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人力资源Essay作业:Human Resource Fram for Leader and Community Focused Company

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-04-28 09:40:01 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是“Human Resource Fram for Leader and Community Focused Company(面向领导者和社区型公司的人力资源框架)”,在大多数组织中,它以某种方式体现了Bolman和Deal的四个框架:人力资源框架、结构框架、政治框架和象征框架。威奇托的Luna Café也没有什么不同。他们努力实施成功的领导过程,并通过亲身进行职业培训,增强面临风险的青年的权能,并在社区中充当高质量的café。Luna Café致力于通过工作经验和指导,为有犯罪记录的高危青少年提供一种另类的生活方式。我们是威奇托最大的餐厅雇佣重罪犯通过"一劳永尽"基金会为他们提供第二次机会。

Within most every organization, somehow, someway it embodies Bolman and Deal’s four frameworks, the Human Resource Frame, the Structural Frame, the Political Frame, and the Symbolic Frame, in some capacity. Luna Café in Wichita isn’t any different. They strive to implement successful leadership processes, as well as empowering at risk youth through hands on job training, and acting as a high quality café in the community. Luna Café strives to provide at risk youth, specifically those with a criminal record, with an alternative lifestyle through work experience and mentorship. We are the number one restaurant in Wichita who hires felons in order to provide them with a second chance through the One and Done foundation. The foundations name is unique, as it is in reference to one big mistake, and done. Meaning they are working to make a better life for themselves and their families. So, with that Luna Café strives to provide the individual with learning valuable workplace skills. Luna Café offers several programs for personal development for employees.  Luna Café wants to be able to not only help, but encourage the young individual to continuously set and achieve new goals with the intention of moving on to bigger and better things. Part of Luna’s program is for those who were imprisoned or jailed before graduating high school, they help prepare/tutor them for obtaining their GED.  They also provide the individual with group therapy, which stresses that they accept accountability and responsibility for their actions. As for every action, there is a reaction or a consequence of that action.  Luna also participates in several different charities throughout the community. Luna Café is very similar to that of Panera Bread, Luna offers a variety of sandwiches, bagels, breads, pastries, hot beverages, alcoholic beverages and breakfast items. Bolman and Deal’s frameworks provide valuable insight, the Human Resource Frame applies particularly well when analyzing this organization. Their ability to structure the business with an emphasis on the Human Resource Frame, and bring together both organizational elements, is what makes Luna Café so unique.

基金会的名称是唯一的,因为它是在参考一个大错误,并完成。这意味着他们正在努力为自己和家人创造更好的生活。因此,Luna Café努力为每个人提供学习有价值的工作技能。Luna Café为员工提供了一些个人发展项目。Luna Café希望不仅能够帮助年轻人,而且鼓励他们不断设定和实现新的目标,并朝着更大更好的目标前进。卢娜的项目的一部分是为那些在高中毕业前被监禁或监禁的人,他们帮助他们准备/指导他们获得GED。他们还为个人提供团体治疗,强调他们对自己的行为承担责任。对于每一个行动,都有一个反应或行动的结果。卢娜还在社区中参与了几个不同的慈善活动。Luna Café与Panera Bread非常相似,Luna提供各种三明治、百吉饼、面包、糕点、热饮、酒精饮料和早餐项目。Bolman和Deal的框架提供了有价值的见解,人力资源框架尤其适用于分析该组织。他们的能力结构的业务与强调人力资源框架,并结合这两个组织元素,是什么使Luna Café如此独特。



In this we will analyze Luna Café using the congruence model. This is one of the most effective ways to run an organization, as it considers the four crucial components of an organization’s processes. The four components, which collectively constitute the transformation process in the model, are task, informal organization, formal organization, and individual. Each component interacts with each of the other three components individually.

Inputs are the factors that affect performance due to the organization’s situation. These are the resources that are used by the organization, its history, social, economic and market positions. Resources utilized by Luna Café include the volunteers, charitable donations, students, and Megan’s time and expertise, and so much more.

Tasks, these are the things members of the organization must do, and can differ from person to person or organization to organization. A good example would be the students at Luna’s Café have the task of getting the business ready for the opening of the café for business, working the line, positive customer service, stocking, clean up, and closing. A crucial foundational point about organizational tasks is that they must fall in alignment with the skills of those people completing them.


