The Extractive Industries and Society, 3(4), 1046-1057.
Parsons, T. (1949). The structure of social action. Free Press. 
Raimond, Y., Ferne, T., Smethurst, M. and Adams, G. (2014). The BBC world service archive prototype. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web, 27–28(8-10), 2-9.
Robertson, R. (1994). Globalisation or glocalisation? Journal of International Communication 1(1), 33-52.
The Scotland blog. (2016). BBC audience study shows Scottish viewers are most critical of all.
World Service. (2014). BBC Swahili’s Haba na Haba to facilitate dialogue between ordinary people and their leaders in Tanzania. 

  • Coursework格式-R...


  • 黄金时代加勒比地区的英国海盗...


  • 英国伦敦大学courewor...


  • The role of Wo...


  • 墨尔本企业管理coursew...


  • 指导Assessment-C...

    Details of Assessment Tasks:The assessment for this module is based on 100% cour......