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代写英国语言学assignment:An Article on Error Analysis of "Ba" Struc

时间:2019-07-16 11:54来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1.0 Introduction介绍
“ba”结构是汉语中一种特殊的句型,在其他语言中很少见(张,2000)。“ba”结构所涉及的语法知识和使用技巧更为复杂,“ba”结构在汉语中的应用更为广泛,正确掌握“ba”结构的相关知识已成为汉语学习和教学中的一个难点和重要点(陈,2010)。本研究收集了HSK和TOCFL的语料库。通过对外国留学生在语料库中使用“ba”结构的错误分析,找出使用“ba”结构的错误规律及相应的教学策略。笔者首先总结了外国留学生在使用“ba”结构的句子中所犯的错误类型。然后,在相关理论的基础上,总结了错误产生的原因,并就如何处理这些错误提出了教学和学习建议。
“Ba” structure is a special sentence pattern in Chinese, which is rarely seen in other languages (Zhang, 2000). The grammar knowledge and use skills involved in “ba” structure are more complicated, and “ba” structure is used more extensively in Chinese, to correctly grasp the related knowledge of “ba” structure has become a difficult and important point in Chinese learning and teaching (Chen, 2010). This study collected the corpora from HSK and TOCFL. Through the analysis on the errors of the foreign students' using "ba" structure in the corpus to find the laws of the errors of using a "ba" structure and corresponding teaching strategies. The author first summarized the types of errors that foreign students made in sentences of using a "ba" structure. Then, based on related theories, it summarized causes of the errors to propose teaching and learning suggestions on how to deal with these errors.
2.0 Main body主体
2.1 Corpus语料库
通过对HSK和TOCFL语料库的检索,获得了与外语学生在语料库中使用“ba”结构有关的150项错误。通过对语料库的分析,总结出与“ba”结构密切相关的四种写作错误。其中有51项与遗漏错误有关,占总数的34%,45项与误用错误有关,占总数的30%,37项与错误替换错误有关,占总数的25%,17项与避免错误有关,以及占总数的11%。
Through the retrieval of HSK and TOCFL corpora, the author obtained 150 items of errors relating to foreign language students' using “ba” structure in the corpus. After analyzing the corpus, the author summarized four kinds of errors closely related to “ba” structure in the composition writing. Of these, 51 items were related to omission errors, which accounted for 34% of the total, 45 items were related to misuse errors and accounted for 30% of the total, 37 items were related to errors of wrong replacement, accounting for 25% of the total, 17 items were related to avoidance errors and accounted for 11% of the total. 
2.2 Error types of “ba” structure“BA”结构的错误类型
2.2.1 Omission
Omission refers to the errors caused by omission of one or more components in a word or sentence (Lu, 1994). Omission of “ba” structure is often expressed in the following aspects:
First is missing predicate center words, including:
Missing predicate verbs before verb complements, for example:
Example 1  Wrong: 他把那些书都掉了。
Right: 他把那些书都扔掉了。
Example 2  Wrong: 他把这本书都懂了。
Right: 他把这本书都读懂了。
Missing predicate verbs before adjective complements, for example:
Example 3  Wrong: 老师,请您把字大一点儿
Right: 老师,请您把字写大一点儿。
Example 4  Wrong: 同学把教室干干净净。
Right: 同学把教室打扫得干干净净。
Example 1 and 2 show the error of missing predicate center verbs before verb complements. "掉" and "懂" are intransitive verbs. They are not the action acted by the front subjects, but the result of an action of the subjects. Therefore, these words often serve as the result complements behind verbs. Thus, the missing predicate center words should be filled. In Example 3 and 4, the predicate center verbs before the adjective complements are omitted. "大" and "干干净净" are adjectives. None of these adjectives can express the action act of the subjects. They do not qualify as predicates of the "ba" sentence. Semantically, these adjectives should be the result complements and reflect the result of the action. Therefore, the missing predicate center words should be added.
Second is missing complement, as shown in the following examples.