Luna Café’s informal structure basically refers to the culture and norms that exist within the organization. These essentially govern many interactions and relationships within it. Some organizations have a laid back culture, and others have more of a no-nonsense culture, and then there are those that fall somewhere in between the two. The culture at Luna’s appears to be relaxed, yet structured, but not overly structured, which appears to work well for the group of students who are not particularly accustomed to rules and strict structure outside of prison/jail life. Many of these students prior to incarceration lacked any kind of structure in their home life. There can be a downfall to that, in which students sometimes feel, either consciously or subconsciously, that they can take advantage of Megan Henry, who is the Executive Director. While this can possibly pose a serious threat to the organization’s ability to succeed, Megan’s primary goal is to hold on to the students for as long as she can, believing that every moment they’re at Luna’s it’s time they are not on the streets. Megan essentially takes on the stress, knowing that Luna Café is making a huge difference in these young peoples lives, even if they aren’t aware of it or not. There are downsides in dealing with the students’ disrespect and the associated stress, and it can lead to other problems within the organization.

Luna Café has a flat organizational structure, with Megan at the top who maintains contact with all eight students in the program. The newly hired manager also has some authority over the students, but his position within the formal organizational structure hasn’t yet been solidified yet due to he is still in the probationary period. Megan takes the responsibility right now for coordinating and working with the volunteers who help out at Luna’s, this will eventually go to the new manager in time.  In terms of who is directly reported too, nearly every member of the organization reports directly to the Executive Director. The café’s formal organization is functioning at this point, but is unlikely to remain sustainable with so much pressure on one person.

Luna Café有一个扁平的组织结构,梅根在顶端,她与项目中的所有8名学生保持联系。新聘用的经理对学生也有一定的权力,但由于还处于试用期,他在正式组织结构中的地位还没有得到巩固。梅根现在负责协调和帮助志愿者在Luna 's,这些最终会及时给新经理。至于直接向谁报告,几乎该组织的每一个成员都直接向执行主任报告。café的正式组织目前还在运作,但一个人承受着如此大的压力,不太可能持续下去。

In order to understand all of the individual factors that go into the transformation process, one should ask themselves, what are their needs and preferences? What are their perceptions and expectations about their work? What knowledge and skills do they bring to their work, if any? Of course, the answers to these questions are very different when asking them of Megan versus the students. Megan is educated, has an abundance of experience in the food service industry, and also has experience leading nonprofit organizations. On the other hand, the students employed by Luna have little professional experience in any environment really. Determining the individual needs of these extremely inexperienced individuals therefore falls once again into the lap of Megan Henry who works endlessly to provide opportunities for the students to do work they enjoy and gain value from.

In order for a desired performance the organization must constitute the outputs an organization must produce. Within the  congruence model, every part of the transformation process must be placed with the desired results, whether in mass quantity or quality. This model measures the outputs at the group, individual, and organizational levels. It is important to understand each of the four components of the congruence model, as well as it is extremely important understanding how they interact with one another and create fit.  Fit almost always exists between every combination of two parts of the transformation process. One of the relationships that affect the daily operations and the daily success of Luna’s is that of between task and individual. Like I stated above, those students who are accepted into the program at Luna Café are typically ex-felons who have had very limited work opportunities. In their life many of them have experienced socioeconomic backgrounds that create interesting obstacles, which they must overcome in order to sustain steady employment. With that being said, unfortunately due to their needs and abilities, it does not always mesh well with the tasks assigned to them at the café (in other words, the congruence within the relationship isn’t particularly high). One relationship is primarily high congruence at Luna’s which is the relationship between individual and the informal organization. The culture and diversity at Luna, is not overly structured, and appears to work well for the group. These students are not always accustomed to the fact of strict rules and structures. The smooth and broad culture allows them to feel comfortable most of the time, freeing them to do their work to the best of their ability. Despite these young students unfortunate pasts, they are able to build a strong bond with Megan, a lot of due to the informality of the culture. Megan has always adored these students, and probably stated it best when she said these kids meant everything to her, and they would do anything for her. There are issuesthat arise from time to time, but the relaxed culture at Luna’s is primarily beneficial in that it cultivates trust and feelings of positive self-worth.

Megan tries very hard to run the Luna Café effectively, professionally and morally. She works really hard to make sure that she is charging people prices similar to those of Panera and/or other sandwich shops/bagel shops, as well as match the quality of products and services that they provide. Megan wants for her customers to be happy with not only the service but the products at Luna Café.  While the culture here at the café is mostly relaxed one, it is important and essential that the employees provide a fun and friendly, yet a professional environment, but also be willing to work hard to provide a quality experience for their customers. Employees that are running the sandwich area are therefore expected to behave and interact with the customers in a certain manner in order to keep customers happy and satisfied. When people enter a sandwich shop for a cup of coffee and a bagel, they expect a certain level of professionalism from the employee and the business as a whole.

