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Business Essay格式范文:Uber Business Model Analysis and CSR

论文价格: 免费 时间:2024-01-03 10:06:34 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Business Essay格式范文-Uber商业模式分析与企业社会责任。本文是一篇留学生Business Essay写作格式范文,主要内容是讲述Uber成立于2009年,是一家基于网络的交通网络公司,总部位于加利福尼亚州旧金山。它提供了一个出租车更换技术平台,通过基于位置的应用程序将“司机合作伙伴”与乘客连接起来,并在全球60多个国家运营。本篇essay指出作为第一家拼车业务,它已成为描述该服务时使用的术语。由于经济差距、民族自豪感和高犯罪率,南非是一个具有挑战性的市场。Essay认为Uber的核心竞争力是其作为先行者的品牌名称和声誉,以及通过有效的人才管理创造的企业文化,从而推动创业和创新。这使得这家年轻的公司能够有效地组织其不拥有的司机和车辆。以下内容就是Business Essay格式范文,供参考。

Business Essay格式范文

Part 1 第一部分

Founded in 2009, Uber is a web-based transportation network company headquartered in San, Francisco, California. It offers a taxi-replacement technology platform that connects “driver-partners” with riders via a location-based app and operates in over 60 countries around the world. As the first ride-sharing business, it has become the term used when describing the service. South Africa is a challenging market to enter because of economic divide, national pride, and high crime. Uber’s core competencies are its brand name and reputation from being a first-mover and a corporate culture created from effective talent management that drives entrepreneurship and innovation. This has allowed the young company to effectively organize drivers and vehicles it does not own.

By being the first web-based transportation network, Uber has a competitive advantage over similar companies as a first-mover. As a first-mover, Uber has been able to understand its business model, customer problems, and the fast pace of technology. This has given them the ability to be both proactive and reactive to solving issues in a rapidly changing environment. Uber had a three-year head start in the market and took full advantage of it. Its first-mover advantage is firm-specific and used maintain its competitive edge to prevent fast followers from catching up. It has a bold history and used a “beg for forgiveness rather than an ask for permission” strategy to enter the market. The taxi industry is highly fragmented, deeply regulated and mostly stationary in terms of innovation. It realized consumer frustration with the status-quo taxi industry and solved the problem by building a disruptive business model to execute an aggressive strategy and apply innovation to provide immediate relief to the chaotic situation. Professors Henrich Greve of INSEAD and Marc-David Seidel of the University of British Columbia studied the role of how being a first-mover played in overall success. The two professors realized that first-movers typically had an advantage over rivals, even with an inferior product or service, because they learned from mistakes and became better over time (Greve & Seidel, 2014). Only eight years old, Uber is a young company, but has already become a well-recognized brand. Its brand name has become a verb, synonymous with the online ride-sharing service. Uber’s name recognition as a first-mover produces loyalty among current customers and attracts new customers to its service even before other firms have entered the market. As a first-mover, Uber benefits from economies of scale and a vast network of established stakeholders and resources (drivers, customers, employees, technology, capital, etc.), which allows it to increase efficiency and decrease costs. Its first-mover advantage allowed the company to learn rapidly and obtain large amounts of data to create customer-driven marketing strategies, labor specialization and industry cooperation. Because of a longer learning curve, it can create customer value, drive down prices and implement more cost-efficient techniques into its business model. Uber is a cut-throat corporation with a large war chest. Founded in 2009, it is now worth around $70 billion and is the world’s most valuable startup company (The Economist, 2016). Its capital, gained from being a first-mover, allows the company to expand faster and take risks its competitors can’t afford to. Uber established itself as tech firm and not a transport company, which allowed it to expand globally and bypass taxicab regulations. If it is not able to enter a specific market because of extensive regulations it implements capital-intensive battle strategy. Uber has been able to spend billions on aggressively fighting and disrupting taxi industries around the world. It also has spent large amounts of money to boost innovation, diversify its business, and lock in strategic relationships with governments and other businesses. It’s first-mover advantage has also been able to attract and retain the top talent shaped that has been able to shape its corporate culture.