Example 5   Wrong: 他把钱用。
Right: 他把钱用光了。
“用” is a simple form of verbs. "Ba" sentence generally means to handle something. As Li (2004) figures, the need to express meaning in "Ba" sentence determines that the predicate verb in the "Ba" sentence cannot be an alone form, and there should be corresponding words before and after the verb (mainly after the verb) to express other relevant meanings related to the verbs (Wei, 2006). To express results or changes, there should be result complements or directional complements behind the verbs; to express a certain way of action, before verb predicates, there should have words that indicate such meanings (Chen, 2006). 
1.2 Misusing
Misusing refers to the fact that considering its grammatical form or a semantic expression, a sentence does not have the condition to use a “ba” structure, and thus it should not be expressed by using a “ba” structure, but it is used to cause errors. However, foreign students often generalize the rules of using “ba” structure, and ignore the restrictions of using "ba" sentence, leading to errors (Yan and Cheng, 2008). Restricted by verbs, “ba” structure cannot use in some sentences. The verbs of "ba" sentences have certain limitations. There are several types of verbs that cannot constitute “ba” structure in sentences.
First is the misuse of relative verbs:
Example 6  Wrong: 她还没有把那本书有吗?
Right: 她还没有那本书吗?
Example 7  Wrong: 广场北边把工商银行是。
Right: 广场北边是工商银行。
Second is cognitive and verb misuse.
Example 8  Wrong: 苏林教授把事情的全部经过知道了。
Right: 苏林教授知道了事情的全部经过。
Example 9   Wrong: 希望你们把大连喜欢。
Right: 希望你们喜欢大连。
Third is the misuse of directional verbs.
Example 10  Wrong: 我早就把北京来过了。
Right: 我早就来过北京了。
In Examples 6 and 7, “有” and “是” are relative verbs. The main role is to connect a subject and an object to express the existence of a certain relationship between them, it does not represent actions, and it has a relatively abstract vocabulary meaning, so it cannot be used as a predicative of “ba” structure. In Examples 8 and 9, “知道” and “希望” are verbs that express human cognition, willingness, and psychological feelings, and they cannot be predicates of “ba” structure, so they are not established. In Example 10, “来” is a directional verb, while a directional verb is verb showing an action, but it does not have dispositions, so it cannot constitute "ba" sentences.
2.2.3 Wrong replacement
It means that it fails to distinct between "把" and other prepositions of similar meanings, using "把" to replace other prepositions of similar meanings (Chen, 2010).
Such as “把” and “给”:
Example 11 Wrong: 她把她爱人写信。
Right: 她给她爱人写信。
“把” and “用”, “拿”:
Example 12  Wrong: 他把笔写了几句话。
Right: 他用笔写了几句话。 
Example 13  Wrong: 他会把筷子吃饭。
Right: 他会拿筷子吃饭。
“把” and “对”, “向”: 
Example 14   Wrong: 我把她大叫一声。
Right: 我对她大叫一声。
Example 15  Wrong: 公安局把人民宣布了交通规则。
Right: 公安局向人民宣布了交通规则。
“把” and “叫”, “让”: 
Example 16   Wrong: 我不能把你白来。
Right: 我不能叫你白来。
Example 17   Wrong: 我把朋友陪我去机场。
Right: 我让朋友陪我去机场。
“把” and “使”:
Example 18   Wrong: 这把我的生活愉快。
Right: 这使我的生活愉快。
In Chinese, there is such a "ba" sentence: "ba+ noun 1 + verb + noun 2. Noun 1 and noun 2 are double objects", and noun 1 is the subject of the predicate verb, it is a direct object in the semantic expression; noun 2 is the receiver of noun 1, it is the indirect object in the semantic expression (Yan and Cheng, 2008). In Example 11, the indirect object occupies the position of the direct object, which does not conform to the semantics in the above format. In example 12 and 13, the word “ba” (把) is used as a tool or means for doing something, which should be changed into “用” or “拿”. In Example 14 and 15, the object of “ba” (把) is “她” and “人民”, they are all objects of the predicate verbs, so they should not be used as an object of “ba” (把). The sentence 16 and 17 can be summed up as follows: subject 1+ “ba” (把) + subject 2+ predicate, and subject 1 is the meaning of "ordering" for subject 2. In Chinese, expression of this meaning should use the verb “叫”, “让”, and it can not use a “ba” structure. In the Example 18, The subject 1 has the meaning of “causing” to the subject 2, so it should use the verb “使”. 


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