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英格兰essay:文化差异如何影响商业实践

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-04-29 14:25:55 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
导读:本文是一篇英格兰essay,针对迪堡决定通过合资企业进入印度市场。 使用Geert Hofstede对国际工作场所文化的研究来比较和对比印度和美国的文化。 讨论文化差异如何影响商业实践。
Introduction 介绍
在合资企业中,文化差异必然带来文化摩擦和文化冲突。文化差异有三个层次。第一层次的文化差异是民族文化差异与社会背景;文化差异的中等水平是企业文化与企业特征的差异;最后一层文化差异是个人文化与人格特征的差异。民族文化差异是形成企业文化差异的主要因素。国际工作场所文化差异既包括民族文化差异,也包括企业文化差异。因此,国际工作场所文化差异不仅会影响合资企业的员工,还会影响合资企业管理的各个环节。在下文中,我将展示印度与单位国家之间合资企业的国际工作场所文化差异。
In the joint venture enterprise, the cultural differences must bring cultural friction and cultural conflict. There are three levels in cultural differences. The first level of cultural differences is national cultural differences with social background; the medium level of cultural differences is corporate culture differences with enterprise features; the last level of cultural differences is differences of individual culture with personality characteristics. The national cultural differences is the main factor that forms the enterprise cultural differences. The international workplace culture differences include both the national cultural difference and the corporate culture differences. Thus, the international workplace culture differences would not only affect the employees of a joint venture, but also affect the each link of management of a joint venture. In the following, I will show the international workplace culturedifferencesof joint ventures between India and Unit States. 
The theory of Geert Hofstede 理论
Hofstede(1991)将文化定义为具有相同教育和生活经历的群体共享的心理过程。因此,不同的文化环境,经济,社会和政治因素将受到巨大的文化差异的束缚。由于文化的演变是一个漫长而渐进的过程,工作场所的文化差异不会消失,并且会在一段时间内保持稳定。在20世纪60年代后期,荷兰学者Geert Hofstede提出了描述文化差异的五个维度。具体而言,五个维度是权力距离,个人主义与集体主义,男性气质与女性气质,不确定性规避和长期定向。
Hofstede (1991) defines the cultural as psychological procedures are shared by groups with the same education and life experience. Thus, different cultural environment, economic, social and political factors would be bound to from a great cultural differences. Since the evolution of cultural is a kind of long and gradual process, the cultural difference in workplace would not disappear and would remain stable over a period of time. In the late 1960s, a Dutch scholar, Geert Hofstede, proposed the five dimensions which describe cultural differences. Specifically, the five dimensions are power distance, individualism vs Collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance and long term orientation. 
The cultures of India and United Sates 印度和美国的文化
Power distance
The power distance refers to the power distance between employee and decision maker, which measure the concentration of power and the authoritarian degree of leaders. Moreover, the power distance also measure the reception on the unequal distribution of power among organizations. In the country with a high level of reception, the social level is distinct and power distance is large. However, in the country with low level of reception, people are equal to each other and the power distance is small. The size of the power distance is more obvious in the enterprise. In the company with larger power distance, the organizational hierarchy is distinct. However, in the company with small power distance, the organization structure is flat. 
According to the dimension theory of Hofstede, there is very bright and strong religious character in Indian cultural. Many kinds of religious are coexisting in India. Moreover, Indian people are deeply convict their regions. Thus, in the enterprise of India, they emphasize the dominance of personal authority. In corporation, there is big gap between managers and their subordinates. In addition, the managers have greater authority. The reception of on the unequal distribution of power among organizations is higher than U.S, which belongs to the cultural of high power distance(Steelcase, 2010).However, in US, people are advocating freedom and equality (Hofstede,1980). Everyone have the right to participate in planning decisions. The relationship between superior and subordinate is harmonious and relaxed. Thus, consciousness of equality is strong and the reception of on the unequal distribution of power among organizations is low, which belongs to the cultural of low power distance. Therefore, the cultural of US is small power distance and the cultural of Indian is large power distance.
