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指导英国语言学assignment:An Article on Error Analysis of "Ba" Struc

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-07-16 11:54:27 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction介绍
“ba”结构是汉语中一种特殊的句型,在其他语言中很少见(张,2000)。“ba”结构所涉及的语法知识和使用技巧更为复杂,“ba”结构在汉语中的应用更为广泛,正确掌握“ba”结构的相关知识已成为汉语学习和教学中的一个难点和重要点(陈,2010)。本研究收集了HSK和TOCFL的语料库。通过对外国留学生在语料库中使用“ba”结构的错误分析,找出使用“ba”结构的错误规律及相应的教学策略。笔者首先总结了外国留学生在使用“ba”结构的句子中所犯的错误类型。然后,在相关理论的基础上,总结了错误产生的原因,并就如何处理这些错误提出了教学和学习建议。
“Ba” structure is a special sentence pattern in Chinese, which is rarely seen in other languages (Zhang, 2000). The grammar knowledge and use skills involved in “ba” structure are more complicated, and “ba” structure is used more extensively in Chinese, to correctly grasp the related knowledge of “ba” structure has become a difficult and important point in Chinese learning and teaching (Chen, 2010). This study collected the corpora from HSK and TOCFL. Through the analysis on the errors of the foreign students' using "ba" structure in the corpus to find the laws of the errors of using a "ba" structure and corresponding teaching strategies. The author first summarized the types of errors that foreign students made in sentences of using a "ba" structure. Then, based on related theories, it summarized causes of the errors to propose teaching and learning suggestions on how to deal with these errors.
2.0 Main body主体
2.1 Corpus语料库
通过对HSK和TOCFL语料库的检索,获得了与外语学生在语料库中使用“ba”结构有关的150项错误。通过对语料库的分析,总结出与“ba”结构密切相关的四种写作错误。其中有51项与遗漏错误有关,占总数的34%,45项与误用错误有关,占总数的30%,37项与错误替换错误有关,占总数的25%,17项与避免错误有关,以及占总数的11%。
Through the retrieval of HSK and TOCFL corpora, the author obtained 150 items of errors relating to foreign language students' using “ba” structure in the corpus. After analyzing the corpus, the author summarized four kinds of errors closely related to “ba” structure in the composition writing. Of these, 51 items were related to omission errors, which accounted for 34% of the total, 45 items were related to misuse errors and accounted for 30% of the total, 37 items were related to errors of wrong replacement, accounting for 25% of the total, 17 items were related to avoidance errors and accounted for 11% of the total. 
2.2 Error types of “ba” structure“BA”结构的错误类型
2.2.1 Omission
Omission refers to the errors caused by omission of one or more components in a word or sentence (Lu, 1994). Omission of “ba” structure is often expressed in the following aspects:
First is missing predicate center words, including:
Missing predicate verbs before verb complements, for example:
Example 1  Wrong: 他把那些书都掉了。
Right: 他把那些书都扔掉了。
Example 2  Wrong: 他把这本书都懂了。
Right: 他把这本书都读懂了。
Missing predicate verbs before adjective complements, for example:
Example 3  Wrong: 老师,请您把字大一点儿
Right: 老师,请您把字写大一点儿。
Example 4  Wrong: 同学把教室干干净净。
Right: 同学把教室打扫得干干净净。
Example 1 and 2 show the error of missing predicate center verbs before verb complements. "掉" and "懂" are intransitive verbs. They are not the action acted by the front subjects, but the result of an action of the subjects. Therefore, these words often serve as the result complements behind verbs. Thus, the missing predicate center words should be filled. In Example 3 and 4, the predicate center verbs before the adjective complements are omitted. "大" and "干干净净" are adjectives. None of these adjectives can express the action act of the subjects. They do not qualify as predicates of the "ba" sentence. Semantically, these adjectives should be the result complements and reflect the result of the action. Therefore, the missing predicate center words should be added.
Second is missing complement, as shown in the following examples.
Example 5   Wrong: 他把钱用。
Right: 他把钱用光了。
“用” is a simple form of verbs. "Ba" sentence generally means to handle something. As Li (2004) figures, the need to express meaning in "Ba" sentence determines that the predicate verb in the "Ba" sentence cannot be an alone form, and there should be corresponding words before and after the verb (mainly after the verb) to express other relevant meanings related to the verbs (Wei, 2006). To express results or changes, there should be result complements or directional complements behind the verbs; to express a certain way of action, before verb predicates, there should have words that indicate such meanings (Chen, 2006). 
