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Project management英国assignment:the Garden Bridge Project man

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-08-08 10:29:01 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction to the assignment作业介绍
如果项目要满足技术性能规范的要求,和/或其性能能够达到预期的目的,并且如果最高单位的关键人物,关键人物的所有者,作为项目团队的关键人物和项目的关键用户,以及客户的项目服务,则O该项目的产出结果具有较高的满意度,可以认为该项目是完全成功的。在合同中,项目的最终交付结果不能满足其预期的性能、成本、时间和范围。该项目被定义为失败。因此,本文将对花园桥项目的项目管理绩效进行分析。
If the project is to meet the requirements of the technical performance specification, and/or its performance can meet the expected purpose, and if the top unit key figures, owner of the key figures, as key to the project team and key users of the project, and project service by the customer, the output results of the project have higher satisfaction, the project can be considered to be completely successful. On the contract, the final delivery result of a project cannot meet its expected performance, cost, time, and scope. The project is defined as failure. Therefore, this assignment would like to analysis the project management performance of the  Garden Bridge Project.

2.0 Background to the project 项目背景
这项由英国建筑师托马斯·赫茨威克设计的雄心勃勃的项目于2013年首次被宣布为伦敦交通设计大赛的冠军。早期的支持者认为,这座桥将有一个旅游业,并作为一个有用的步行基础设施,批评者认为,这座城市已经被许多桥梁连接起来,是一个“虚荣工程”。尽管2014年批准了规划,但通货膨胀成本和采购合法性问题导致进一步失去公众和官方支持。花园桥将是一个独特的地方,一个美丽的新绿地在伦敦市中心,向公众开放,免费使用,展示英国最优秀的人才和创新。
The ambitious project, designed by British architect Thomas herzwick, was first announced in 2013 as the winner of the London transport design competition. Early supporters believe that the bridge will have a tourism industry, and serves as a useful pedestrian infrastructure, critics argue that the city has been many Bridges connected region, it is a "vanity project". Although planning approval was accepted in 2014, the cost of inflation and the issue of procurement legitimacy led to further loss of public and official support. The garden bridge will be a unique place, a beautiful new green space in central London, open to the public and free to use, to showcase Britain's best talent and innovation.
伦敦备受争议的托马斯花园桥项目已经得到解决,花园桥信托公司宣布了一项正式的“项目终止令”,在失去公众和伦敦市长Sadiq Khan的支持之后。我们很遗憾,我们未能实现花园桥的梦想,市长也不会像当初那样继续支持我们。“由于建筑成本和潜在的维护成本,可汗今年早些时候正式撤回了对该项目的支持。报告说这个项目花费了3700万英镑。
London's controversial Thomas garden bridge project has been settled, with the garden bridge trust announcing a formal "project termination order" after losing support from the public and the mayor of London, Sadiq Khan. "We are very sorry that we failed to achieve the dream of the garden bridge, and the mayor will not continue to support us as we did in the first place." Khan formally withdrew his support for the project earlier this year because of soaring construction costs and potential maintenance costs. The report says the project has cost 37 million pounds.
The key issues are arising from the project of the Garden Bridge Project are also discussed in the respective of the project management .

3.0 Overview of the key issues 
1. Construction cost management issues
In view of the construction cost management and control is an important part of the bridge engineering management, only for each construction link strict cost control, to make the construction cost management benefit is highlighted, and for other construction management and construction process of subsequent create favorable conditions, and be able to make the bridge and the economic benefits of construction unit received a significant boost, so the construction unit or the real estate unit, all should attach importance to the management of the engineering construction cost, increase the intensity of the construction cost management, ensure the timely and effective way to solve the construction cost management problems, and promote the sustainable development of bridge engineering industry (Dickson & Whitehurst, 2016).
2. Moral hazard or bad behavior.
When the traditional project management mode is adopted, the cooperation basis of the participants in the project is the mutual supervision and restraint mechanism in the contract and implementation process (TICKLES, YADONG, & WALTERS, 2013). However, under the condition of individual rationality as the premise of the project participation, it is still difficult for the project participants to use the information advantage to seek more benefits for themselves despite the rigid contractual constraints. The conflict of interest between the project participants makes the agreed project objectives of the project participants in the bidding phase be set aside during the implementation phase of the project. Although the supervision and constraint mechanism of the project implementation process can alleviate the cheating behavior of the project participants using information superiority, it cannot avoid the cheating behavior between the project participants.
3. Information construction of project participants.
In the process of project construction, the owner, supervision engineer, the contractor needs to comprehensive and accurate grasp of the indicators in the engineering construction project of the control condition, medium information such as measurement and payment, the engineering quality. However, the information communication mode of most projects is still mainly based on manual report. As the owner and government department, the project information is usually communicated through the monthly report and quarterly report (Garrety, et.,al, 2016). Unable to understand the project quality, project cost and progress control information in real time, the control mode can only be handled afterwards. This not only reduces the supervision and control ability of the project department to the project department, but also increases the information transfer cost of the project, hindering the coordination and communication between the participating parties of the project. It increases the likelihood that the problem will be magnified, and in serious cases it may even affect the delivery results of the project.

