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人力资源Essay举例:A Review of Anti-Bullying and Anti-Harassment Measures in Australia

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-04-18 10:54:24 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是“A Review of Anti-Bullying and Anti-Harassment Measures in Australia(澳大利亚反欺凌和反骚扰措施回顾)”,欺凌和骚扰不仅是不可接受的,而且在澳大利亚联邦和州法律下都是非法的。有许多法案禁止欺凌、骚扰和歧视,如1986年《平权行动(妇女平等机会)法案》、1992年《残疾歧视法案》、1987年《平等就业机会(联邦当局)法案》、1996年《人权与平等机会委员会法案》、1994年《人权(性行为)法案》、联邦层面的《1988年隐私法》、《1975年种族歧视法》、《1995年种族仇恨法》和《1984年性别歧视法》(Comcare, 2010年),州层面的《1977年反歧视法》、《2006年残疾人服务法》和《1998年隐私和个人信息保护法》。骚扰和欺凌不仅在工作时间或工作场所是违法的。在任何与工作相关的场合,包括会议、商务或实地考察旅行、工作活动和年终工作聚会,都是违法的。骚扰和/或欺凌行为可能是由主管或经理、同事、承包商、顾问或其他与组织有关的人。

Background背景

Bullying and harassment is not only unacceptable, it is unlawful under both the Commonwealth of Australia and the state legislations. There are many acts which prohibit bullying and harassment and discrimination like the Affirmative Action (Equal Opportunity for Women) Act 1986, Disability Discrimination Act 1992, Equal Employment Opportunity (Commonwealth Authorities) Act 1987, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1996, Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994, Privacy Act 1988, Racial Discrimination Act 1975, Racial Hatred Act 1995 and Sex Discrimination Act 1984 at the federal level (Comcare, 2010) and the Anti-Discrimination Act 1977, Disability Services Act 2006 and Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998 at the state (NSW) level. Harassment and bullying is not just unlawful during working hours or in the workplace itself. It is also unlawful in any work-related context, including conferences, business or field trips, work functions and work end of year parties. Harassing and/or bullying behaviour may be by a supervisor or manager, a co-worker, a contractor, an advisor or others associated with the organisation.

 

人力资源Essay范例

Anti-bullying or anti-harassment policies at workplace should provide safe and productive environment where the dignity of every individual should be equally respected. The workplace should ensure to provide fair and equitable treatment to all the employees regardless of their protected characteristics such as sex, age, race, disability, sexual orientation, physical characteristics marital status, religious or political belief, parental or carer status, pregnancy, gender identity, family responsibilities or any other personal attribute under law. Harassment at workplace can include unwanted physical contact, verbal abuse and threat, offensive gestures, unwelcome and offensive remarks, jokes or innuendos, unwanted sexual propositions or demands, practical jokes that cause awkwardness, embarrassment or distress, unwelcome personal contact outside the workplace, unwelcome invitations or requests, intimidation, suggestive behaviour, the display of offensive notices or posters, mocking comments about a person’s appearance or manner of speech etc. Workplace bullying can involve humiliation, domination, intimidation, victimisation and all forms of harassment including that based on sex, race, disability, homosexuality or transgender. Bullying of any form or for any reason can have long-term effects on those involved including bystanders. Bullying behaviour can be verbal (e.g. name calling, teasing, abuse, putdowns, sarcasm, insults, threats), physical (e.g. hitting, punching, kicking, scratching, tripping, spitting), social ( e.g. ignoring, excluding, ostracising, alienating, making inappropriate gestures) or psychological (e.g. spreading rumours, dirty looks, hiding or damaging possessions, malicious SMS and email messages, inappropriate use of camera phones).