1.2 Misusing
Misusing refers to the fact that considering its grammatical form or a semantic expression, a sentence does not have the condition to use a “ba” structure, and thus it should not be expressed by using a “ba” structure, but it is used to cause errors. However, foreign students often generalize the rules of using “ba” structure, and ignore the restrictions of using "ba" sentence, leading to errors (Yan and Cheng, 2008). Restricted by verbs, “ba” structure cannot use in some sentences. The verbs of "ba" sentences have certain limitations. There are several types of verbs that cannot constitute “ba” structure in sentences.
First is the misuse of relative verbs:
Example 6  Wrong: 她还没有把那本书有吗?
Right: 她还没有那本书吗?
Example 7  Wrong: 广场北边把工商银行是。
Right: 广场北边是工商银行。
Second is cognitive and verb misuse.
Example 8  Wrong: 苏林教授把事情的全部经过知道了。
Right: 苏林教授知道了事情的全部经过。
Example 9   Wrong: 希望你们把大连喜欢。
Right: 希望你们喜欢大连。
Third is the misuse of directional verbs.
Example 10  Wrong: 我早就把北京来过了。
Right: 我早就来过北京了。
In Examples 6 and 7, “有” and “是” are relative verbs. The main role is to connect a subject and an object to express the existence of a certain relationship between them, it does not represent actions, and it has a relatively abstract vocabulary meaning, so it cannot be used as a predicative of “ba” structure. In Examples 8 and 9, “知道” and “希望” are verbs that express human cognition, willingness, and psychological feelings, and they cannot be predicates of “ba” structure, so they are not established. In Example 10, “来” is a directional verb, while a directional verb is verb showing an action, but it does not have dispositions, so it cannot constitute "ba" sentences.
2.2.3 Wrong replacement
It means that it fails to distinct between "把" and other prepositions of similar meanings, using "把" to replace other prepositions of similar meanings (Chen, 2010).
Such as “把” and “给”:
Example 11 Wrong: 她把她爱人写信。
Right: 她给她爱人写信。
“把” and “用”, “拿”:
Example 12  Wrong: 他把笔写了几句话。
Right: 他用笔写了几句话。 
Example 13  Wrong: 他会把筷子吃饭。
Right: 他会拿筷子吃饭。
“把” and “对”, “向”: 
Example 14   Wrong: 我把她大叫一声。
Right: 我对她大叫一声。
Example 15  Wrong: 公安局把人民宣布了交通规则。
Right: 公安局向人民宣布了交通规则。
“把” and “叫”, “让”: 
Example 16   Wrong: 我不能把你白来。
Right: 我不能叫你白来。
Example 17   Wrong: 我把朋友陪我去机场。
Right: 我让朋友陪我去机场。
“把” and “使”:
Example 18   Wrong: 这把我的生活愉快。
Right: 这使我的生活愉快。
In Chinese, there is such a "ba" sentence: "ba+ noun 1 + verb + noun 2. Noun 1 and noun 2 are double objects", and noun 1 is the subject of the predicate verb, it is a direct object in the semantic expression; noun 2 is the receiver of noun 1, it is the indirect object in the semantic expression (Yan and Cheng, 2008). In Example 11, the indirect object occupies the position of the direct object, which does not conform to the semantics in the above format. In example 12 and 13, the word “ba” (把) is used as a tool or means for doing something, which should be changed into “用” or “拿”. In Example 14 and 15, the object of “ba” (把) is “她” and “人民”, they are all objects of the predicate verbs, so they should not be used as an object of “ba” (把). The sentence 16 and 17 can be summed up as follows: subject 1+ “ba” (把) + subject 2+ predicate, and subject 1 is the meaning of "ordering" for subject 2. In Chinese, expression of this meaning should use the verb “叫”, “让”, and it can not use a “ba” structure. In the Example 18, The subject 1 has the meaning of “causing” to the subject 2, so it should use the verb “使”. #p#分页标题#e#
2.2.4 Avoidance
Avoidance refers to the error that a sentence has already had the requirement of a "ba" sentence in terms of grammatical form or semantic expression, and it needs to be expressed in the form of a "ba" structure in a sentence, but it fails to use (Zhang, 2000; Li, 2004).
First is the sentence: subject +verb+ noun 1+在/到/给+ noun 2
Example 19  Wrong: 他放课本在桌子上。
Right: 他把课本放在桌子上。
Example 20  Wrong: 请你交课程表给玛丽。
Right: 请你把课程表交给玛丽。
Example 19 and 20 indicate the transfer of positions or the transfer of relationship of a certain thing due to movement, which must be expressed in the form of a "ba" sentence. Example 19 indicates that "课本" is moved due to the action of "放", thus a "ba" structure should be used. Example 20 shows that the position of "课程表" is changed due to the action of "交", and a "ba" structure should also be used in the sentence.
Second is the sentences of "subject + verb + noun 1+"成/做”+ noun 2" structure.