Individualism vs Collectivism
The dimension of individualism vs collectivism measures the extent on the feeling of taking care for or being cared for by themselves. In the cultural of individualism, the ties between individuals are loose and they tend to be responsible for themselves. However, in the cultural of collectivism, people would pay much more attention on decision making and the attachment to collective. They are dedicated to help group’s numbers and they are absolutely loyal to the group.  
The United States is a country with the prevailing of individualism, which emphasis on the self-realization of individual value and the competitive spirit of adventure. In the company of US, the individual responsibility on work is clear. The value of employees largely depends on the performance of individual job (Hofstede, 1984). In Indian, there is deep feudal thought in religious culture. Thus, the individual consciousness is weaker than US. However, western culture has governed Indian for many years. Thus, the collectivism consciousness is weaker than China or other Asian countries(Steelcase, 2010). Therefore, the cultural of US is individualism and the cultural of Indian is collectivism.
Masculinity vs. Femininity
Masculinity refers to the pursuit of success, money and material. However, femininity is contrast to masculinity, which refers to care and pay attention to quality of life. Steelcase (2010) investigated that there is no significant different on masculinity vs. femininity between India and U.S. In other words, there is no particularly obvious divide on gender roles of society in both India and U.S. 
Uncertainty Avoidance
Uncertainty avoidance measures the level on feeling threaten for uncertain situation. In the cultural of low uncertainty avoidance, people prefer to take risks, encourage innovations, and confidence in the future. In the cultural of high uncertain avoidance, people prefer to stay stability, believe authority, and would not tolerate deviant ideas or behaviors. In US, enterprises would not pay much more attention on innovate and encourage employees accept ambiguity. Moreover, Americans would more likely to tolerate the uncertainty future and change jobs more frequently (Christie, 2003). However, in Indian, the rules and regulations in company is strict and follows the suggestions of specialist. Employees tend to have stronger feeling of anxiety and stress. Thus, the cultural of US is low uncertainty avoidance and the cultural of Indian is high uncertainty avoidance. 
Long term orientation
Long term orientation refers to the degree to the attention on traditional culture and mainly measure the basic orientation of time. In the cultural of long term orientation, people would pay much more attention on the future values. In the cultural of short term orientation, people would focus on the benefit at present.
In Indian, many kinds of religious are coexisting in India and Indian people are deeply convict their regions.The enterprises of India would prefer to make long term plan on investment. However, in US, people would prefer to focus on the short term results and the returns on the investment in the short term (Malhotra et al., 2005). Thus, the cultural of US is short term orientation and the cultural of Indian is long term orientation. 
Conclusion
In the late 1960s, a Dutch scholar, Geert Hofstede, proposed the five dimensions which describe cultural differences. Specifically, the five dimensions are power distance, individualism vs Collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance and long term orientation. Based on above discussion, we can draw the following conclusions. 
1. The cultural of US is small power distance and the cultural of Indian is large power distance.
2. The cultural of US is individualism and the cultural of Indian is collectivism.
3. There is no particularly obvious divide on gender roles of society in both India and U.S.
4. The cultural of US is low uncertainty avoidance and the cultural of Indian is high uncertainty avoidance.
5. The cultural of US is short term orientation and the cultural of Indian is long term orientation. 
 
Reference
Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival. Southern Medical Journal, 13(3), S219–S222.#p#分页标题#e#
Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: do American theories apply abroad?. Organizational dynamics, 9(1), 42-63.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values (Vol. 5). sage.
Christie, P. M. J., Kwon, I. W. G., Stoeberl, P. A., &Baumhart, R. (2003). A cross-cultural comparison of ethical attitudes of business managers: India Korea and the United States. Journal of Business Ethics, 46(3), 263-287.
Malhotra, N. K., Ulgado, F. M., Agarwal, J., Shainesh, G., & Wu, L. (2005). Dimensions of service quality in developed and developing economies: multi-country cross-cultural comparisons. International Marketing Review, 22(3), 256-278.
Steelcase, 2010, Generation Y in US, India & China – Steelcase.
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