工作场所的反欺凌或反骚扰政策应提供安全和有效的环境,每个人的尊严应得到平等的尊重。工作场所应确保为所有雇员提供公平和公平的待遇,无论其受保护的特征如性别、年龄、种族、残疾、性取向、身体特征、婚姻状况、宗教或政治信仰、父母或照顾者状况、怀孕、性别身份、家庭责任或其他法律规定的个人属性。工作场所的骚扰可包括不受欢迎的身体接触、言语辱骂和威胁、无礼的手势、不受欢迎的和无礼的言论、笑话或含沙射影、不受欢迎的性提议或要求、导致尴尬、尴尬或沮丧的恶作剧、工作场所以外不受欢迎的个人接触、不受欢迎的邀请或要求、恐吓、暗示的行为、张贴冒犯性的告示或海报、嘲笑他人的外表或说话方式等。职场欺凌包括羞辱、支配、恐吓、受害和各种形式的骚扰,包括基于性别、种族、残疾、同性恋或变性人的骚扰。任何形式或任何原因的欺凌都可能对包括旁观者在内的参与者产生长期影响。欺凌行为可以是言语(如骂人、戏弄、辱骂、奚落、讽刺、侮辱、威胁)、身体(如殴打、拳打脚踢、抓挠、绊倒、吐口水)、社会(如忽视、排除、排斥、疏远、做出不恰当的手势)或心理(如传播谣言、瞪人、隐藏或损坏财物、恶意短信和电子邮件、不当使用拍照手机)。

Literature review of the anti-bullying and anti-harassment measures反欺凌和反骚扰措施的文献综述

In Australia, the workplaces identify bullying by the three criteria mentioned in most of the anti-bullying, anti-harassment and anti- discrimination policies (Comcare,2010; NT WorkSafe, 2012; SafeWork South Australia, 2010; WorkCover NSW, 2009; Workplace Health and Safety Queensland, 2004; WorkSafe Victoria, 2009; WorkSafe Western Australia, 2010). The criteria are, they are repeated rather than singular, unreasonable and pose a risk to cause health and safety issues. Bullying and harassment not only have an effect on the health of the individuals being bullied (Einarsen et al, 2011) but also have significant financial implications on the organisations that do not take measures to prevent them (Australian Productivity Commission, 2010; Einarsen et al, 2011). Therefore preventing bullying/harassment by providing safe work environment in order to avoid psychological impact on the worker’s health are the organisation’s responsibility (Lyon & Livermore, 2007).

在澳大利亚,工作场所通过反欺凌、反骚扰和反歧视政策中提到的三个标准来识别欺凌行为(Comcare,2010;NT WorkSafe, 2012;SafeWork南澳大利亚,2010;WorkCover新南威尔士州,2009;工作场所健康与安全,昆士兰,2004年;WorkSafe维多利亚,2009;工作安全西澳大利亚,2010)。这些标准是重复的,而不是单一的,不合理的,并可能造成健康和安全问题。欺凌和骚扰不仅会影响被欺凌者的健康(Einarsen等人,2011年),而且会对没有采取措施防止欺凌的组织产生重大的财务影响(澳大利亚生产力委员会,2010年;Einarsen等,2011)。因此,通过提供安全的工作环境来防止欺凌/骚扰,以避免对工人健康的心理影响是组织的责任(里昂和利弗莫尔,2007年)。

There is considerable literature around the causes of the work place aggression/bullying which are placed into three classes ‘internal’ and ‘external’ factors and their ‘interaction’. For example, internal influences are related to the personality or the severity of illness of the patients whereas external influences focus on factors like shortage of staff or noisy stressful work environment. The interactional approach acknowledges the interplay of the internal and external factors in triggering maintaining and exacerbation workplace aggression which is manifested through harassment or bullying of the staff.

关于职场侵略/欺凌的原因有相当多的文献,它们被分为三类:“内部”和“外部”因素及其“交互作用”。例如,内部影响与患者的性格或疾病的严重程度有关,而外部影响则集中在人员短缺或嘈杂紧张的工作环境等因素上。相互作用的方法承认内部和外部因素的相互作用,在触发维持和加剧工作场所的攻击,表现为骚扰或欺凌员工。

The workplace should not tolerate harassment, bullying or discriminative behaviour of any kind, whether it is by the managers, staff, contractors, advisors or others associated with the organisation in the course of its operations. All staff should be informed and trained at the time of employment, the organisations stance on harassment, bullying and discrimination. Increased awareness will persuade staff to have ‘zero tolerance’ for bullying and will encourage workers to combat it either by refusing to take part in it or by not keeping silent and reporting the incident on time. Furthermore early intervention is important. Regular workplace surveys and informal and formal discussions with the workers will help secure early intervention (Moore, Lynch & Smith, 2006).