4.0 Project Management Practice
4.1 
o Define the concept  would apply 
The standard of project success should not only consider whether the project meets the triple constraints of investment, schedule and quality, but should be the satisfaction of the focus of the project. Because the project is not success may be due to the owner deliberately low price or the contract as the distorting the initial investment, schedule and performance goals too optimistic, the project manager didn't want to achieve these goals (He, 2014). In addition, in order to obtain the project investment, the initial investment demand is minimized, because money into "sunk cost", when the cost performance is rising, may obtain further investment; Conversely, if a real cost estimate is made during the funding phase, the project will not be successful, especially in non-profit projects. Is mainly due to the nonprofit investors mainly government departments, the pressure of the servicing of users don't have money, the implementation of the project to reflect "record" instead, seek the benefits of the economic interests of the individual, even so it is easy to cause the application of the construction of the project units and underestimate the competition for limited project money project investment cost (GRECU & GRIGORE, 2013).
In feasibility study stage of the project project owner individual rational choice results are usually low concern for the project of the external environment, the scope of the project is not clear, the feasibility study is usually for the study of the feasibility study and project design phase of the work, the design task entrusted to get design competition, the general design of the cost of high and low is not the owner choose design units and designers, the main factors decisive role is to design quality, design progress speed and credibility from the designing units (Uppal, 2008). The competition f method mainly includes design competition and agreement review. Through the design competition, the owner compares the different design documents and chooses the satisfactory results. The owner may choose to sign the design contract with the winning unit or other unit and carry out the deepening design. Contract review is usually first to owner by the specialized agencies and industry association recommend qualified designers or design firm, then the owner's invitation to design units, design units submitted reports as required, the landlord in advance in accordance with the contract of grading rules for the design unit assessment rankings, owner and discuss the design of the top unit, if agree to sign a written agreement, otherwise with the second ranked negotiations and signing, until satisfied, because the owner knows that design the relationship between quality and project investment control (Gonzalez, 2012).
Identify the benefits that this would have offered to the Garden Bridge Project #p#分页标题#e#
The four major objectives of the construction project are the quality and duration of the construction unit (owner) concerned, the cost of the construction enterprise (contractor) concerned, and safety (the government's concern)( Mention, 2017). It is the basic goal of the project implementation and the core of the project's comprehensive goal management. The control of these four objectives should first be based on proactive decision-making measures, reduce or avoid the deviation of actual and objective, and ensure the normal implementation and completion of the project. 
 
