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Essay格式范文:The Hong Kong Government Commerce Essay

论文价格: 免费 时间:2023-12-06 11:05:59 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Essay格式范文-香港政府商业评论。本文是一篇关于香港政府商业评论的essay写作格式范文,主要内容是讲述香港政府已决定在香港国际机场兴建新跑道。这将给香港带来优势和劣势。本篇essay通过查阅文献来确定第三条跑道的影响。此外,essay还将对香港市民进行调查,以确定他们对修建第三条跑道的关注因素以及是否支持修建新跑道。本篇essay还审查了案例研究,以确定在香港建造第三条跑道时需要考虑的因素。在进行调查、回顾文献和案例研究后,本篇essay希望找出是否修建第三条跑道的答案以及支持这个答案的原因。下面就一起来看一下这篇essay格式范文的具体内容。

essay格式范文

The Hong Kong Government had decided to build the new runway in HKIA. It will bring the advantage and the disadvantage to Hong Kong. It will identify the third runway’s impact by review the literatures. Moreover, it will do the survey with the Hong Kong citizen to identify what factor they are concern with build the third runway and whether support to build the new runway. It also review the case study to identify which factor needs to concern during construct the third runway in Hong Kong. After doing the survey and review the literature and case study, I expect to find out the answer whether to build up the third runway and the reason to support the answer.

Aim 目标

This project will identify the impact of the new runway in HKIA and find the answer which is whether to build the new runway. I will find out the answer through review the literatures and do the survey. The third runway is an issue which we need to concern. In the past, HKIA had contributed directly to Hong Kong’s economy. Hong Kong’s aviation industry generated HK$78 billion in value added contribution in 2008. It represents 4.6% of Hong Kong’s GDP. In 2010, it supports the four pillar industries of HK. They are tourism, trading and logistics, financial services, producer and professional services which together accounted for 58% of Hong Kong’s GDP in 2010 (Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.a). The new runway will bring the advantage and the disadvantage to Hong Kong. We need to analysis it whether it is better or not after build the new runway.

该项目将确定新跑道对香港国际机场的影响,并找到是否修建新跑道的答案。本篇essay将通过查阅文献找出答案并进行调查。第三条跑道是我们需要关注的问题。过去,香港国际机场对香港经济有直接贡献。香港航空业在二零零八年的增值贡献达780亿港元。占香港本地生产总值的4.6%。在2010年,它支持香港的四大支柱产业,即旅游业、贸易和物流业、金融服务业、生产和专业服务业,这些行业在2010年合计占香港本地生产总值的58%。新跑道将为香港带来优势和劣势。建造新跑道后,我们需要分析它是否更好。

Objective 目的

1. Find the reason of the HKIA need to build up the new runway.找出香港国际机场需要兴建新跑道的原因。

2. Finding literatures for the discussion or information about the third runway, such as any positive and negative views, suggestions, analysis the impact which the third runway will bring about the HKIA to build up the third runway.寻找有关第三条跑道的讨论或信息的文献,如任何积极和消极的观点、建议、分析第三条飞机跑道将给香港国际机场建设第三条机场带来的影响。

3. Gathering the view of people support and oppose to build the third runway in Hong Kong International Airport by work out a questionnaire/survey.通过问卷调查,收集支持和反对在香港国际机场修建第三条跑道的意见。

4. Gathering the concern factor in Hong Kong International Airport by review the case study.通过回顾案例研究,收集香港国际机场的关注因素。

5. Analyse the data of (3), (4) and compare with literatures to determine problems that is impact of build the third runway which is Hong Kong local concern.分析(3)、(4)的数据,并与文献进行比较,以确定香港当地关注的修建第三条跑道的影响问题。

6. Suggestion of recommendations and conclusions will be based on the above data.建议和结论的建议将以上述数据为基础。

Background 背景

Table -1 tentative layout of the Three Runway System

(Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.e)The Hong Kong International Airport is the world’s busiest cargo gateway and one of the world’s 10 busiest passenger airports. In 2011, 53.9 million passengers used HKIA and 3.9 million tonnes of air cargo passed through Hong Kong (Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.b). The AA had considered the long term development of HKIA. To cope with the increasing air traffic demand and competition, Airport Authority has published “Master Plan 2030” and makes a three-month consultation to gauge public opinion on HKIA’s future development. 73% of respondents supported the proposal to build the third runway to meet the airport’s long-term growth demand (Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.c). The development of the third runway is involves construction of a third runway, related taxiway systems and navigation aids, and airfield facilities, the third runway aprons and passenger concourses, expansion of the existing Terminal 2 etc. 