作为第一个基于网络的交通网络,Uber作为先行者,与同类公司相比具有竞争优势。本篇essay认为作为先行者,Uber已经能够理解其商业模式、客户问题和快速的技术步伐。这使他们能够在快速变化的环境中积极主动地解决问题。Uber在市场上领先了三年,并充分利用了这一优势。它的先发优势是企业特有的,用来保持其竞争优势,防止快速追随者迎头赶上。它有着大胆的历史,并采用了“乞求原谅而不是请求许可”的策略进入市场。出租车行业高度分散,监管深入,在创新方面基本稳定。它意识到消费者对出租车行业现状的不满,并通过建立颠覆性的商业模式来执行积极的战略和应用创新来立即缓解混乱局面,从而解决了这个问题。INSEAD的Henrich Greve教授和不列颠哥伦比亚大学的Marc David Seidel教授研究了先行者在整体成功中的作用。这两位教授意识到,即使产品或服务较差,先行者通常也比竞争对手有优势,因为他们从错误中吸取了教训,并随着时间的推移变得更好。成立仅八年的Uber是一家年轻的公司,但已经成为一个公认的品牌。它的品牌名称已经成为一个动词,与在线拼车服务同义。Uber作为先行者的知名度在现有客户中产生了忠诚度,甚至在其他公司进入市场之前就吸引了新客户使用其服务。作为先行者,Uber受益于规模经济和庞大的利益相关者和资源网络(司机、客户、员工、技术、资本等),这使其能够提高效率并降低成本。其先发优势使该公司能够快速学习并获得大量数据,以制定客户驱动的营销战略、劳动力专业化和行业合作。由于学习曲线较长,它可以创造客户价值,降低价格,并在其商业模式中实施更具成本效益的技术。Uber是一家残酷的公司,拥有庞大的战争资金。该公司成立于2009年,目前价值约700亿美元,是世界上最有价值的创业公司。Uber作为先行者获得的资本使其能够更快地扩张,并承担竞争对手无法承担的风险。Uber将自己定位为科技公司,而不是运输公司,这使其能够在全球扩张,绕过出租车法规。如果由于监管粗放而无法进入特定市场,则实施资本密集型作战战略。Uber已经能够花费数十亿美元在全球范围内积极打击和颠覆出租车行业。它还花费了大量资金来促进创新,实现业务多元化,并与政府和其他企业建立战略关系。它的先发优势还能够吸引和留住能够塑造其企业文化的顶尖人才。

In business, culture is important because it attracts talented and skilled individuals, increases employee productivity and operational efficiency, and improves quality and reputation. Uber’s culture is a core capability and firm-specific because it uses a highly paid, extremely motivated and specialized workforce who keep the company’s mission at heart. The company created a customer-centric and data-driven culture that promotes creativity and encourages passion. Its culture is based around value creation and uncovering This culture was created from its differentiating brand identity, which allowed it to capture and preserve a dynamic group of top talent. Its first-mover advantage, “cool” image and unique brand identity has created a staff of intrapreneurial millennials by attracting and retaining a workforce of intelligent young talent from all over the world to create its dynamic and innovative-driven. Most of Uber’s employees are between the ages of 25 and 35. It is also one of the few companies in Silicon Valley that hires large amounts of employees with PHDs.

本篇essay提出在商业中,文化很重要,因为它能吸引有才华和技能的人,提高员工的生产力和运营效率,提高质量和声誉。Uber的文化是一种核心能力,也是公司特有的,因为它使用了一支高薪、积极性极高、专业化的员工队伍,他们将公司的使命牢记在心。该公司创造了一种以客户为中心、数据驱动的文化,促进创造力和激情。它的文化是以价值创造和发掘为基础的。这种文化是从其差异化的品牌身份中创造出来的,这使它能够捕捉和留住一批充满活力的顶尖人才。它的先发优势、“酷”的形象和独特的品牌标识吸引并留住了来自世界各地的聪明年轻人才,创造了一批充满活力和创新驱动的千禧一代。Uber的大多数员工年龄在25岁到35岁之间。它也是硅谷为数不多的雇佣大量拥有博士学位员工的公司之一。

Its business model is driven by its culture and has earned it a reputation of providing an enhanced user experience, translating to higher customer satisfaction and increased revenue. Its corporate culture has led to great innovation and Uber’s pioneering technology with its verified drivers and cars, its dual-rating system that improves customer satisfaction and user confidence, and has allowed Uber to deliver a premium level of reliable service at an affordable rate. Its intelligent and aggressive culture created the atmosphere to bypass high barriers of entry into the taxi industry. To promote itself, the ride-sharing technology company creates strategic partnerships and uses great advertising and marketing campaigns to promote itself, which has resulted in the company’s high visibility and customer awareness. and an unlimited fleet of partners and vehicles has made it a global player in the market.