Example 21   Wrong: 我写“太”成“大”。
Right: 我把“太”写成“大”了。
Example 22   Wrong: 人们都叫作她阿巧。
Right: 人们都把她叫阿巧。
Example 21 and 22 show that a certain thing is identified as another thing, or something is changed by an action to another thing that has equivalence in the nature and characteristics. A "ba" structure should be used in the sentences.
Third are sentences that the result of handling represents the modality of objects handled (Wei, 2006). 
Example 23   Wrong: 人们挤操场水泄不通。
Right: 人们把操场挤得水泄不通。
Example 24   Wrong: 大家打扫宿舍干干净净。
Right: 大家把宿舍打扫得干干净净。
Example 23 and 24 show that something has changed because of a certain action, and it has produced some kind of result. The result of the disposition is the modality of the object being treated. This is expressed in the form of a "ba" structure.
Fourth is the "subject-object-predicate" form of sentences. 
Example 25  Wrong: 她这本书还给苏菲了。
Right: 她把这本书还给了苏菲。
Example 26  Wrong: 请你的电脑给我用一下。
Right: 请把你的电脑给我用一下。
This type of errors is the result of the shifting of the mother tongue's "subject-object-predicate" order, which is generally a mistake made by Korean students. It should be more appropriate to use a “ba” structure (Yang and Cheng, 2008).
This study mainly summarized the above four kinds of errors, of course, foreign students may have errors in other aspects in using “ba” structure, which will be analyzed in future research.
2.3 Causes of errors
2.3.1 Interlingual transfer
Interlingual transfer refers to the impact of the knowledge of a mother tongue, including grammar, vocabulary, and phonology on a learner's learning of a second language (Chung, Chen and Geva, 2018). If the influence is positive, it is called positive transfer. If the influence is negative, it is negative transfer (Kuo, Uchikoshi, Kim and Yang, 2016). Foreign students have errors occurring during the process of learning “ba” structure, which is largely related to positive transfer. By comparing Chinese and other languages, there are many differences. For example, in English, there is such a structure of a sentence: “predicate + adverbial”, and in Chinese, it is “adverbial + predicate”. Moreover, “ba” structure is a very special sentence pattern in Chinese, and other countries' languages can hardly find a sentence pattern that is consistent with it. In the absence of complete mastery of the Chinese language rules, foreign students often use some of the language rules in their mother tongue to mechanically apply it to Chinese language, thereby causing errors.
2.3.2 Intralingual transfer
Transfer in traditional transfer studies refers to the influence of a learner's mother tongue. It can also refer to the influence of learners' acquired knowledge of a second language on its second language acquisition, this is called intralingual transfer (Smirnova, 2016). For foreign learners who already have some Chinese, the impact on his learning Chinese is not just from knowledge of his native language, but also from the limited Chinese knowledge that has been acquired. This part of Chinese knowledge will also have a disturbing effect on learners’ use and learning of Chinese, and the use of “ba” structure has always been a difficulty in teaching Chinese as a foreign language. This difficulty is mainly reflected in the complexity of “ba” structure itself. According to traditional views, the word order of “ba” structure of a sentence is “subject + noun +verb +other complements”. In this sense, sentences of “ba” structure are not complicated, and it is not difficult for foreign students to master the structure, but if foreign students only grasp the basic word order of the structure, they cannot use sentences of “ba” structure correctly, because in practice, sentences of “ba” structure have different degrees of restrictions for subject, noun, verb and other ingredients, and the semantics and rules of use “ba” sentences are complex and foreign students are more difficult to master. This makes it difficult for foreign students to avoid omission, unclear semantics, incorrect word order and other errors in the process of using a “ba” structure, and they even avoid using it in making sentences.
2.3.3 Cultural transfer
Baydak, Scharioth and Il’yashenko (2015) stated that teachers cannot teach languages without having a cultural background. Language is a part of culture. Therefore, if a learner does not understand the patterns and guidelines of a culture, he cannot really learn the language. However, in the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language, for a long time, people have focused on the teaching of language knowledge such as phonetics, grammar, and vocabulary. They have ignored the differences between Chinese and Western cultures and have separated language from culture, resulting in a heavy emphasis on forms of foreign language in teaching, but severely separating from cultural context and ignoring the national characteristics of Chinese culture, applying the cultural habits and cultural patterns of a mother tongue to Chinese language learning to cause cultural interference (ie negative transfer of a native language culture). “Ba” structure is a very special sentence pattern in Chinese. In language of other countries, it can't basically find a sentence pattern that is consistent with it. The correct use of “ba” structure is also related to whether a learner understands Chinese culture. Therefore, teachers in teaching only teach grammar knowledge without teaching related cultural knowledge is also an important reason for foreign students’ having errors in using a “ba” structure.