梅根非常努力地运行着卢娜Café,有效,专业和道德。她非常努力地工作,以确保她向人们收取的价格与Panera和/或其他三明治店/百吉饼店相似,并与他们提供的产品和服务质量相匹配。梅根希望她的客户不仅满意的服务,但产品在Luna Café。虽然在café这里的文化大多是轻松的,但重要和必要的是,员工提供一个有趣和友好,但专业的环境,但也愿意努力工作,为客户提供高质量的体验。因此,为了保持顾客的快乐和满意,经营三明治区域的员工应该以某种方式与顾客互动。当人们走进一家三明治店,喝一杯咖啡,吃一个百吉饼时,他们期望从员工和整个企业中获得一定程度的专业水平。

Organizations like Luna Café also wish to find fit between the individual and the formal organization. This may be one area in which Luna Café struggles, as the structure in many ways may not fit with many of the individual’s characteristics. As mentioned earlier, many of the employees are ex-felons and troubled youth.  This means that many of them may require a lot of attention and supervision to keep them focused and on task. One of the critiques Megan mentioned of her own business was that it needed a more organized formal structure. Many of the employees require special attention, as some suffer from learning and psychological disorders as well as substance abuse problems. Some of the employees really struggle to stay on task and complete their assigned jobs effectively. Without much help, Luna Café’s lack of structure tends to put more stress on Megan to be able to cater to each employee’s needs. Rather than just overseeing their work, Megan in many instances feels as if she has to constantly “baby-sit” employees who are in need of her attention.

Along with the congruence model, there are four frameworks that Bolman and Deal suggest are useful ways of analyzing an organization. “The human resource frame centers on what organizations and people do for one another” (Bolman & Deal, 2008). This is in direct opposition to the ideology that organizations exploit workers and treat them as pawns in a greater game of chess. Rather, the Human Resource Frame focuses on investing in people, and occasionally sacrificing costs to strengthen the fit between the individual and the organization. Luna Café in Wichita relies heavily on the Human Resource Frame, with their goals targeted toward personal development, responsibility and accountability, and empowerment of an oftentimes-underserved youth population.

Luna functions as two organizations in one, developing and empowering the under-reached community of ex-felons and serving timely and delicious food. It is this hybrid that makes Luna so special, and both elements work to improve the function of the other. Founder and Executive Director Megan Henry calls “every aspect [of Luna Cafe] a learning experience.” Though the café does provide programs such as GED preparation, tutoring, and psychological support, Megan highlights that even being in an environment in which collaboration with others is necessary can teach valuable life lessons. The work habits necessary for success in the food service industry, such as arriving on time, maintaining a clean workplace, and serving customers in a positive manner, work to develop skills necessary to enter the work force as well as to cultivate basic life skills. Further, the personal development workshops for the employees after-hours increase dependability and are constructive to interpersonal conflict resolution. Though Megan often runs into bumps with this system, it is the perfect example of how investing in people can lead to increased positive work output.

Luna组织集两个组织于一体,发展和赋予那些未被充分利用的前重罪犯社区力量,并提供及时美味的食物。正是这种混合让卢娜如此特别,这两种元素都能改善对方的功能。创始人兼执行董事梅根·亨利称“(Luna Cafe的)每个方面都是一次学习经历。”虽然café提供诸如GED备课、辅导和心理支持等项目,梅根强调,即使身处一个需要与他人合作的环境中,也能教授有价值的人生课程。在餐饮服务行业取得成功所必需的工作习惯,例如准时到达,保持工作场所的清洁,以积极的态度服务顾客,努力发展进入职场所必需的技能,以及培养基本的生活技能。此外,员工下班后的个人发展研讨会增加了可靠性,并对解决人际冲突具有建设性。虽然梅根经常与这个系统发生冲突,但它是一个完美的例子,说明投资于人可以增加积极的工作产出。

In this situation of transition for employees, tensions can rise quickly and escalate to high levels. In the Human Resource Frame, conflict resolution is based on agreeing on the basics, searching for common interests, and treating individual differences as a group responsibility (Bolman & Deal, 2008). Megan reflects this structure through what she calls “restorative resolution.” This involves addressing conflict as a group using talking pieces in a sharing circle. For this group, restorative resolution is extremely effective: it leads to personal application and growth, as well as direct application in the workplace. For example, during one of their sharing sessions, tardiness was discussed in terms of the “ripple effect.” The workers learned that tardiness affects their ability to complete their tasks effectively, and that, on a larger scale, their choices and actions impact those around them. As Bolman and Deal articulate, “Many employees feel little responsibility for an organization’s performance…the organization needs to build an ‘ownership culture…’ [and] ‘employees [must] both learn and drive the business disciplines” (Bolman & Deal, 2008). Restorative conflict resolution helps build this ownership culture at Luna Café.