其商业模式由其文化驱动,并为其赢得了提供增强用户体验、转化为更高客户满意度和增加收入的声誉。其企业文化带来了巨大的创新和Uber的开创性技术,其经过验证的司机和汽车,其提高客户满意度和用户信心的双重评级系统,并使Uber能够以负担得起的价格提供优质可靠的服务。其智慧和进取的文化创造了绕过进入出租车行业的高门槛的氛围。为了宣传自己,这家拼车技术公司建立了战略合作伙伴关系,并利用出色的广告和营销活动来宣传自己,从而提高了公司的知名度和客户意识。无限的合作伙伴和车辆使其成为全球市场的参与者。

Uber used its strong transferable international brand to enter and disrupt the South African taxi industry. The company implemented its brand and leveraged its current business model into the country by adding programs to address the issues it would face. Uber’s brand had the chance of suffering from location disadvantages in South Africa because of high crime and unemployment rates, but Uber was able to address these key issues early on, before they had the chance to hurt its intimable brand name and reputation. It improved safety features concerning its service. In South Africa, all drivers had to be verified and an annual follow-up was required to protect users.

Uber利用其强大的可转让国际品牌进入并扰乱了南非出租车行业。该公司实施了自己的品牌,并通过增加项目来解决其将面临的问题,利用其目前的商业模式进入该国。由于高犯罪率和失业率,Uber的品牌有可能在南非遭遇区位劣势,但Uber很早就解决了这些关键问题,在这些问题有机会损害其亲密的品牌名称和声誉之前。它改进了服务的安全功能。在南非,所有司机都必须经过验证,并需要每年进行一次后续行动,以保护用户。

In South Africa, public transportation was slow and inconvenient. It low cost attracts mostly poorer citizens. There are safety concerns with the taxi services in the country because of high crime and taxi turf war. This issue is increased because taxi drivers only accept cash payments. Uber’s main coemption will be against Zebra Cabs, a South African metered cab service

在南非,公共交通既慢又不方便。它的低成本吸引了大多数贫穷的公民。由于高犯罪率和出租车地盘争夺战,该国的出租车服务存在安全问题。这个问题增加了,因为出租车司机只接受现金支付。Uber的主要竞争对手将是南非计价出租车服务公司Zebra Cabs

South Africa is a technological country where most citizens are technology-savvy. Uber used its disruptive technologies to enter the country by adapting and offering technology that catered to local needs. Uber uses great technology to bring riders and driver partners together.

南非是一个技术国家,大多数公民都精通技术。Uber利用其颠覆性技术进入该国,调整并提供满足当地需求的技术。Uber利用卓越的技术将乘客和司机合作伙伴聚集在一起。

Africa has a huge potential market for Uber and South Africa is the most economically developed country on the African continent

非洲有巨大的Uber潜在市场,南非是非洲大陆经济最发达的国家

Part 2 第二部分

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR),企业社会责任

With the rise of technology, the world and the business environment has become more globalized and transparent. Multinational Corporations (MNC) compete in a global arena. In the realm of rapidly moving business environments and an increased rate of globalization, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become more significant and apparent. The society of the world has put substantial pressure on these global firms to make them responsible for activities and actions. CSR can be simply summarized as “doing the right thing”. It is concerned with how the activities of firms have an impact of the fundamental, economic, and social impact on society. Still a relatively young subject, CSR

随着技术的兴起,世界和商业环境变得更加全球化和透明。跨国公司(MNC)在全球舞台上竞争。在快速变化的商业环境和全球化速度加快的领域,企业社会责任的概念变得更加重要和明显。世界社会对这些全球性公司施加了巨大压力,要求它们对活动和行动负责。Essay认为企业社会责任可以简单地概括为“做正确的事情”。它关注的是企业的活动如何对社会产生根本、经济和社会影响。CSR仍然是一个相对年轻的主题