本篇essay指出香港机场管理局香港国际机场是世界上最繁忙的货运门户,也是世界上十大最繁忙的客运机场之一。2011年,有5390万乘客使用香港国际机场,390万吨空运货物通过香港(香港机场管理局)。机管局已考虑香港国际机场的长远发展。为应付日益增长的航空交通需求和竞争,机场管理局公布了《2030年总体规划》,并进行了为期三个月的咨询,以评估公众对香港国际机场未来发展的意见。73%的受访者支持建造第三条跑道以满足机场长期增长需求的建议。

Critical review of literature 文献评论

The reason of build the third runway 修建第三条跑道的原因

The demand of HKIA in the 2030 香港国际机场2030年的需求

The International Air Transport Association Consulting had estimated by 2030: the flight movements are estimated to reach 602,000 flights with a CAGR of 3.2 %( Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.d). It reflects the demand of the HKIA is increase in the future.

国际航空运输协会咨询公司估计,到2030年,航班运行量预计将达到602000架次,复合年增长率为3.2%(香港机场管理局n.d.d)。这反映了香港国际机场未来的需求增加。

HKIA Flight Movement Projection (Up to 2030) – The base-case demand forecast shows that annual flight movements at HKIA will reach 602,000 by 2030

香港国际机场航班移动量预测(至2030年)-基本情况需求预测显示,到2030年,香港国际机场的年航班移动量将达到602000架次

The capacity of two runway in HKIA 香港国际机场两条跑道的容量

For the capacity of the two existing runway in HKIA, it is 54 flights/ per hour in 2007, 55flights/ per hour in 2008, 58 flights/ per hour in 2009, 62 flights/ per hour in 2011, 68 flights / per hour in 2015. It is the ultimate capacity of the two runways in 2015. If no action taken, the ultimate capacity would be saturated around 2020 and it would take more than 10 years to complete a new runway (Dr. C.K. Law 2012).

就香港国际机场现有两条跑道的容量而言,2007年为54架次/小时,2008年为55架次/小时;2009年为58架次/小时、2011年为62架次/小时以及2015年为68架次/小时。这是2015年两条跑道的最终容量。如果不采取行动,最终容量将在2020年左右饱和,完成一条新跑道将需要10多年的时间。

The airport competition 机场竞争

The HKIA have competitors in Asia. The nearly all major hubs in the region are having plan or complete to build more runways. The Seoul Incheon Airport’s third runway taxiway system began in 2002 and was completed in 2008. It currently service with forty four million passengers. For capacity of the flights, it cans capacity of 410,000 flights and nearly 4.5 million tonnes of cargo per year. The Seoul Incheon Airport is continued to expand. The construction is set to continue until 2020. After the construction, it will be able to handle one hundred million passengers, 700 million tonnes of cargo and 530,000 flights per year (Halcrow 2011). The Construction cost is about US$1.22 billion (Aviation Policy and Research Center, Department of Decision Sciences and Managerial Economics 2007:8). In Mainland China, GuangZhou Baiyun Airport also implement the third runway and will be completed in 2015(Dr. C.K. Law 2012).

本篇essay认为香港国际机场在亚洲有竞争对手。该地区几乎所有的主要枢纽都计划或完成建造更多跑道。首尔仁川机场的第三条跑道滑行道系统始于2002年,于2008年竣工。它目前的服务乘客有四千四百万。就航班容量而言,它每年可容纳41万架次航班和近450万吨货物。首尔仁川机场正在继续扩建。工程将持续到2020年。建成后,它将能够每年处理一亿乘客、7亿吨货物和53万架次航班。建设成本约为12.2亿美元。在中国大陆,广州白云机场也实施了第三条跑道,并将于2015年完工。

The view of different people in Hong Kong for build the third runway 香港各界人士对兴建第三条跑道的看法

The view of Hong Kong Government 香港政府观点

In March 2012, the secretary for transport and housing Eva Cheng stated that the HK government would show the support to the Airport Authority. The Airport Authority can proceed an environmental impact assessment which is expected to take two years, must cover marine ecology, noise and air quality, and plan design details and financial arrangements (Alisha Haridasani 2012).”