In an organization like Luna, it is very easy to unconsciously and frequently commit the fundamental attribution error. Society places certain labels on youth with criminal records, and removing that lens when viewing employees can be challenging. For example, one student was scheduled to arrive at 7 a.m. each day, but consistently arrived drastically late. Megan intervened, and told the student that he must arrive on time or risk suspension. From then on the student arrived at 7 a.m., but would nap in the backroom for nearly half of his shift. Megan assumed the student was struggling with some sort of drug addiction, and simply told him to sleep it off. She later discovered that he had been riding the train all night because he’s lived on the streets since age sixteen, and to avoid being robbed had to stay awake all night. In any organization, but in the case of Luna’s especially, it is vital to maintain the ideology of Theory Y, not Theory X. Theory Y dictates that “the essential task of management is to arrange conditions so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing efforts toward organizational rewards” (McGregor, 1960, p. 61). This is the target for Luna’s: helping youth achieve personal goals that better the organization as a whole, and finding a balance between not enabling and not abandoning. It is far too easy to treat the “symptoms” of a problem (i.e. bad behavior, inefficient work, negative attitudes) instead of getting to the roots (homelessness, insecurity, addictions, etc.). This is a very real example of the necessity to avoid rewarding A not B.

While the Human Resource Frame provides a great lens for analysis, it has several limitations in analyzing organizations. According to the Human Resource Frame, Luna Café appears to be a highly successful café, because it consciously caters to the needs of its people. However, Luna Café is currently suffering from several problems, notably financial issues and an overpopulated staff. The frame does not look at the formal structure of an organization, such as the power hierarchy and decision-making structure. Since the Human Resource Frame looks primarily at the human aspect of the organization, it doesn’t necessarily consider problems with the underlying structure of the organization. For example, because Luna Café is a non-profit organization, it must rely heavily on fundraising efforts, grants, and individual donations for money. This means that they may be unable to provide the financial security that its employees need.

虽然人力资源框架为分析提供了一个很好的视角,但它在分析组织方面有几个局限性。根据人力资源框架,Luna Café似乎是一个非常成功的café,因为它有意识地迎合了人们的需求。然而,卢娜Café目前正遭受着几个问题,尤其是财务问题和工作人员过多。该框架不考虑组织的正式结构,如权力层次和决策结构。由于人力资源框架主要着眼于组织的人的方面,它不一定考虑与组织的底层结构有关的问题。例如,由于Luna Café是一个非营利组织,它必须在很大程度上依赖于筹款努力、拨款和个人捐款。这意味着他们可能无法为其员工提供所需的经济保障。


Additionally, the Human Resource Frame does not look at the economic aspects of the organization—the give and take, the limited resources, etc.—that will need to be distributed amongst the individuals within the organization. These are aspects that affect but exist separately from the well-being of the individuals. For example, Luna Café has a limited amount of resources—particularly money. The Human Resource Frame doesn’t necessarily consider how that can be divided amongst the employees and director; in order for one individual to receive higher compensation, some must be taken away from another employee’s compensation. This can actually be seen in Luna Café current structure. Luna Café currently has a problem with too many employees; according to Megan there are too many kids, but she “doesn’t want to turn them away” because “they need [the Café].” This is an excellent example of how the Human Resource Frame succeeds, if we look at it from the perspective of helping as many ex-felons as possible. However, if we look at it from an economic efficiency standpoint, it fails by attempting to spread its resources too thin and not being able to fully satisfy the needs of anyone.

As quoted in Bolman and Deal’s Reframing Organizations, “Individuals need (1) to see their work as meaningful and worthwhile…(2) to use discretion and judgment so they can feel personally accountable for results, and (3) to receive feedback about their efforts so they can improve” (Hackman, Oldham, Janson, & Purdy, 1987). The Human Resource Frame describes that an organization is akin to a living organism, constantly growing and changing as individuals function in the organization.