History, Research and Writings on CSR 企业社会责任的历史、研究与写作

The concept of corporate social responsibility is a relatively young subject matter, mainly a product of the 20th century, especially the last 70 years. Its roots can be traced back centuries further, but formal writing on the subject has been a product of recent times. Archie B. Carroll traced the evolution of modern CSR back to 1950s (Carroll, 1999). Before the 1950s, CSR was referred to simply as “social responsibility” (SR), possibly because these periods preceded the era of corporate influence and dominance. The contemporary idea of CSR was established by Howard R. Bowen, known as the “Father of CSR” because of his early and influential work. In his landmark book Social Responsibilities of the Businessman, Bowen believed that the world’s largest businesses were “vital centers of power and decision making” and the activities of these specific firms affected the lives and aspects of many (Morrison & Bridwell, 2011). In his 1953 publication, Bowen argued that corporate responsibility encompasses more than following the law and reaches beyond a legal scope. Bowen’s social responsibility doctrine explained the responsibilities businesses owners had and how they must protect humanity from the harmful side effects of certain business activities by implementing policies and rigorously following them. The 1960s were significant in the history of corporate social responsibility. The depth of CSR began to expand in the 1960s as one of its first and most influential writers, Keith Davis (1960), defined social responsibility as “businessmen’s decisions and actions taken for reasons at least partially beyond the firm’s direct economic or technical interest” and that being socially responsible would pay the company back in the long run, through an increase of economic gain. In his piece, the Iron Law of Responsibility, Davis observed that businessmen were more worried about profit and immediate economic interests than they were about other important subjects. He broadened the thoughts of Bowen’s Social Responsibilities of the Businessman by stating that “social responsibilities of businessmen need to commensurate with their social power”. Davis argued social responsibility should consider the environment and other issues regarding public welfare issues and that the power of corporations must continuously be checked by social responsibility. The term CSR was first used in the 1970s and became widespread due to globalization.

本篇essay指出企业社会责任的概念是一个相对年轻的主题,主要是20世纪特别是近70年的产物。它的根源可以追溯到几个世纪前,但关于这个主题的正式写作是近代的产物。Archie B.Carroll将现代企业社会责任的演变追溯到20世纪50年代。在20世纪50年代之前,企业社会责任被简称为“社会责任”,可能是因为这些时期早于企业影响力和主导地位的时代。当代企业社会责任思想是由霍华德·R·鲍恩确立的,他因其早期而有影响的工作而被称为“企业社会责任之父”。鲍恩在其具有里程碑意义的著作《商人的社会责任》中认为,世界上最大的企业是“重要的权力和决策中心”,这些特定企业的活动影响了许多人的生活和方方面面。鲍恩在1953年的出版物中认为,公司责任不仅仅包括遵守法律,而且超出了法律范围。鲍恩的社会责任学说解释了企业主的责任,以及他们必须如何通过实施政策并严格遵守政策来保护人类免受某些商业活动的有害副作用。20世纪60年代在企业社会责任史上意义重大。企业社会责任的深度在20世纪60年代开始扩大,因为它的第一位也是最有影响力的作家之一Keith Davis将社会责任定义为“商人出于至少部分超出公司直接经济或技术利益的原因而做出的决定和采取的行动”,通过增加经济收益。戴维斯在他的文章《责任的铁律》中指出,与其他重要主题相比,商人更担心利润和眼前的经济利益。他拓宽了博文《商人的社会责任》的思想,提出“商人的社会职责需要与其社会力量相适应”。戴维斯认为,社会责任应该考虑环境和其他与公共福利问题有关的问题,企业的权力必须不断受到社会责任的制约。企业社会责任一词最早使用于20世纪70年代,并因全球化而广泛使用。

Core Characteristics and Benefits 核心特性和优势

According to Sen and Korschun, CSR is driven by stakeholder relations, social obligations and marketing (Sen & Korschun, 2006). Every firm is responsible and held accountable to its stakeholders. In spite of many efforts to create a clear and impartial definition of CSR, there is still no universally correct definition for the concept. While the fundamental features of CSR are visible in the practice and remain the core characteristics of the concept, hardly any definition includes them all. Aminu Ahmadu Hamidu, Harashid Md Haron, & Azlan Amran (2015) state that corporate social responsibility has six characteristics: Voluntary, Internalizing or Managing Externalities, Multiple Stakeholder Orientation, Alignment of Social and Economic Responsibilities, Practices and Values, and Beyond Philanthropy.

