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妇女与环境有着特殊的关系Women have a special relationship with the envir

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-08-15 10:51:37 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction介绍
随着人们对环境污染和气候变化危险的认识日益加深,以及人们越来越重视人类社会的环境保护,人们在各种关系中重新审视了环境与人类社会的关系。在人类社会与环境之间,妇女与环境的关系受到关注和研究(Shah和Shah,1995:75;Roucheleau,Thomas Slayter,Wangari,1996:103)。原因是女性与环境有着特殊的关系。这种特殊关系不仅反映了妇女对环境保护的重视,还涉及到妇女对自身权利、自身责任和社会分工、妇女的性别优势等诸多方面的重新认识(Paddock,2017:102;AgrawaL,1992:119;Roucheleau,Thomas Slayter,Wangari,1996:103),了解妇女与环境的特殊关系对更好地发挥妇女在环境保护中的作用具有非常重要的作用。本研究旨在分析女性与环境的具体关系,在此基础上探讨如何更好地发挥女性在环境保护中的重要作用。本文首先从六个方面介绍了妇女与环境的特殊关系,然后分析了当前条件下妇女与环境的特殊关系存在的不足,最后提出了如何发挥其重要作用的建议。妇女在环境保护中的作用。
With the increasing recognition of environmental pollution and the dangers of climate change, as well as the increasing emphasis placed on environmental protection by human society, the relationship between the environment and human society has been re-examined by people, in various relationships between human society and the environment, the relationship between women and the environment has received attention and research (Shah and Shah, 1995: 75; Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter, Wangari, 1996: 103). The reason is that women have a special relationship with the environment. This special relationship not only reflects women’s attention to environmental protection, but also involves women’s re-understanding of their rights, their own responsibilities and social division of labor, the gender advantage of women, as well as many other aspects (Paddock, 2017:102; Agarwal, 1992:119; Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter, Wangari, 1996: 103), understanding the special relationship between women and the environment plays a very important role in the better play of women's role in environmental protection. This study aims to analyze the specific relationship between women and the environment, based on these analyses to explore how to better play an important role of women in environmental protection. This article first introduces the special relationship between women and the environment from six aspects, then analyzes some deficiencies in the special relationship between women and the environment under the current conditions, and finally, it puts forward suggestions on how to play an important role of women in environmental protection.
 
2.0 A Special relationship between women and the environment妇女与环境的特殊关系
2.1 Ecological feminism and environmental protection生态女性主义与环境保护
沃伦在《生态女权主义的权力和承诺》中提到,环境的退化和资源的开发是女权主义的主题,因为了解它们有助于了解妇女的受压迫状态(Roucheleau,Thomas Slayter,Wangari,1996:110)。例如,在印度,通过引入单一树种进行森林开发和重新造林是商业生产的所有女权主义主题,因为土著森林和多种树种的消失完全影响了印度农村妇女的生存。为了维持家庭的生存。原生森林提供各种树木作为食物、燃料、饲料、家用器具、染料和草药以及创收用途。但是,单一树种不能满足这些要求(Agarwal,1992:15;Shah和Shah,1995:82)。
Warren mentioned in the power and commitment of eco-feminism that the degradation of the environment and the exploitation of resources are topics of feminism, because understanding them helps to understand the oppressed status of women (Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter, Wangari, 1996:110). For example, in India, forest exploitation and reforestation through the introduction of single tree species are for commercial production all feminist topics because the disappearance of indigenous forests and multi-tree species has completely affected the survival of Indian rural women’s ability to maintain the survival of their families. Native forests provide a variety of trees for use as food, fuel, feed, household utensils, dyes, and herbs, as well as income-generating uses. However, single tree species cannot meet these requirements (Agarwal, 1992:15; Shah and Shah, 1995:82).
2.2 Women's social division of labor and environmental protection妇女社会分工与环境保护
生态女权主义、社会化和社会分工理论都认为,女性先天或后天的环境意识使她们更容易支持解决环境问题,参与解决环境问题(Griffin,1978:33;鲁切洛,托马斯·斯莱特,旺加里,1996:103)。生态女权主义认为,人类对自然的统治和压迫等同于男性对女性的支配和压迫,自然成为女性的话题(P_rez ter_n,2017:487)。在西方文明史上,自然被认为是一个没有发言权、被征服和统治的人,它被迫成为人类发展的目标,为人民服务。然而,人类的需求往往与自然自身的需求背道而驰(Roucheleau、ThomasSlayter和Wangari,1996:103)。与自然在人类社会中的地位相似,在父权统治下,妇女代表着人类社会中的其他人。他们被迫在公共事务中保持沉默,成为二等公民。现代西方工业文明的建立,不仅加深了对自然的压迫,而且加深了对妇女的压迫(Shah和Shah,1995:75;Agarwal,1997:1)。因此,当妇女反抗对生态的破坏和尴尬时,自然会认识到男性权力统治在对妇女和自然的压迫中所起的类似作用。妇女争取解放,必须把拯救地球的斗争作为自己的责任。女性的出路和自然的出路是常见的(P_rez ter_n,2017:500;Roucheleau、Thomas Slayter和Wangari,1996:110)。
The theory of ecological feminism, socialization and social division of labor both believe that women’s congenital or acquired environmental awareness makes it easier for them to support the solution of environmental problems and participate in the solution of environmental problems  (Griffin, 1978:33; Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter, Wangari, 1996: 103). Eco-feminism believes that human beings’ rule and oppression over nature is tantamount to men's domination and oppression of women, making it naturally a topic of women (Pérez-Terán, 2017: 487). In the history of Western civilization, nature is regarded as a person who has no right to speak and is conquered and ruled, it is forced to become a target of human development and serve people. However, human needs often run counter to nature's own needs (Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter and Wangari, 1996: 103). Similar to the status of nature in human society, women represent other people in the human society under patriarchal rule. They are forced to silence in public affairs and become second-class citizens. The establishment of modern western industrial civilization has not only deepened the oppression towards nature, but has also deepened the oppression to women (Shah and Shah, 1995:75; Agarwal, 1997:1). So when women act against the devastation and embarrassment to ecology, it is natural to realize the similar role that the rule of male power plays in oppression to both women and nature. When women fight for their emancipation, they must regard the struggle for saving the earth as their own responsibility. The way out for women and the way out for nature are common (Pérez-Terán, 2017: 500; Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter and Wangari, 1996: 110).