Workplace bullying and harassment in the health sector affects not only the professional but also the personal lives of the staff. They have an impact on the patients they care for and on the organisations reputations and the fiscal health. For example it was evident from one of the studies that nurses feel less safe at work primarily because of their colleagues bullying and harassment than from the patients or their relatives. Poor staff relations and negative organisational environments were identified as the main reasons for the workplace bullying (Farrell & Shafiei, 2012). Hence positive organisational environments including support from the supervisors, managers and colleagues can help buffer the negative influences of the workplace bullying and harassment as well as enhancing the staff’s perception to cope with the situation when it arises (Parzefall & Salin, 2010). Moreover where there is support from the colleagues and the managers, and where training and information to deal with the workplace bullying is available to the staff, it is observed that these can help buffer some of the negative health consequences of the bullying and violence (Schat & Kelloway, 2003).

卫生部门的工作场所欺凌和骚扰不仅影响到工作人员的专业生活,而且影响到工作人员的个人生活。他们对他们所照顾的病人、组织的声誉和财政健康都有影响。例如,从一项研究中可以明显看出,护士在工作中感到不安全主要是因为他们的同事欺凌和骚扰,而不是来自病人或他们的亲属。员工关系差和消极的组织环境被认为是职场欺凌的主要原因(Farrell & Shafiei, 2012)。因此,积极的组织环境,包括来自主管、经理和同事的支持,可以帮助缓冲工作场所欺凌和骚扰的负面影响,并增强员工的感知,以应对这种情况出现时(parzfall & Salin, 2010)。此外,如果得到同事和管理人员的支持,并向工作人员提供处理工作场所欺凌行为的培训和信息,据观察,这有助于缓解欺凌和暴力行为对健康造成的一些负面影响(Schat & Kelloway, 2003年)。

In order to reduce the incidence of bullying in the public health organisations in Australia, research suggests that the focus should be on four areas of the people management practices which include the quality and frequency of the performance feedback, level of supportive leadership, building an engaging work team environment and establishing managers have accountability for people management (Cotton et al, 2008).These four areas of people management practices can be achieved by taking a proactive approach to bullying through promoting a positive workplace culture, senior management commitment, developing a bullying policy and related procedures, communication and consultation, monitoring of the work climate by surveys and other methods and informing training and instructing the employees (Comcare, 2010)

In the health service organisations, management and staff are equally responsible to prevent the bullying and harassment at the workplace. Management has the responsibility to monitor the working environment to ensure that acceptable standards of conduct are observed at all times, model appropriate behaviour themselves, promote organisations anti-harassment policy within their work area, treat all complaints seriously and take immediate action to investigate and resolve the matter. Staff has the responsibility to comply with the organisations anti-harassment policy, offer support to anyone who is harassed and advise them where they can get help and advice, maintain complete confidentiality during the investigation of a harassment complaint, report bullying, harassment and offensive behaviour, even if not involved, to management. Over the past few years Victoria State has strictly implemented a number of anti-harassment and anti-bullying initiatives in their public health system including workplace redesign, provision of personal duress alarms, employment of specially trained security staff and so forth. However their translation to practice is left to individual health organisations as a result of which they were rarely followed up to know if the above initiatives were successful. This lack of evaluation measures reflects the situation that is prevalent across the Australia in respect to workplace bullying, where there is no agreed national approach and little in the way of the systematic program appraisal (Farrell & Cubit, 2005).