本篇essay根据Sen和Korschun的观点,企业社会责任是由利益相关者关系、社会义务和营销驱动的。每个公司都对其利益相关者负责。尽管为建立一个明确、公正的企业社会责任定义做出了许多努力,但这一概念仍然没有一个普遍正确的定义。虽然企业社会责任的基本特征在实践中是可见的,并且仍然是该概念的核心特征,但几乎没有任何定义将其全部包括在内。Aminu Ahmadu Hamidu、Harashid Md Haron和Azlan Amran指出,企业社会责任具有六个特征:自愿、内部化或管理外部性、多利益相关者导向、社会和经济责任、实践和价值观的一致性以及超越慈善。

Strategic CSR 战略性企业社会责任

Corporate social responsibility has become a standard business practice in the business environment, even more so for multinational corporations. CSR has been implemented into global branding and is the core of many business strategies in order to promote long term growth. Jevons and Polonsky (2009) believe that today’s multinational corporations must view CSR from a strategic view within the global arena. With an advance of technology and faster communication channels, consumers are more aware on world and business events. Studies have shown that the ethical conduct of firms has a great influence on the purchasing decisions of consumers. In an investigation by Environics International, more than twenty percent of consumers stated their purchases were companies based solely on how they perceived the business (Mohanty, 2008). With increased interest from customers and other stakeholders (employees, suppliers, investors, communities, and activist groups), there is a growing demand for greater disclosure. Because of this, organizations and the individuals within them must consider its complexity and explore it to better understand how it is related to branding strategies. Because these multinational firms operate in several business environments, they must be able to relate each set of responsibilities at numerous points, encompassing a variety of company activities (Valor, 2007). Strategic CSR is used to help firms achieve a positive impact on society while maximizing the shared value for all the organization’s stakeholders. The notion of share value creation derived from Professor Michael Porter’s theory of competitive advantage (Porter, 2011). This theory suggests that firms need a structuralist view to create a strategic share value for competitive thinking. By implementing this strategy, firms are able to defend themselves against competitors. Firms use strategic CSR in the daily operations of the firm and is central to the activities of the firm value creation system.  Werther and Chandler (2005) examined several multinational companies and found out that “global brands are often central to competitive strategy” and work by guaranteeing consumers are provided the best in “quality, consistency, and security”. By delivering customers guarantees, these brands can reduce costs while increasing profits. Studies have discovered the positive effect of CSR practices on profitability and other performance measures (Goyal et. al, 2013). The public’s expectation of firms is that they will function in humanity’s best interests. With the rise of technology and social media, the importance of CSR is intensified. David Woods studied the correlation of revenue and CSR and found out that CSR is not only ethical, but profitable, especially in regards to long term gains (Woods, 2011). Woods wrote that studies have shown that “organisations that had a genuine commitment to CSR substantially outperformed those that did not, with an average return on assets 19 times higher”. Kellie McElhaney (2007) believes that CSR is more of a strategy than a concept. McElhaney does not believe that CSR is a remedy to the problems that affect the planet, its inhabitants and the global business environment, but a practicable and essential element of overall business strategy. McEkhaney believes to be more effective, strategic CSR needs to be aligned with the core business objectives and core competencies of the organization. Matthews (1982) believes that corporations are not monolithic entities, but organizations administered and controlled by individuals and attached in the societies in which they operate. Because of this aspect, CSR must reflect the human element of firms and contribute to their communities and overall society.