2.3 Benefits of women's participation in environmental protection
2.3.1 Psychological benefits
In the process of environmental protection, women's body and mind have been developed. First, women's physical health is maintained. Environmental pollution has a greater harm to women and it even affects women's gestation of the next generation. Women participate in environmental protection from the micro level of their families and communities, as well as they protect their environment, which have significant benefits for the health of women themselves and their families (Paddock, 2017:110). Second, women can obtain psychological satisfaction. A beautiful environment makes women's spirits cleansed; women do an excellent job of environmental protection through hard work, and allow people to enjoy the clean air and beautiful environment, making them have a higher sense of accomplishment (Macgregor, 2004:56; Banerjee, 2003:143).
2.3.2 Opportunities to play the roles of women’s talents
Women's social network is expanded in the process of environmental protection. In the process of environmental protection, women can make many like-minded friends and share their experiences in environmental protection to have mutual spiritual support and encouragement (Paddock, 2017:110). The sisterhood friendship between these environmentally-conscious women is beneficial to women's adherence to their beliefs, ensuring that they continue to follow trivial environmental protection work and can further influence other people (Macgregor, 2004:56). At the same time, a considerable number of women usually handle household chores in their own homes. They rarely have the opportunity to participate in public affairs, make spiritual friends, and have partners in their careers, as a useful public service, environmental protection can provide such opportunities for women (Macgregor, 2004:84).
2.3.3 Improvement of women’s abilities
In the process of participating in environmental protection, women's cultural level and ability can be improved. In the process of environmental protection, women have increased their awareness of environmental protection by being promoted and promoting. At the same time, their own awareness of environmental protection has been improved, and their own cultural levels have also risen unconsciously. In addition, the ability of women to handle things will also be increased (Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayte and Wangari, 1996: 103). For example, activities as launching and organizing general public participation in environmental protection, contacting manufacturers, and organizing specific aspects of environmental protection all require certain capabilities such as lobbying, speeches and the ability to judge information. Through the participation in environmental protection, these capabilities of women can be developed, the social value of family roles of women will be highlighted (Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayte and Wangari, 1996: 110).#p#分页标题#e#
2.4 Women’s family roles and the environment
Women play two roles in their families, the defenders of the family environment and the main implementers of family consumption (Griffin, 1978: 33). Most women are responsible for the cleanliness of the home environment and the disposal of household waste, which is conducive to taking the lead in environmental protection work in the home area, such as home energy conservation and household waste classification (Paddock, 2017:102). As a role that can dominate household consumption, women's choice of environmentally-friendly consumption will contribute to the conservation of the entire social resources, and even promote the production of environmentally friendly production and environmentally friendly packaging. The roles of home environment defenders and main household consumers are originally the roles for women in the private sector of families. However, the outstanding performance of these roles in the public domain of environmental protection can affect the progress of social environmental protection as a whole (Paddock, 2017:110). Therefore, the more consideration that women take for environmental protection in the process of playing their family roles, the more they can highlight the environmental functions of women's family roles, the more they can promote social environmental protection.
