代写 会员中心 TAG标签
网站地图 RSS
英国essay 澳洲essay 美国essay 加拿大essay MBA Essay Essay格式范文
返回首页

代写英国社会学essay:Are we seeing the emergence of a ‘post-secular

时间:2019-08-16 10:49来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1.0 Introduction介绍 不同的学者对世界世俗化进程有不同的看法。同一学派的学者认为,世界是高度世俗的,宗教影响很小(呋喃,2015:1)。即使在某些地区和国家有宗教复兴现象,它们也是个别
1.0 Introduction介绍
不同的学者对世界世俗化进程有不同的看法。同一学派的学者认为,世界是高度世俗的,宗教影响很小(呋喃,2015:1)。即使在某些地区和国家有宗教复兴现象,它们也是个别现象(布鲁斯,2011:54)。然而,其他一些学者认为,宗教复兴的趋势是全球性的。例如,福音主义和伊斯兰教在世界上的影响继续扩大。这些宗教复兴现象不仅存在于第三世界,也存在于发达国家。以美国为例,作为世界上科学技术最先进、社会分化和合理化程度最高、宪政民主最完善的国家之一,其宗教影响应当降低。但事实并非如此。事实上,美国的宗教形势是宗派发展蓬勃。这使得一些以前的学者,或多或少是世俗主义者无法解释。这一现象使这些学者提出了当今世界存在着一种“退”的趋势(伯杰,1999:23;2005:405)。因此,对于当今社会出现的世俗或非世俗社会存在着诸多争议,哈贝马斯(2008a:98;2008b:58)否认了这两种观点。他认为,后世俗社会正在兴起,要证明这一观点的正确性,对于认识当今世界发生的宗教复兴现象,解决由此带来的暴力事件等问题,具有积极的意义。本文旨在分析和理解这一观点的内容,以分析和判断这一观点的正确性。本文首先从三个方面分析后世俗化的特征,然后从三个方面探讨后世俗化特征产生的原因和表现形式。根据分析结果,可以判断哈贝马斯(2008)关于“后世俗社会”出现的观点是否正确。
Different scholars gave different opinions about the secularization process of the world. Scholars of a same school believe that the world is highly secular and religious influence is very small (Furani, 2015:1). Even if there are religious revival phenomena in some regions and countries, they are individual phenomena (Bruce, 2011:54). However, some other scholars believe that there is a global trend towards a revival of religion. For example, the influence of evangelicalism and Islam in the world continues to expand. These phenomena of religious revival not only exist in the third world, but also in developed countries. Taking the United States as an example, as one of the countries in the world with the most advanced science and technology, the highest degree of social differentiation and rationalization, and the most perfect constitutional democracy, the influence of its religion should be reduced. But that is not the case. In fact, the religious situation in the United States is that the sectarian development is flourishing. This made it impossible for some former scholars who were more or less secularists unable to explain. The phenomena make these scholars put forward the assertion that there is a trend of desecularization in the world today (Berger, 1999:23; 2005:405). Therefore, there is much controversy about the emergence of a secular or non-secular society in today’s society, and Habermas (2008a:98; 2008b:58) denies both opinions. He believes that a post-secular society is emerging currently, to prove the correctness of this viewpoint has a positive meaning to recognize the phenomenon of religious revival that has occurred in the current world and to resolve the problems, such as violence incidents, that this brings. This essay aims to analyze and understand the content of this point of view to analyze and judge the correctness of this point of view. This article first analyzes the characteristics of a post-secular from three aspects, and then it explores the reasons and manifestations of these characteristics from three aspects. Based on the analysis results, it can judge whether Habermas’s (2008) view on the emergence of a ‘post-secular society’ is correct.
2.0 Analysis of the Characteristics of a Post-Secular Society后世俗社会特征分析
后世俗社会首先为人们提供了当前生活状况的图片。这种生活方式与世俗主义所描绘的生活方式截然不同。后世俗社会包括三个方面的特征:世俗化进程的延续、宗教公众影响力的持续和多元文化与多元宗教信仰共存的现状。
A post-secular society first provides people with a picture of the current life situation. This situation of living is very different from the situation of life depicted by secularism. A post-secular society includes characteristics of three aspects: the continuation of the secularization process, the persistence of religious public influence, and the current state of coexistence of pluralistic cultures and multiple religious beliefs.
2.1 The continued secularization process持续的世俗化进程
从全球化的角度来看,哈贝马斯(2008a:116;2008b:67)认为,世俗化作为一个社会和历史进程仍在继续。这一进程的继续伴随着西方现代化进程在世界其他地区的展开。对于一个在传统社会中不断发生的世俗化过程,可以从社会结构、社会意识和个体三个层面进行分析。社会结构层面的世俗化表现为一些传统社会结构的解体和新的社会子系统的形成。这些子系统逐渐摆脱了以往传统结构的控制。社会结构世俗化的继续逐渐导致宗教机构与世俗权力的分离。世俗化进程在社会意识层面上也具有全球性的意义,是一种传统的世界观和价值观,它不断受到起源于西方社会的世俗意识的影响。对于这些传统的世界观或宗教信仰,西方世俗意识的影响是外部的。这种外部冲击使原本自给自足、稳定的世界观或宗教信仰逐渐相对化,并最终趋于瓦解(哈贝马斯,2008a:110)。个人层面的世俗化反映在传统世界的绝对性。由于世俗世界观和价值取向的影响,宗教信仰逐渐相对化。人们有越来越多的主观意识和自由意识(哈贝马斯,2008a:109;2008b:61)。