引用在Bolman和交易的重构组织、“个人需要(1)认为自己的工作是有意义的和有价值的…(2)使用自由裁量权和判断,这样他们就可以感觉个人对结果负责,和(3)接收反馈的工作,这样他们就可以改善”(哈克曼,奥尔德姆,延森& Purdy, 1987)。人力资源框架描述了一个组织类似于一个有生命的有机体,随着个人在组织中的作用而不断成长和变化。

The Human Resource Frame causes certain limitations for Luna Café that create downfalls for the organization. However, the three other frames can make up for these limitations if applied correctly. Many of the problems within the organization are centralized around the downfall of not having a formal structure in place. The Structural Framework states that an organization is a machine. There are structures of hierarchy in place to allocate tasks to different people in their assigned roles (Bolman & Deal, 2008). Luna Café does not have a formal structure or hierarchy set in place. This lack of structure causes issues between the Executive Director and her employees. There needs to be set roles that accomplish a set number of targets for the organization to make the company run smoother.

The Political Framework, if implemented correctly, could help Luna deal with both of the problems addressed previously—scarcity of resources and over-abundance of employees. Scarcity is a major problem that arises within the organization. The Political Framework discusses how to correctly allocate those resources to make the organization run effectively. One way to allocate correctly would be based on job performance. This framework views the workplace as an arena to compete in (Bolman & Deal, 2008). If each employee of Curt’s Café competed to a high level for the money they earn, profits would hopefully rise. Allocating resources correctly also goes back to keeping the right staffing level. Luna Café keeps far too many employees because Megan does not want to turn away any at-risk youth. However, keeping that many employees creates even more scarcity of resources. Resources, especially money, are what keep an organization moving effectively. To maintain the right amount of resources, there may need to be a cutback on the amount of people working at Luna Café.

政治框架,如果正确实施,可以帮助卢娜处理之前提到的两个问题——资源短缺和员工过剩。稀缺是组织内部出现的一个主要问题。政治框架讨论如何正确分配这些资源,使组织有效运行。一种正确分配的方法是基于工作表现。这个框架将工作场所视为一个竞争的竞技场(Bolman & Deal, 2008)。如果Curt的Café的每个员工都为他们赚到的钱竞争到一个高水平,利润将有望上升。正确分配资源还涉及到保持正确的人员配备水平。Luna Café留住了太多的员工,因为梅根不想拒绝任何有风险的年轻人。然而,保留这么多员工会使资源更加稀缺。资源,尤其是资金,是保持一个组织有效运作的要素。为了保持适量的资源,可能需要削减在Luna Café工作的人员数量。

The last framework, the Symbolic Framework, addresses an organization as a tribe with rituals and symbols to drive it forward (Bolman & Deal, 2008). Luna Café is a symbol of hope for the entire community that at-risk youth can lead a better life with a little help from outside sources. This symbol needs to be able to generate donors for this non-profit organization. Focusing on the at-risk youth is very important, but using that to gain supporters for the organization will help Luna’s in the long run to stay in business. The Symbolic Framework, using the youth as a symbol, can help the organization generate more money than it does currently. Having ceremonies and rituals within the organization can also help the at risk youth to be more motivated to work feeling more apart of a group bigger than themselves. To motivate a group of younger people who are naturally not very motivated is a difficult task, but having rituals is one way to make a more cohesive group work towards a goal, because these rituals and symbols drive it forward.

In summary, Luna Café is an organization that highlights both the selling points and the drawbacks of the Human Resource Frame. Bringing a positive environment for at-risk youth to work and learn is a strong positive that Luna’s offers as an organization. On the other hand, running an organization that is non-profit has its drawbacks. As discussed earlier, resources can be limited, and a formal organizational structure may be difficult to implement. To try and solve these problems using the other frames will be necessary. The Structural Frame, the Symbolic Frame, the Political Frame, and the Human Resource Frame need all be utilized when analyzing the organization and also when applying the congruence model to assess (and improve) ‘fit’. All of these aspects working together can help make Luna Café work even more efficiently and effectively than it does now.

综上所述,Luna Café是一个强调人力资源框架的卖点和缺点的组织。为有风险的年轻人提供一个积极的工作和学习环境,是卢娜作为一个组织提供的一个强大的积极因素。另一方面,运营一个非营利组织也有其缺点。正如前面所讨论的,资源可能是有限的,正式的组织结构可能很难实现。为了尝试解决这些问题,使用其他帧将是必要的。结构框架、符号框架、政治框架和人力资源框架都需要在分析组织时使用,也需要在应用一致性模型来评估(和改善)“适合”时使用。所有这些方面的合作可以帮助Luna Café比现在更有效地工作。



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