本篇essay提出企业社会责任已经成为商业环境中的一种标准商业实践,对跨国公司来说更是如此。企业社会责任已被纳入全球品牌,是促进长期增长的许多商业战略的核心。Jevons和Polonsky认为,当今的跨国公司必须从全球舞台的战略角度看待企业社会责任。随着技术的进步和更快的沟通渠道,消费者对世界和商业事件有了更多的了解。研究表明,企业的道德行为对消费者的购买决策有很大影响。在Environics International的一项调查中,超过20%的消费者表示,他们的购买完全基于他们对业务的看法。随着客户和其他利益相关者(员工、供应商、投资者、社区和活动家团体)的兴趣增加,对更多信息披露的需求也越来越大。正因为如此,组织及其内部的个人必须考虑其复杂性,并对其进行探索,以更好地了解其与品牌战略的关系。由于这些跨国公司在多种商业环境中运营,它们必须能够在多个方面将每一套责任联系起来,包括各种公司活动。战略性企业社会责任用于帮助企业对社会产生积极影响,同时最大限度地实现组织所有利益相关者的共享价值。股份价值创造的概念源自迈克尔·波特教授的竞争优势理论。这一理论表明,企业需要结构主义的观点来为竞争思维创造战略份额价值。通过实施这一战略,企业能够抵御竞争对手。企业在日常运营中使用战略性企业社会责任,是企业价值创造系统活动的核心。Werther和Chandler研究了几家跨国公司,发现“全球品牌往往是竞争战略的核心”,并通过确保消费者在“质量、一致性和安全性”方面获得最佳服务来发挥作用。通过向客户提供担保,这些品牌可以在增加利润的同时降低成本。研究发现,企业社会责任实践对盈利能力和其他绩效指标具有积极影响。公众对企业的期望是,它们的运作将符合人类的最大利益。随着技术和社交媒体的兴起,企业社会责任的重要性日益凸显。David Woods研究了收入和企业社会责任的相关性,发现企业社会责任不仅合乎道德,而且有利可图,尤其是在长期收益方面。伍兹写道,研究表明,“对企业社会责任有真正承诺的组织的表现大大优于没有承诺的组织,平均资产回报率高出19倍”。Kellie McElhaney认为,企业社会责任与其说是一个概念,不如说是一种战略。McElhaney并不认为企业社会责任是对影响地球、地球居民和全球商业环境的问题的补救措施,而是整体商业战略的一个切实可行的基本要素。McEkhaney认为,要想更有效,战略性企业社会责任需要与组织的核心业务目标和核心能力相一致。Matthews认为,公司不是单一的实体,而是由个人管理和控制的组织,并附属于其经营的社会。正因为如此,企业社会责任必须反映企业的人的因素,并为其社区和整个社会做出贡献。

Impact of Globalization on CSR 全球化对企业社会责任的影响

Professor Roland Robertson defines globalization as “the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole” (Robertson, 1992). Consumers are no longer restricted to their smaller-scaled home markets and now have access to a vast international market. Globalization, especially for multinational corporation, brings more opportunities and benefits, but also creates ethical issues and other problems when dealing in foreign countries. CSR covers a wide range of interests and the rapid rate of globalization has led certain corporations and developing countries to become significant players in the world economy. However, developing countries with emerging economies have critically encountered an abundant amount of issues (religious, governmental, social, cultural, environmental, etc.) Rhys Jenkins (2005) studied the effects of globalization on CSR and its influence on society. Jenkins notes that the present movement and concentration of global CSR today dates back to the early 1990s. This movement led to the international rise of CSR, global deregulation, the creation of development agencies, increased foreign investment, and the reduction of poverty, but played a major part in the shrinking role of national governments. With globalization and corporate responsibility intertwined in an increasingly competitive market, the influence and responsibility of business firms is increased while the control of governmental bodies is reduced. Historically, national governments depended on regulatory measures to bring societal and ecofriendly purposes to the business sector. Verma (2015) claims that dwindling government resources, combined with a suspicion of regulations created a search for voluntary and non-regulatory initiatives which reduced the power of governments. Scherer and Palazzo (2011) assert that it is crucial to shift towards a larger, politically-centric concept of CSR, especially in a globalized world. Because of globalization, the authority of national governments is getting weaker when it comes to regulating the activities of global firms. Governments around the world are in a constant battle (and race to implosion) with other countries in order to win the competition. Corporations must practice morally and promote ethical decision making standards in order to avoid political conflict and the societal consequences. Global firms are not only responsible of their in-house activities, but also for the activities of their suppliers and partners. Due to an exploitation of child labor from its suppliers, Nike faced a global consumer boycott and had to make extensive enhancements in the working environments of its various supplier plants (Brause, Locke and Qin, 2007). While some activities and practices may reduce costs and legal in some parts of the world, partaking in these unethical business practices may be considered immoral and damage the public’s perception of the company.