From the perspective of globalization, Habermas (2008a:116; 2008b:67) believes that secularization as a social and historical process still continues. The continuation of this process is accompanied by the unfolding of Western modernization processes in other parts of the world. For a continuous secularization process that takes place in a traditional society, it can be analyzed from three levels: social structure, social consciousness, and individual aspects. The secularization at the level of social structure is manifested as the disintegration of some traditional social structures and the formation of new social sub-systems. These sub-systems gradually get rid of the control of the previous traditional structure. The continuation of the secularization of social structures gradually leads to the separation of religious institutions from secular power. The secularization process at the level of social consciousness also has a global significance, a traditional world outlook and values, it is constantly impacted by the secular consciousness that originated in Western society. For these traditional worldviews or religious beliefs, the impact of secular consciousness from the West is external. This external shock makes the previously self-contained and stable worldview or religious belief gradually relativized, and may eventually tend to disintegrate (Habermas, 2008a:110).The secularization on the individual level is reflected in the fact that the absoluteness of the traditional worldview or religious belief is gradually relativized due to the impact of secular worldview and value orientation. People have more and more subjective awareness and freedom consciousness (Habermas, 2008a:109; 2008b:61).
2.2 Continuity of religious public influence
The second feature of a post-secular society is the persistence of religious public influence. The continuous secularization process on a global scale does not lead to the conclusion of secularism. Instead, along with the secularization process, religious traditions and religious societies continue to exist even in a sense of “rejuvenation” (Habermas, 2008a:102). The continued existence of religious traditions and religious societies in post-secular societies does not mean that they merely linger as pre-modern relics. On the contrary, the existence of religion in a post-secular society actually means that religious beliefs, religious traditions, and religious societies still play an important public influence in modern society and bear indispensable social roles (Habermas, 2003:105). Of course, this public influence and social role of religion manifests itself in both positive and negative forms. In any case, this means that religion has an active vitality in modern society. The phenomena of revival of these religious include not only the revival of certain Protestant sects, the revival of Roman Catholicism, but also the revival of Islam and other traditional religions. These religious revival phenomena seem to go hand in hand with the current secularization process (Habermas, 2008a:113; 2008b:64). This situation is both meaningful and embarrassing for those who have more or less secularistic trend. On the one hand, the society continues to be secular; on the other hand, people have not seen the decline and even disappearance of religions in a society that has continued to be secular. Although the defenders of secularization theory question the nature of phenomena of these religious revival, Berger (1999: 6) reminds people of the following phenomena: the international religious situation is that conservative, orthodox or traditionalist movements are on the rise; on the contrary, those modern religious movements and religious organizations are in decline (Berger, 1999: 6). Although there are still great differences in the interpretation of the phenomenon of religious revival in modern society, religion has not completely withdrawn from the historical stage with the modernization and secularization of a society, this is a social fact. This fact makes people have to admit the fact that in a post-secular society, religion still has important public influence. This makes us have to rethink the complexity of the secularization process and the limitations of various classical secularization theories and new secularization theories (Habermas, 2008a:111; 2008b:59).


推荐内容
  • 英国作业
  • 新西兰作业
  • 爱尔兰作业
  • 美国作业
  • 加拿大作业
  • 英国essay
  • 澳洲essay
  • 美国essay
  • 加拿大essay
  • MBA Essay
  • Essay格式范文
  • 澳洲代写assignment
  • 代写英国assignment
  • 新西兰代写assignment
  • Assignment格式
  • 如何写assignment
  • 英国termpaper
  • 澳洲termpaper
  • 英国coursework代写
  • PEST分析法
  • literature review
  • Research Proposal
  • Reference格式
  • case study
  • presentation
  • report格式
  • Summary范文
  • common application
  • Personal Statement
  • Motivation Letter
  • Application Letter
  • recommendation letter