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英国Economics Essay范文:Analysis Of The United Kingdoms Mixed Economy

论文价格: 免费 时间:2023-12-23 09:58:01 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

英国Economics Essay范文-浅析英国混合经济。本文是一篇英国留学生经济学专业essay写作范文,主要内容是讲述英国是一个基于自由贸易和全球经济资本主义体系的混合经济体,尽管其限制是由政府制定的。”本篇英国essay指出资本主义经济体系的特点是自由市场和没有政府干预经济英国的大多数决策都是由市场做出的。然而,一些决定是由政府做出的,例如与道路建设、学校和医院建设、医院药品供应等有关的决定

英国经济虽然被视为主要的资本主义经济,但政府支出占GDP的35%。由于政府支付医疗、教育、国防等费用,整体经济仍被视为资本主义,因为在私营企业领域,公司可以自由决定生产什么以及为谁生产,并允许有效分配资源。尽管政府干预意味着计划经济和市场经济的混合。以下内容就是这篇英国Economics Essay范文,供参考。

英国essay格式范文

The United Kingdom has a mixed economy based on the Capitalist system on free trade and global economic, despite its limits being established by the Government. ‘A Capitalist economic system is one characterised by free markets and the absence of government intervention in the economy.’ Most decisions in the UK are made by the market. However, some decisions are made by the government e.g. those relating to road building, school and hospital construction, the supply of medicines in hospitals etc

The UK economy although viewed as a mainly capitalist economy has government spending taking up 35% of GDP. For the reason that the government pays for health, education, national defence etc. The overall economy is still perceived as capitalist as in the area of private enterprise companies are free to decide what to produce and for whom, and allows for an efficient allocation of resources. Although government intervention means there is a mixed of both planned and market economies.

In the real world, many economies which are viewed to have a capitalist economic system may have government spending taking up 35% of GDP. This is because the government pays for welfare, health, education and national defence. However, the economy is still viewed as capitalist because in the area of private enterprise firms are free to decide what to produce and for whom. (Tejvan.R)

在现实世界中,许多被视为资本主义经济体系的经济体的政府支出可能占GDP的35%。这是因为政府支付福利、卫生、教育和国防费用。然而,经济仍然被视为资本主义,因为在私营企业领域,企业可以自由决定生产什么以及为谁生产。

Economic systems based around Capitalism allow for free enterprise and market forces, allocate people and resources to their best use. When profits are re-invested labour and capital become increasingly productive (Hawken,) Firms have to remain competive and productively efficient or risk going out of business, survival in a capitalistic system requires innovation and flexibility to keep up with the changes in supply and demand. Such a system is generally prepared to deal with the influx of competition from external sources and helps create dynamic efficiency, firms change and respond to demand and consumer trends. Any resource shortages that do occur bring forth the development of substitutes.

本篇英国essay认为以资本主义为基础的经济体系允许自由企业和市场力量,将人员和资源分配到最佳用途。当利润被重新投资时,劳动力和资本的生产力越来越高,企业必须保持竞争力和生产效率,否则就有倒闭的风险,在资本主义体系中生存需要创新和灵活性来跟上供需的变化。这样一个系统通常是为了应对来自外部来源的竞争,并有助于创造动态效率、企业变革和应对需求和消费者趋势。任何确实发生的资源短缺都会带来替代品的发展。

In a mixed market economy both market forces and government decisions which goods and serviced are produced and how they are distributed. It combines both the characteristics of a free economy and and command economy.

在混合市场经济中,市场力量和政府决定生产哪些商品和服务以及如何分配。它结合了自由经济和命令经济的特点。

The mixed market economy allows the market to operate and the government to only intervene where the market fails. This means providing such services as law, healthcare and educated which would have been left un-provided by the free market. Public goods are consumed collectively by the market rather than individually so it is difficult to finance their supply through the market.