Suggest how would use / deploy this theory to get the best outcomes 
According to the goal of the bridge project, a reasonable construction schedule plan is prepared, and the construction schedule plan is effectively implemented. First of all, on the basis of the project department guidance plan form the production plan of the construction team, and will refine the production plan of the construction team for the season year plan, plan and monthly plan, and then asked to complete in strict accordance with the production plan. After the production planning task is issued, the annual plan, quarterly plan and monthly plan should be scientifically arranged to determine the implementation plan; The monthly production plan is refined, and the production plan of each month is determined by the technical leader of the working group, and the feasibility and specificity of the implementation method are ensured, so that the production task can be effectively implemented (Saungweme, 2015). After the working group receives the production plan, the plan information should be communicated to each participating department promptly. In addition, the working group needs to hold the meeting every day, so as to realize the communication and exchange of opinions on the problems in the project. In order to promote the effective completion of the plan, a clear reward and punishment system should be established in the working group.
Identify any potential weaknesses that the theory has and how would address / remedy these 
In the bridge project, the main factors that affect the quality of the project are construction materials, equipment and personnel. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen management in these aspects. Construction materials are the most basic elements affecting the construction quality, so only the quality of construction materials can be strictly controlled, so that the construction quality can be guaranteed fundamentally (Chang & Yen, 2007). When purchasing construction materials, the purchaser must ask the supplier of the materials to provide the factory certificate of the material and try to ensure the quality of the materials from the source. When the construction material enters the material field, it is necessary to carry out sampling inspection of the incoming material. If the sampling result does not meet the relevant standards, it is determined to restrict its entry into the material field so as to ensure the quality of the construction materials. Construction machinery is an important and indispensable in the process of engineering construction, however, if the construction machinery use undeserved, can cause some of the personal safety of operator, so involved in the construction machinery and equipment operating personnel should be familiar with the operation method of mechanical equipment, and in strict accordance with the specifications, well before using equipment inspection and maintenance, to ensure the safety of the construction process.
Establish key connections to other areas of practice (e.g. demonstrating that estimating is connected to risk management etc.) 
To realize the effective control of engineering project cost belongs to a systematical and comprehensive work, implementation process is relatively complicated, at the same time, has the certain difficulty, need to finish the work every staff to participate in the construction units, and the joint efforts of the implementation of the project cost control. The safety of construction process is the key point of real estate engineering project management (Bradley & Puri, 2016).
In recent years, many workers into the city to join in the construction industry, so that the construction team is growing, however, because of the workers' cultural level is relatively low, construction quality and the professional ability is not strong, lead to a drop in the quality of engineering as a whole. , shall, first of all, by the construction unit of construction personnel to carry out the professional knowledge and related construction skills training, and enhance every construction personnel safety responsibility consciousness, and then implement the safety responsibilities of each construction personnel, the question of whom to clear who is responsible for the principle. Only the construction skills and safety awareness of the construction personnel can be effectively improved, so that the construction safety of the project can be guaranteed fundamentally (LASCU, 2012). In addition, the construction unit leadership should lead by example, consciously perform the construction safety rules, to show the model leading role in the construction process, hence leading to the formation of the safety of the construction process of atmosphere. In order to guarantee the construction safety, we should construct a perfect supervision system of real estate projects, and use the supervision system to carry out all-round inspection of the project before construction.
 
4.2
Define the concept  would apply
In information economics, the term "information" refers to information that is not known to the other party because of the different information that the transaction parties know and master in the same transaction. Economists refer to an economic subject as "asymmetric information" or "asymmetric information" with knowledge or information that is not or cannot be verified by other economic subjects. Information asymmetry is common in real economic activities, the general is to have more information of one party in a favorable position in the trade, has more information can use this advantage in trading profit for themselves (Neap & Aysal, 2004).
The principal-agent relationship in information economics refers to any transaction involving asymmetric information. The party that has the information advantage in the transaction is called "agent" and the other party is called "client". On the premise of individual rationality, agents can use their information advantage, benefit or damage the interests of the principal, in other words, when the agent conflict of interests and the interests of the principal, the agent will often create "moral hazard" or "behavior.
Under the mutual supervision and constraint mechanism of project participants, the government, owner and contractor's main principal-agent relations: the government and the owner, the government and the contractor, the principal-agent relationship between the owner and the contractor. This paper takes the principal-agent relationship between the owner and the contractor as an example to prove the game. Project participants are restricted by this kind of supervision (Smith, Thompson, & Iacovou, 2009).
The management model relates to contractual relationships (the division of rights and obligations) and collaborative relationships (organization, coordination, management, and instruction delivery). Supervision engineer employed by the project owners, on behalf of the owner as a relatively independent third party supervision and project contractor's work, prevent the occurrence of contractor's moral hazard, ensure the realization of project objectives( Frey, 2000). In game analysis, the role of supervision engineer in the supervision of contractor is simplified as the extension of the owner's management agency.
Identify the benefits that this would have offered to the Garden Bridge Project 
The relative separation between ownership and control of the contractor. Construction project is a complex system, with social development and technological progress, the requirement of construction project management is higher and higher. The inevitable result of market economy development is the specialization, socialization and marketization of resource allocation (Mills et.,al, 2009). It is not necessary for the owner to establish a full set of construction and management organizations, which is not economical. The rational choice of the owner is to select the project contractor in the form of contract, establish the principal-agent relationship with the contractor, and build it by the contractor. In this relationship, to invest and control to the appropriate separation of the owners of investment and construction projects has the ultimate ownership, the contractor in the construction process according to the authorization of the contract, the construction of the concrete behavior has the decision-making and control.
There is a serious information asymmetry between the contractor of the agent and the owner of the client. The owner of a information disadvantage is difficult to accurately obtain relevant information such as the contractor's moral level, professional ability, also cannot be observed all contractors' choice behavior and the degree of hard information, or because of the high cost and make the observed behavior is not the economic (Cooke-Davies,  Crawford  & Lechler, 2009).
Suggest how would use / deploy this theory to get the best outcomes 
Uncertainty about the environment and the outcome of the agency. The implementation process of the construction project is long and the environmental impact is sensitive to the agency result. The contract between the contractor and the owner is impossible to predict all possible future events and to formulate corresponding countermeasures; Both the loopholes in the contract and the unpredictable factors could lead to the failure of the contractor (Swee-lean, & Nga-Na, 2004).#p#分页标题#e#
Identify any potential weaknesses that the theory has and how would address / remedy these 
Bounded rationality and individual capacity constraints. Both the owner and the contractor seek to maximize their own interests, but the fundamental interests of the two are inconsistent. The maximization of the owner's interests is the "best combination" of investment, progress and quality. In order to maximize the benefit of the contractor, the contractor may not maximize the interests of the owner as the standard of the choice of behavior, and may even harm the interests of the owner. Most of the owners' lack of professional engineering technology and management knowledge, how to guarantee project and reasonable economic benefit has not enough experience, some even lack the basic knowledge of engineering construction, supervision and control of the means and methods and necessary under certain constraints, which requires the construction supervising units to monitor and control of the contractor, in order to reduce the project contractor, behavior, guarantee the project quality conform to specified requirements (Moreau, 2016).
Establish key connections to other areas of practice (e.g. demonstrating that estimating is connected to risk management etc.) 
Agent theory has the key connection into the interest among the different parties. The high incidence of excessive competition in the market environment, reduce the cost as the primary consideration, all the competitors and the technological innovation and technological progress to the money, no doubt increased the construction enterprise management cost, caused by excessive competition in the market environment construction engineering company profits are generally lower, to some extent inhibited the construction enterprise technology innovation power, reduce enterprise construction projects through technological progress to promote the international competitive ability. In addition, technological innovation to improve the labor productivity and cost reducing method, compared to the extensive use of cheap labor in the process of project construction method to decrease the cost of construction engineering enterprises more directly, more easy to work (Sergeeva, 2017). Therefore, the technology of construction labor capacity requirements are relatively low and under the condition of fierce competition, the profit margin is not high, most of the construction enterprise is not willing to, also did not through technical innovation to improve productivity in order to realize the purpose of cost reduction.
 