在保健服务组织中,管理部门和工作人员同样有责任防止工作场所的欺凌和骚扰。管理层有责任监察工作环境,以确保工作人员始终遵守可接受的行为标准,自己树立适当的行为榜样,在其工作范围内推广组织的反骚扰政策,认真对待所有投诉,并立即采取行动调查和解决问题。员工有责任遵守组织反骚扰政策,提供支持的人骚扰,建议他们在那里他们可以得到帮助和建议,维护完整的保密在性骚扰投诉的调查,报告欺凌、骚扰和攻击行为,即使无关,管理。在过去几年中,维多利亚州在其公共卫生系统中严格实施了一系列反骚扰和反欺凌措施,包括重新设计工作场所、提供个人胁迫警报、雇用经过专门训练的保安人员等等。然而,将这些措施付诸实践的工作留给了各个卫生组织,因此很少对它们进行后续跟踪,以了解上述举措是否成功。这种评估措施的缺乏反映了澳大利亚在工作场所欺凌方面普遍存在的情况,在那里没有一致同意的国家方法,也很少有系统的项目评估(Farrell & Cubit, 2005)。

Conclusion结论

There was some concerns in the past that the anti- bullying preventive measures mentioned in the literature and the polices adopted by the health service organisations were not in tandem with each other as a result of which the services failed to prevent and intervene in bullying. However recent studies has provided evidence that not only the Australian health care organisations are starting to make active efforts to prevent harassment and bullying, but also their efforts agree fairly with the recommendations emanating from the research world. Furthermore the Human Resources departments in the health care organisations seem to recognise the importance of dealing with the bullying and hence go beyond just formulating the policies or training the staff. The active involvement of the Human Resource personnel also negates the popular belief in the past that it is the role of the managers and the immediate supervisors and not the HR department to intervene in preventing the bullying at the workplace. There is a need to implement the HR practices like attitude and training surveys, formal appraisal discussions and performance based pay etc. in the health care organisations.

过去曾有人担心,文献中所提及的反欺凌预防措施与卫生服务机构所采取的政策并不一致,导致卫生服务机构未能预防和干预欺凌行为。然而,最近的研究表明,不仅澳大利亚的卫生保健组织开始积极努力防止骚扰和欺凌,而且他们的努力也公平地同意来自研究界的建议。此外,卫生保健机构的人力资源部门似乎认识到应对欺凌的重要性,因此,不仅仅是制定政策或培训员工。人力资源人员的积极参与也否定了过去流行的观点,即管理者和直接主管的角色,而不是人力资源部门的角色,以防止职场欺凌的干预。有必要在卫生保健组织中实施人力资源实践,如态度和培训调查、正式的评估讨论和基于绩效的薪酬等。

The other key factor that needs to be changed in the health care organisations is that the anti- bullying action is rather undertaken for the problems reported and not as a preventive measure. In other words many health organisations adopt anti-bullying measures as part of a reactive rather than a proactive strategy. Also there is an urgent need to recognise that the anti-bullying polices in the health services should be framed based on the needs and requirements of the local organisation and not copy pasting from other sources or merely imitating other organisations. Thus, a policy that does not address the local organisation needs is less likely to be adapted, less likely to be implemented and less likely to be applied when the bullying actually occurs. Furthermore, it is observed that there is severe lack of evaluations and surveys to identify the effectiveness of the currently practised anti-bullying measures in the health organisations.

 

人力资源Essay如何写

As health services are becoming increasingly complex in terms of staff, resources, communications and so forth, they should have clear expectations regarding the transparency of the employer’s interpersonal interactions to avoid the occurrence of the complex or troublesome interpersonal dynamics. The health organisations should take all complaints of harassment, bullying and/or discrimination seriously and deal with them promptly in a spirit of compassion and justice. They should ensure that the privacy is maintained and the complainants and witnesses are not victimised in any way either by the management or the employees.

由于保健服务在工作人员、资源、沟通等方面日益复杂,它们应该对雇主人际交往的透明度有明确的期望,以避免出现复杂或麻烦的人际交往动态。卫生组织应认真对待所有有关骚扰、欺凌和/或歧视的投诉,并本着同情和正义的精神迅速予以处理。他们应确保保障私隐,并确保投诉人和证人不会以任何方式受到管理层或雇员的伤害。

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