Roland Robertson教授将全球化定义为“世界的压缩和整个世界意识的强化”。消费者不再局限于规模较小的国内市场,现在可以进入广阔的国际市场。全球化,特别是对跨国公司来说,在带来更多机会和利益的同时,也带来了在国外交易时的道德问题和其他问题。企业社会责任涉及广泛的利益,全球化的快速发展使某些公司和发展中国家成为世界经济的重要参与者。然而,新兴经济体的发展中国家遇到了大量问题(宗教、政府、社会、文化、环境等)。Rhys Jenkins研究了全球化对企业社会责任的影响及其对社会的影响。詹金斯指出,当今全球企业社会责任的运动和集中可以追溯到20世纪90年代初。这场运动导致了企业社会责任的国际兴起、全球放松管制、发展机构的成立、外国投资的增加和贫困的减少,但在国家政府作用的缩小中发挥了重要作用。本篇essay认为随着全球化和企业责任在竞争日益激烈的市场中交织在一起,企业的影响力和责任增加了,而政府机构的控制却减少了。

References:参考文献

Bowen, H.R., 2013. Social responsibilities of the businessman, Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.

Hamidu, A.A., Haron, H.M. & Amran, A., 2015. Corporate Social Responsibility: A Review on Definitions, Core Characteristics and Theoretical Perspectives. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4).

Jenkins, R., 2005. Globalization, Corporate Social Responsibility and poverty. International Affairs, 81(3), pp.525-540.

Locke, R.M., Qin, F. and Brause, A., 2007. Does monitoring improve labor standards? Lessons from Nike. ILR Review, 61(1), pp.3-31.

MacMillan, D. & Demos, T., 2015. Uber Valued at More Than $50 Billion. The Wall Street Journal. Available at: https://www.wsj.com/articles/uber-valued-at-more-than-50-billion-1438367457 [Accessed February 21, 2017].

Matthews, J.B., 1982. Can a corporation have a conscience?, Boston: Graduate School of Business, Harvard University.

McElhaney, K., 2007. Strategic CSR. Sustainable Enterprise Quarterly, 4(1), pp.1-7.

Morrison, E. and Bridwell, L., 2011, January. Consumer Social Responsibility-The True Corporate Social Responsibility. In Competition Forum (Vol. 9, No. 1, p. 144). American Society for Competitiveness.

Mohanty, R.P., 2008. Quality management practices, New Delhi: Excel Books.

Polonsky, M. and Jevons, C., 2009. Global branding and strategic CSR: an overview of three types of complexity. International Marketing Review, 26(3), pp.327-347.

Porter, Michael E. Competitive advantage of nations: creating and sustaining superior performance. Simon and Schuster, 2011.

Robertson, R., 2011. Globalization: social theory and global culture, London: Sage.

Scherer, A.G. and Palazzo, G., 2011. The new political role of business in a globalized world: A review of a new perspective on CSR and its implications for the firm, governance, and democracy. Journal of management studies, 48(4), pp.899-931.

Seidel, H.R. & Marc-David, G.L., 2014. Being Early Beats Being Better. Harvard Business Review. Available at: https://hbr.org/2014/06/being-early-beats-being-better [Accessed February 23, 2017].

Sen, S. & Korschun, B., 2006. The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Strengthening Multiple Stakeholder Relationships: A Field Experiment. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), pp.158-166.

The Economist, 2016. Uberworld. The Economist. 

Valor, C., 2007. A global strategic plan for corporate philanthropy. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 12(3), pp.280-297.

Verma, L., 2015. Impact of Corporate Social Responsibilities in Modern Business Environment. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, p.580.

本篇essay指出从历史上看,国家政府依靠监管措施为商业部门带来社会和生态友好的目的。Verma声称,政府资源的减少,加上对监管的怀疑,导致人们寻求自愿和非监管举措,从而削弱了政府的权力。Scherer和Palazzo断言,转向更大的、以政治为中心的企业社会责任概念至关重要,尤其是在全球化的世界中。由于全球化,各国政府在监管全球企业活动方面的权威越来越弱。为了赢得竞争,世界各国政府都在与其他国家进行持续的斗争(并竞相内爆)。为了避免政治冲突和社会后果,企业必须在道德上实践并推广道德决策标准。全球公司不仅对其内部活动负责,还对其供应商和合作伙伴的活动负责。由于供应商对童工的剥削,耐克面临着全球消费者的抵制,不得不对其各个供应商工厂的工作环境进行广泛的改善。虽然在世界某些地区,一些活动和做法可能会降低成本和合法性,但参与这些不道德的商业行为可能被认为是不道德的,并损害公众对公司的看法。本站提供各国各专业essay格式范文以及essay写作指导,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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