4.3 Define the concept would apply
1) analysis of the problem of informatization construction.
In the process of project construction, the owner, supervision engineer, the contractor needs to comprehensive and accurate grasp of the indicators in the engineering construction project of the control condition, medium information such as measurement and payment, the engineering quality. However, the information communication mode of most projects is still mainly based on manual report. As the owner and government department, the project information is usually communicated through the monthly report and quarterly report. Unable to understand the project quality, project cost and progress control information in real time, the control mode can only be handled afterwards. This not only reduces the supervision and control ability of the project department to the project department, but also increases the information transfer cost of the project, hindering the coordination and communication between the participating parties of the project (Skibniewski, & Vecino, 2012). It increases the likelihood that the problem will be magnified, and in serious cases it may even affect the delivery results of the project.
(2) analysis of the reasons for the low level of informatization construction.
Informationization awareness is not strong, and the information work is not paid enough attention. The various project participants are still accustomed to the traditional management model, the strategic significance of information resource has not been fully understanding, understanding of the content, function and way of information construction, less attention is not enough, a direct result of lack of depth of planning, construction, the informatization and invests in informatization (Yang, et,al, 2007).
Existing project management information system is not perfect, the function is not complete, the owner, supervision, construction and design units of information communication between still rely mainly on traditional way of information communication, lead to low efficiency, easy to get wrong information communication so often delayed the schedule, increase the project cost.
Information standard letter to be established. Developed countries in project management, engineering design, construction, real estate transaction management, municipal utilities and other fields, has gradually established a relatively perfect standard system, can effectively guide, standard, the process of integration of information, have the effect of get twice the result with half the effort. However, our work in this field has just started and seriously lags behind the actual process of informatization. Because of the lack of data standards, existing information can not be fully applied, such as the current architectural design enterprise has basically realized the computer drawing, but many of these graphics electronic documents failed or rarely in the aftermath, building construction, construction supervision, be used in property management, many basic work and repeated in various construction management link.
Lack of information technology professionals. Informatization is developed rapidly in recent years a field, and the research development and application of speed faster and faster, showing a shortage of professional and technical personnel, construction industry information technology professionals lack is more obvious, know both information technology and be familiar with the industry situation of compound talented person. The design and development results of many project management information systems cannot meet the requirements of the project participants, resulting in huge waste of resources( Lechler, & Cohen, 2009).
Identify the benefits that this would have offered to the Garden Bridge Project 
The idea of establishing a project participant system collaboration requires the participation of each participant in the project to be implemented.
Approved and managed project objectives. Only on the basis of unity of goals and ideas, can project participants have the willingness to cooperate, trust and share risks (Bennigson, 1972). We will work together to solve problems and disputes to prevent the development of the prevention of the situation, and ultimately achieve a win-win situation for all parties involved in the project.
(1)
The involvement of top management. Project participants to break through the traditional concept and organizational boundaries, thus the construction of the project participants, the participation of senior managers and top managers of consensus and collaboration concept to the system has a very important role in the smooth implementation of. The concept of system collaboration requires the participation of all parties to form a project management team to share risks and share resources. What is more important between project participants to the project delivery target recognition and the consistency of the project information communication, so the top management's approval, support is the key factor that effect the success of the system concept of collaboration (Kendra & Taplin, 2004).
(2)
Openness of information communication. The concept of system collaboration requires information resources as important support, and information resources must be open to all parties involved in the project (BOUNDS, 1998). Sufficient information communication to achieve common project, to reduce the traditional model project supervision and restriction mechanism between parties, reduce project parties "" behavior" has positive meaning. Participation in the information communication is built on the basis of mutual trust, cooperation, to ensure that the engineering design data, such as investment, schedule and quality information can be involved in the parties timely and convenient access to. It can not only ensure effective control of construction project target, and can reduce a lot of repetitive tasks, to reduce the cost, more important is to promote the project participants to enhance customer satisfaction and project contractor competitiveness.
 