 
2.4 Teaching strategies of "ba" structure
2.4.1 Reducing the negative impact of interlingual transfer
In teaching Chinese, when teachers explain a “ba” structure, they should strengthen the teaching of semantics. They should not only pay attention to the correctness of forms. Contrasting teaching can be used to compare two kinds of expressions: the right and the wrong, a target language and a mother tongue, so as to deepen the understanding of "ba" sentences and cultivate the sense of language. For example, a "ba" sentence is often wrongly replaced by other prepositions whose meaning is similar, teachers should pay attention to distinguish "ba" and similar prepositions in the teaching process, and distinguish the different contexts in which they appear.
2.4.2 Reducing the negative impact of intralingual transfer
Because the usage of “ba” structure in Chinese is complex and belongs to the unique language structure in Chinese, it is more difficult for international students to grasp in a short time. In order to avoid the negative impact of intra-lingual transfer, teachers can adopt a phased teaching method when teaching “ba” structure, explaining typical forms at the initial stage, and explaining atypical forms at intermediate and advanced levels. The process of acquisition of "ba" sentence is complicated. Excepting for the position of "ba" character itself, the greater difficulty comes from complex forms that should be adopted by verb phrases followed by "ba". Acquisition of "ba" sentences must be accompanied by the acquisition of result complements, directional complements, and prepositional phrases. This is a gradual process of evolution. Arranging the sequence of acquisition of "ba" sentences and learning the semantics and sentence pattern of corresponding "ba" sentences at different stages can allow foreign students to better grasp "ba" sentences gradually. At the same time, teachers should encourage students to strengthen their specific exercises. Through exercises such as transformation and selection, students can understand the language environment and conditions of use expressed in each grammatical form. For example, the word order of "ba" structure can be subjected to a large number of specialized exercises to deepen the impression of using it in sentences.#p#分页标题#e#
2.4.3 Reducing the impact of negative cultural transfer
The theory of cultural transfer shows that culture is also an important factor that affects international students' grasp of a “ba” structure. Therefore, while teaching foreign students about the grammar knowledge of a “ba” structure, it should also pay attention to teaching knowledge of Chinese culture related to the use of a “ba” structure, so that international students can more accurately understand and master the environment and methods for using a “ba” structure. At the same time, textbooks designed based on language characteristics of international students from different countries should be prepared. For example, Korean students and Thai students often have different types of emphasis and types of errors in using a “ba” structure. If targeted teaching materials can be designed according to their own characteristics, they can improve the efficiency of learning and the mastery of knowledge of using a “ba” structure.
3.0 Conclusion
Correctly grasping the related knowledge and use skills of “ba” structure has become a difficult and important point in Chinese learning and teaching. Through the analysis of corpus, the author summarizes the four common errors that foreign students have in using “ba” structure, including omission, wrong replacement, misuse, avoidance. Inter-lingual transfer, intra-lingual transfer and cultural transfer are the three causes of errors. The author finally proposes on how to avoid these errors in Chinese teaching and learning.
 
References
Baydak, A. V., Scharioth, C. and Il’yashenko, I. A. (2015). Interaction of Language and Culture in the Process of International Education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 215(8), 14-18.
Chen, R. L. (2010). Analysis of errors in foreign students' use of "ba" sentences. Tokyo Literature, 11, 138-145.
Cheng, Y. Y. (2006). An analysis of Kazak’s language acquisition errors in using Chinese "ba" sentences. Language and Translation, 3, 99-103.
Chung, S. C., Chen, X. and Geva, E. (2018). Deconstructing and reconstructing cross-language transfer in bilingual reading development: an interactive framework. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 8(3), 204-215.
Kuo, L. J., Uchikoshi, Y., Kim, T. J. and Yang, X. Y. (2016). Bilingualism and phonological awareness: Re-examining theories of cross-language transfer and structural sensitivity. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 46(7), 1-9. 
Li, B. G. (2004). An analysis of errors in "ba" sentences by South Korean students. Journal of Liaoning Institute of Technology, 5, 55-63.
Lu. J. J. (1994). Analysis on foreigners' errors in using "ba" sentences. Language Teaching and Research, 1, 45-63.
Smirnova, T. (2016). Synesthetic Metaphors: Aspects of Intralingual and Interlingual Translation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 231(5), 40-45. 
Wei, H. Error analysis and teaching strategy of "ba" sentences of Thaistudents at the initial stage. Journal of Yunnan Normal University, 2, 112-120.
Yang, L. and Cheng, N. C. (2008). Error analysis of "ba" sentences for Vietnamese international students in middle and advanced stages. Journal of Yunnan Normal University, 5, 119-123.
Zhang, B. J. (2000). Analysis on the syntactic semantics of "ba" sentences. Language Studies, 1, 89-110.
 
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