混合市场经济允许市场运作,政府只能在市场失灵的情况下进行干预。本篇英国essay认为这意味着提供法律、医疗保健和教育等服务,而这些服务本来是自由市场无法提供的。公共产品是由市场集体消费,而不是单独消费,因此很难通过市场为其供应提供资金。

A greater free market economy is susceptible to boom and slump periods, such as those seen in the UK, it is argued that these downward cycles are built into capitalism. Marxists and others, such as Fredrick Soddy are certain that these crises are endemic to capitalism.

更大的自由市场经济容易受到繁荣期和衰退期的影响,比如英国的繁荣期和萧条期,有人认为这些下行周期是资本主义的固有特征。马克思主义者和其他人,如弗雷德里克·索迪,确信这些危机是资本主义特有的。

‘Anti- cyclical’ measures of state intervention help to mitigate conjucturual fluctuations. From as far back as the 1930 recession the Government has employed over time an increasingly strong influence on aggregate demand to prevent the boom and bust periods. It provides a growing number of jobs in the non-commodity area, regulates the growth of the social wage. It influences the level of economic activity by means of public sector contracts as well as other forms of intervention.

本篇英国essay指出国家干预的“反周期”措施有助于缓解结构性波动。早在1930年的经济衰退时期,随着时间的推移,政府就对总需求施加了越来越大的影响,以防止出现繁荣和萧条时期。它在非商品领域提供了越来越多的就业机会,调节了社会工资的增长。它通过公共部门合同以及其他形式的干预影响经济活动的水平。

The government also regulates other problems of a free market such as monopoly power, which operate against public interest. ‘The Privatisation movement n Britain, which began in the Conservative Government in Britain in the 1980s provided force for economic regulation in the last 2 decades of the 20th Century’ (Select Committee of Regulators)

政府还监管自由市场的其他问题,如垄断权,这些问题违背了公众利益始于20世纪80年代英国保守党政府的英国私有化运动为20世纪最后20年的经济监管提供了力量”(监管机构特别委员会)

Most of the nationalised industries had monopoly power and retained that when privatised, regulation was needed to prevent abuse of that power, to bring in line prices and standards of service in that of a competitive market. Through government bodies created such as the office of Fair Trading and The Monopolies and Mergers Commission.

大多数国有化行业都具有垄断权,并保留了这一点,当私有化时,需要进行监管,以防止滥用这一权力,在竞争激烈的市场中引入合理的价格和服务标准。通过设立的政府机构,如公平贸易办公室和垄断与合并委员会。

The private sector only takes into account their costs in producing goods, and not any negative externalities created, these costs to society such as pollution, noise etc. Government involvement and regulation accounts for these negative externalities which would no be considered with in a free market.

私营部门只考虑其生产商品的成本,而不考虑任何产生的负外部性,这些对社会的成本,如污染、噪音等。政府的参与和监管解释了这些在自由市场中无法考虑的负外部因素。

The government intervenes to assist in the correction of inequalities in income and wealth, a characteristic of capitalist economies. This is through the use of taxation system and the government expenditure; such as transfer payment, like retirement pension, sickness benefits and unemployment benefit. Some forms of taxes are relatively more progressive than others, such as Income Tax which take a higher percentage of income of the wealthy.

本篇英国essay认为政府的干预是为了帮助纠正收入和财富的不平等,这是资本主义经济的特点。这是通过税收制度和政府支出的使用;如转移支付,如退休养老金、疾病福利和失业救济金。某些形式的税收相对来说比其他形式更具累进性,例如所得税,它占富人收入的比例更高。

Some economists do argue that the inequalities in wealth and income provide incentives for us to work harder, conversely some believe governments should intervene more.

一些经济学家确实认为,财富和收入的不平等激励我们更加努力地工作,相反,一些人认为政府应该更多地干预。

The financial global crisis has presented numerous challenges to the UK economy that the increase in the libor rate and the uncertainty of the climate meant many banks were not lending money, amongst themselves and amongst consumers. The fall of the Lehman Brother and Bear Sterns in the US, as well as problems faced to Northern Rock.