Suggest how would use / deploy this theory to get the best outcomes 
The system cooperation agreement is best signed prior to the signing of the project contract.The system cooperation signed by the parties indicates the real intention of the project participants to a certain extent (Veloz, 1998). The agreement does not change the contractual obligations of the parties involved in the relevant contract, and the parties concerned shall still perform the relevant provisions of the contract. The main purpose of the system collaboration is to help the project owners to establish a public and mutual trust team, and determine the common objectives, task division and code of conduct of the participating parties.
Identify any potential weaknesses that the theory has and how would address / remedy these 
There are many participants in the project, and the parties have both common goals and respective goals, which have both the overall interest and the respective interests. There is an interdependent interest relationship among the participants of the project, so the parties need to communicate and coordinate with each other to minimize conflicts. System collaboration mechanism embodied in cross-organizational communication, timely decision-making, project status evaluation and feedback, so as to reduce the claim and litigation, to set up the conflict prevention programs, improve the timeliness of resolving conflict, prevent conflict escalation.#p#分页标题#e#
Establish key connections to other areas of practice (e.g. demonstrating that estimating is connected to risk management etc.) 
Motivation is an important part of modern project management, and the incentive mechanism of construction project management mainly includes two aspects: the owner, the government's incentive to the project participants; Internal motivation of project participants. The external motivation is the material reward and honor of the owner and the government for the work performance of the contractor, the design, the supervision, the supplier, etc. The internal motivation shows the recognition and promotion of the employee's work within the organization of the owner, contractor, design and supervision organization. The implementation of the management is to strengthen the incentive of the former, namely, what mechanism design the owner adopts to maximize the utility of the owner and bring benefits to the contractor; How to create and maintain a working environment conducive to mobilizing the initiative of all parties. Develop standards, performance evaluation and reward success sharing is the embodiment of Partnering management incentive mechanism, the incentive mechanism design should fully consider the long-term interests of the parties, the ultimate goal of the project.

5.0 conclusion 
In summary , the three main countermeasures of project management are: first, the participants of the project should change their ideas and establish the concept of project management based on system cooperation. Second, the project participants should establish a collaborative and win-win partnership based on the project. Third, the commonly used project management mode of our country and the characteristics of the emerging international project management pattern, make the project parties according to the different characteristics of the project chooses the optimal model of project management. Tripartite system of government, owner, contractor's point of view, the existing problems and reasons in project management, solve the past only to project a study participants when mutual shuffle in the process of project implementation problems and countermeasures of cannot implement. Theoretically proved that the project participants distrust, mutual supervision between the mode of traditional project of inefficient willfulness and traditional project management model based on rigid constraint mechanism of project delivery results is not the optimal project management as a result, it is impossible to fundamentally prevent project contractors in the "behavior in the process of project implementation.
 
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