2012年3月,运输及房屋局局长郑汝桦表示,香港政府会支持机场管理局。机场管理局可以进行环境影响评估,预计需要两年时间,必须涵盖海洋生态、噪音和空气质量,以及规划设计细节和财务安排。”

The view of the airline 航空公司的观点

Cathay Pacific has been rooted in Hong Kong for more than 66 years and today connects the city to 170 destinations around the world (Cathay Pacific 2012). For the view of Cathay Pacific, it believes that a third runway is the only viable way to ensure the long-term competitiveness of Hong Kong as an important international airport. John Slosar, the Chief Executive of Cathay Pacific, stated that the third runway is importance for Hong Kong citizen. It can bring the welfare for them. Moreover, the third runway is vital the sustainability of the Hong Kong economy. The demand of build the third runway is become increasing. He also mentioned that the existing runways are already heavily used through most of the operating day that finding take-off and landing slots for additional flights is increasingly difficult. The existing runways will saturate between fifteen and twenty years early before the forecast of 2040. Mr Slosar said that as the airport becomes busier and busier, the capacity of the two runways will soon be saturated. If Hong Kong does not decisively to build the new runway, it will lose its advantage for competitive in aviation industry (Cathay Pacific 2011).

本篇essay指出国泰航空在香港扎根已超过66年,如今已将香港与全球170个目的地连接起来。国泰航空认为,第三条跑道是确保香港作为重要国际机场的长期竞争力的唯一可行途径。国泰航空首席执行官JohnSlosar表示,第三条跑道对香港市民非常重要。它可以为他们带来福利。此外,第三条跑道对香港经济的可持续发展至关重要。修建第三条跑道的需求越来越大。他还提到,在运营日的大部分时间里,现有跑道已经被大量使用,为额外的航班寻找起飞和降落位置越来越困难。在2040年的预测之前,现有跑道将提前15到20年饱和。斯洛萨表示,随着机场越来越繁忙,两条跑道的容量很快就会饱和。如果香港不果断地修建新跑道,它将失去在航空业竞争中的优势。

The view of environmental group in HK 香港环保团体观点

The WWF is the one of the environmental group in HK. It supports the sustainable development of Hong Kong, and the associated benefits for its citizens (WWF n.d.a). However, it has a number of serious environmental concerns about the third runway proposal. The Chinese Dolphins, the fisheries and carbon emission are the WWF hopes the Hong Kong government will consider during build the third runway (WWF n.d.b).

世界自然基金会是香港的环保组织之一。它支持香港的可持续发展,并为其公民带来相关利益(世界自然基金会所)。然而,它对第三条跑道的建议有许多严重的环境问题。中国海豚、渔业和碳排放是世界自然基金会希望香港政府在建造第三条跑道时考虑的问题。

The view of the citizens in Hong Kong 香港市民观点

The Hong Kong Airport Authority was held the three- month public consultation on Hong Kong International Airport Master Plan 2030. It was held between 3 June and 2 September 2011. It was done 24,242 of the questionnaire during the public consultation. For the result of the questionnaire, it indicated that the majority of respondents 80% agree or strongly agree that Hong Kong Airport Authority should make a decision urgently on Hong Kong International Airport’s future expansion plans. There are 73% of respondents prefer the three-runway option, with 11% opting to maintain the two-runway system and 16% remaining neutral(Airport Authority Hong Kong 2011).

香港机场管理局就香港国际机场2030年总体规划举行为期三个月的公众咨询。会议于2011年6月3日至9月2日举行。这是在公众咨询期间完成的24242份问卷。调查结果显示,大部分受访者同意或强烈同意香港机场管理局应就香港国际机场未来的扩建计划紧急作出决定。73%的受访者更喜欢三跑道方案,11%的受访者选择维持两跑道系统,16%的受访者保持中立。

The impact of the third runway in Hong Kong International Airport 香港国际机场第三条跑道的影响

Economic impact 经济影响

In fact, the aviation industry is essential role in Hong Kong’s development of economic. The professional services, trading and logistics, financial services and tourism are affecting mostly by the aviation industry (James Tong 2011). The new runway can increase the economy. After the Enright, Scott & Associates Ltd analysis, it estimate the direct, indirect and induced contribution of HKIA to Hong Kong’s GDP in 2030 will be HK$167 billion, equivalent to around 4.6% of the HKSAR’s GDP forecast for 2030. For the job opportunity, it estimates the direct employment associated with HKIA would reach 141,000 and indirect/induced employment would be about 199,000(Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.g:189).