全球金融危机给英国经济带来了许多挑战,即伦敦银行同业拆借利率的上升和气候的不确定性意味着许多银行没有在自己和消费者之间放贷。雷曼兄弟和贝尔斯登在美国的倒闭,以及北岩面临的问题。

‘The Government injected tens of billions of pounds to help increase the liquidity. Banks were able to swap potentially risky mortgage debts for secure government bonds to enable them to operate’ (BBC news)

政府注入了数百亿英镑来帮助增加流动性。银行能够用潜在风险的抵押贷款债务换取安全的政府债券,使其能够运营”

A lack of lending and decrease in consumer spending and confidence led to a fall in house prices and arise in inflation. In an attempt to kick start the housing market the Treasury introduced a one year rise in stamp duty exemption. Making houses more affordable in the hope of increasing the amount house sales. The Bank of England cut interest rates to their lowest in its 315 year history in an attempt to make mortgage lenders pass it on to consumers. Hoping again to increase house sales and prevent house prices further faller. This was important to the government as many home owners had fallen into negative equity and risked losing their homes.

本篇英国essay认为贷款的缺乏以及消费者支出和信心的下降导致了房价的下跌和通货膨胀。为了启动房地产市场,财政部将印花税豁免提高一年。让房子更实惠,希望能增加房屋销售额。英格兰银行将利率降至315年来的最低水平,试图让抵押贷款机构将其转嫁给消费者。希望再次增加房屋销售,防止房价进一步下跌。这对政府来说很重要,因为许多房主已经陷入了负资产,并有失去房屋的风险。

The Governement announced a £37bn nationalisation of banks in a attempt to fight back from the financial crisis. Banks will effectively be state-run, with the Government-appointed board members put in place to ensure they once again begin lending to businesses and individual customers.

政府宣布对银行进行370亿英镑的国有化,试图从金融危机中进行反击。银行实际上将是国有的,由政府任命的董事会成员到位,以确保它们再次开始向企业和个人客户放贷。

As demand decreased across all sectors, production decreased in line. This leading to many production industries being affected such as car manufacturers. As well as the production sector the retailing sector was also affected, consumer confidence has decreased and led to a decrease in demand across all retail, leading to the bankruptcy of many retailers such as Woolworth etc.

随着所有行业的需求减少,生产也随之减少。这导致许多生产行业受到影响,如汽车制造商。除了生产部门,零售部门也受到了影响,消费者信心下降,导致所有零售业的需求下降,导致Woolworth等许多零售商破产。

The government introduced further intervention tactic by temporarily lowering VAT from 17.5% to 15.% which was aimed at increasing consumer spending. This would hopefully increase demand in the retail sector and help save further retailers from becoming bankrupt.

政府引入了进一步的干预策略,将增值税从17.5%暂时降至15.%,旨在增加消费者支出。这有望增加零售业的需求,并有助于避免更多零售商破产。

During and economic slowdown business look to cut costs through many ways, one option is to make a reduction in the workforce. During the financial crisis unemployment has raised, the number of people claiming benefits is the highest since 1997, the claimant count has increased for 19 months in a row.

在经济放缓期间,企业希望通过多种方式削减成本,其中一种选择是减少劳动力。在金融危机期间,失业率上升,申请福利的人数是1997年以来最高的,申请人数连续19个月增加。

There has also been a decrease in the amount of people coming out of unemployment due to the reduction in the job market. More companies are becoming bankrupt creating more unemployment. Companies are not expanding as they may otherwise have done due to lack of capital so fewer jobs are being created.

由于就业市场的减少,失业人数也有所减少。越来越多的公司破产,造成更多的失业。由于缺乏资本,公司没有像以前那样扩张,因此创造的就业机会更少。

Jobs across all sectors are being lost, in production the lack of demand has led to loss in jobs in areas such as car manufacturers. In the retail sector many retailers are going bankrupt due to a decrease in consumer confidence leading to a decrease in consumer spending. Due to the lack of available capital the construction sector has seen a considerable rise in unemployment.

所有行业的工作岗位都在流失,本篇英国essay认为在生产方面,需求的缺乏导致了汽车制造商等领域的工作岗位流失。在零售业,由于消费者信心下降导致消费者支出减少,许多零售商正在破产。由于缺乏可用资金,建筑业的失业率大幅上升。

White collar workers have also seen an increase in unemployment in sectors such as banking and finance, where companies cannot afford to pay overhead and look to cut costs and rationalise their business.

白领工人在银行和金融等行业的失业率也有所上升,这些行业的公司无力支付管理费用,并寻求削减成本和合理化业务。

As the financial crisis continues and the unemployment rate continues to rise there are fewer jobs for an increasing amount of people. Consumer habits have chased, more consumers are deciding to save and be more conservative with their disposable income. Many households have been affected by the recession and unemployment directly so have seen less income coming into the household. Consumers may have been affected by wage freezes or wage cuts so have become more cautious with their income. Consumers are choosing to spend money on necessities and less on luxuries such as eating out, new clothes etc etc. Therefore demand has not increased and as such companies cannot begin to recover and create new jobs.

本篇英国essay提出随着金融危机的持续和失业率的持续上升,越来越多的人的工作岗位减少了。消费者习惯被追逐,越来越多的消费者决定储蓄,并对可支配收入更加保守。许多家庭直接受到经济衰退和失业的影响,因此家庭收入减少。消费者可能受到了工资冻结或减薪的影响,因此对收入变得更加谨慎。消费者选择把钱花在必需品上,而不是花在外出就餐、新衣服等奢侈品上。因此,需求没有增加,因此公司无法开始复苏和创造新的就业机会。

Consumers shopping habits have changed since the recession and there has been a fall in spending in the luxury goods area. Discount retailers have seen an increase in trade as consumers become more aware of how they spend their money. Consumers are more likely to switch brands in a recession and go for a more affordable option

自经济衰退以来,消费者的购物习惯发生了变化,奢侈品领域的支出也有所下降。折扣零售商的交易量有所增加,因为消费者越来越清楚自己是如何花钱的。消费者更有可能在经济衰退中更换品牌,选择更实惠的选择

Bigger items such as car sales have seen a drastic fall, along with the housing market, as consumers are cautious of and preferring to improve what they have, than make a large outlay.

汽车销量等更大的商品和房地产市场都出现了大幅下降,因为消费者对现有商品持谨慎态度,宁愿改善现有商品,也不愿花大价钱。

In conclusion the UK has a mixed economy, developed through free market and global economy, which is regulated by the Governnment to prevent market failure.

总之,英国是一个通过自由市场和全球经济发展起来的混合经济体,由政府监管以防止市场失灵。

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如果这个免费的论文资源被证明是有用的,那么选择获取一份高度相关并根据你自己的规范量身定制的学术材料可能有助于你的学习;您可能想考虑一下我们的英国征文服务。

The mixed market economy allows the market to operate and the government to only intervene where the market fails. This means providing such services as law, healthcare and educated which would have been left un-provided by the free market.

混合市场经济允许市场运作,政府只能在市场失灵的情况下进行干预。这意味着提供法律、医疗保健和教育等服务,而这些服务本来是自由市场无法提供的。

The government also intervenes to help regulate problems created by a free market such as monopolies and wealth inequalities.

政府还进行干预,以帮助监管自由市场造成的问题,如垄断和财富不平等。

The free market allows goods and services to be produced when they want, for who they want, and as such can respond to the demand and supply of the market. The government attempts to regulate the cyclical nature of the market. But in times of recession into also intervenes to solve challenged created in times such as the current financial crisis. Increased unemployment is a major challenge in the financial crisis, which affects consumer habits and the market as a whole.

自由市场允许商品和服务在他们想要的时候生产,为他们想要的人生产,因此可以对市场的需求和供应做出反应。政府试图调节市场的周期性。但在经济衰退时期介入也解决了当前金融危机等时期产生的挑战。失业率上升是金融危机中的一个重大挑战,它影响到消费者习惯和整个市场。本站提供英国essay格式范文以及英国essay写作指导,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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