事实上,航空业在香港经济发展中扮演重要角色。专业服务、贸易和物流、金融服务和旅游业主要受到航空业的影响。新跑道可以增加经济效益。根据Enright,Scott&Associates Ltd的分析,估计香港国际机场在2030年对香港本地生产总值的直接、间接和诱导贡献将为1670亿港元,约相当于香港特区2030年本地生产总值预测的4.6%。就就业机会而言,估计与香港国际机场相关的直接就业人数将达141000人,间接/诱导就业人数约为199000人。

Keep Hong Kong ‘s position as aviation hub 保持香港的航空枢纽地位

James Tong stated that the upcoming third runway construction is to maintain lead in the aviation industry. The geographic location is the Hong Kong’s advantage. The main advantage of the location of Hong Kong is its international connections in destinations and flights. It can be connected to 160 destinations. The third runway can increases capacity. It is enhanced the Hong Kong’s aviation position by keep up with the growing trends of aviation industry and handle with the strong demand in aviation industry. The overall of Hong Kong economic also be increased after construct the new runway. If not to build the new runway, Hong Kong may lose the position as aviation hub in Asia .The competitors in Asia is aggressive to enhance its aviation position and exceed the Hong Kong’s aviation position (James Tong 2011).

James Tong表示,即将进行的第三条跑道建设是为了保持航空业的领先地位。地理位置是香港的优势。香港地理位置的主要优势是其目的地和航班的国际连接。它可以连接到160个目的地。第三条跑道可以增加容量。紧跟航空业发展趋势,应对航空业的强劲需求,提升香港的航空地位。兴建新跑道后,香港整体经济也有所增长。如果不兴建新跑道,香港可能会失去亚洲航空枢纽的地位。亚洲的竞争对手积极提高其航空地位,并超越香港的航空地位。

Environmental impact 环境影响

The WWF had stated some of the environmental impact during constructing the third runway in Hong Kong International Airport. The construction brings the negative effect for the Chinese dolphins. During the construction of third runway, it is increased activity in the water. The Chinese dolphins will increase the risk. It is because dolphins in the nearby marine park. It is less than 1 km away from the proposed construction site. It will undoubtedly be disturbed by the construction. The construction may changes in water quality and affects their food supply. The WWF stated that the carbon emission is the concern. The third runway will increase the number of aircraft movements per day. It is leading to a massive increase in Hong Kong’s carbon emissions. The third runway will only drive them higher (WWF n.d.b).

世界自然基金会在香港国际机场兴建第三条跑道时,已说明部分环境影响。建设给中华海豚带来了负面影响。在第三条跑道的建设过程中,它在水中的活动增加了。中华海豚会增加风险。这是因为附近的海洋公园里有海豚。距离拟建工地不到1公里。毫无疑问,它将受到施工的干扰。施工可能会改变水质,影响他们的食物供应。世界自然基金会表示,碳排放是人们关注的问题。第三条跑道将增加每天的飞机移动次数。这导致香港的碳排放量大幅增加。第三条跑道只会让它们飞得更高。

Research Methods 研究方法

In the research, it will be implemented the inductive approach. The purpose of this research will collect different view, opinion and the concern factor about build the new runway in HKIA.

在本篇essay的研究中,它将采用归纳法。Essay的目的是收集对香港国际机场新跑道建设的不同看法、意见和关注因素。

Survey 调查

For the survey, the research will collect the data through the questionnaire. A non-probability sampling techniques like convenience sampling and snowball sampling would be adopt for the questionnaire. For the types of questionnaire, it will be used Internet-mediated questionnaires and delivery and collection questionnaires. For the Internet-mediated questionnaires, it would post the questionnaires on the internet. It is mainly post on the Hong Kong website. For the delivery and collection questionnaires, it is going to ask 200 interviewers to collect the data. It would analysis the data after data has been collected.

对于调查,本篇essay研究将通过问卷收集数据。问卷采用方便抽样和滚雪球抽样等非概率抽样技术。对于调查问卷的类型,将使用互联网中介调查问卷和递送和收集调查问卷。对于互联网中介的调查问卷,它将在互联网上发布调查问卷。主要刊登在香港网站上。对于发放和收集问卷,它将要求200名受访者收集数据。它将在收集数据后对数据进行分析。

Case Study 案例分析

There are similar situation with Hong Kong International Airport in other country. It will review the cases which are about construct the new runway. Identify the factor which needs to concern for the Hong Kong International Airport during the case study.

香港国际机场在其他国家也有类似的情况。它将审查关于建造新跑道的案例。在案例研究中确定香港国际机场需要关注的因素。

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