2.5 Gender advantage of women in environmental protection
Environmental protection is an arduous and trivial task that requires patience and carefulness. For waste sorting, it takes a lot of care and amazing endurance to last a long time and cultivate habits. Women just have the advantage of being meticulous and tough, so it is easier for them to carry out trivial environmental protection work (Shah and Shah, 1995:75; Bauhardt, 2014:60). When a woman is born, she is influenced by the maternal culture and obtains a motherhood character that is characterized by perceptual, kindness, tenderness, and rich sympathy; and men are trained in rational culture and trained to be rational, arrogant, and competitive, this is the male/market character (Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter and Wangari, 1996:110; Bauhardt, 2014:68). It is precisely because of the different personality of genders cultivated by different socialized content that makes men easy to conquer nature, while women are more sympathetic to nature and respect nature (Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter and Wangari, 1996:110). Social structure theory is based on the results of socialization theory. It is further believed that different gender qualities determine gender division of labor (Pérez-Terán, 2017:500; Banerjee, 2003:143; Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter and Wangari, 1996:108). In the economic and professional structure of society, most rational and conquering men are engaged in management, scientific, rational, higher social status, and higher-paying jobs. The primary purpose of these industries is economic growth. In order to achieve rapid economic growth, they often do not hesitate to use the path of development at the expense of environmental destruction; sympathetic, emotional, and kind women are mostly engaged in education, health care, child care, and other related occupations. The work in these industries places a greater emphasis on the harm caused by environmental protection and environmental pollution, and women themselves suffer more from environmental damage, so women pay more attention to respect for nature and protection of the environment. They do not agree that the environment should be sacrificed because of economic development (Banerjee, 2003:143; Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter and Wangari, 1996:109).
2.6 Women's physiological characteristics and traditional roles
From the perspective of women's natural sex, in the process of creating everything and creating life, the role of the earth and the biological role of women are similar. Women can understand the identity of humans and nature through the unique experiences of their own bodies (such as menstruation, pregnancy, birth and parenthood), while men cannot do this (Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter, Wangari, 1996: 110; Leach, 2007: 67). Therefore, women are more accessible to nature than men, and women are the best spokesperson for nature. This connection between women and nature should be promoted. From the perspective of women’s social gender, women’s femininity is a product of adaptation to culture or socialization. Women are through their long-time fulfillment of their social roles to be close to nature. Women’s special relationship with nature is both socially constructed and ideologically strengthen. Leach (2007:85), Shah and Shah (1995:75), Griffin (1978:33) said, the relationship between women and nature has a long history, and this alliance continues stubbornly through culture, language and history. In the days when nature has been severely damaged and women suffer ruthless oppression, mutual care between man and nature, between people, and between men and women should be promoted. Caring is an equal relationship. Caring requires the mutual care of the two parties to exchange roles. Just as men should realize that women also need to be cared for, humans should also realize caring for the environment while they ask for caring from the environment ((Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter, Wangari, 1996: 110; MacGregor, 2010:124).
 
3.0 Critique of the special relationship between women and the environment under present conditions
3.1 Defects in women’ capabilities
Although women have a naturally close relationship with the environment and women are more likely to embark on environmental protection, it is unrealistic to purely encourage women to participate in environmental protection. In reality, many women are still struggling on the poverty line, working hard for their lives and having no time to take care of environmental protection. In many rural areas of underdeveloped countries, women are actually the mainstay of agricultural production because the large number of male laborers works outside the home. Because of the lack of agricultural production knowledge and technology, rural women can only maintain inefficient agricultural production. This extensive production method itself seriously undermines the environment (Agarwal, 1992:158). In cities, although there are many intellectual women who are involved in environmental research and practical work, there are still a large number of women who do not have formal occupations and struggle with trivial and inefficient housework. Under such circumstances, it is not realistic enough to require women to raise awareness of environmental protection and participate in environmental protection. Environmental protection requires women to have a variety of capabilities. For example, they must have certain economic strength, political influence, cultural level, environmental awareness, and leisure time, all of which require the full development of women. Any failure to achieve development on the one hand will become a flaw in women's development, which is not conducive to the smooth progress of environmental protection, and it also eliminates the enthusiasm of women in participating in environmental protection (Agarwal, 1992:157; Shah and Shah, 1995:82).
3.2 Lack adequate support for women
At present, one of the main contents of urban women’s environmental protection is the household’s waste classification and household green consumption. This kind of private-sector work brings benefits in the public domain, and it can not be completed by conditions and efforts in the private sector alone, the related social systems in the public domain should cooperate with that (Macgregor, 2004:56; Agarwal, 1997:3; Shah and Shah, 1995:79). For example, garbage classification in households and communities is only the first step in garbage sorting. Next, there must be a dedicated department or company to carry out waste separation, classification, transportation, and sorting through one-stop services. Otherwise, there must be faults in the environmental protection work in the fields of private sector and the public, which makes the environmental protection failed. In some countries, especially in developing countries, this phenomenon has existed. In the communities, garbage sorting equipment has been set up. Residents have also implemented garbage sorting. However, in the garbage recycling bins, they mix all the classified garbage, making the waste classification work done by the community useless (Macgregor, 2004:59; Shah and Shah, 1995:78). Another example is household green consumption. Women’s buying green packaging or simply packaged goods while shopping can reduce the amount of white waste and save natural resources for luxury packaging. However, if a social system in the public domain does not have environmental awareness, it does not actively support and coordinate with women's environmental protection work, for example, if companies do not produce green packaging products, women’s environmental protection work can only be conducted in a limited range inefficiently. It is not just women but the whole society who are hurt (Macgregor, 2004:58; Shah and Shah, 1995:79).
Every aspect of the environmental protection chain needs material support. In the case of waste separation, for example, the classification, recycling and transportation of garbage, and the secondary treatment of various types of waste require the participation of social resources, such as garbage sorters, sorting bins, garbage handlers, garbage disposal plants, etc., manpower and material resources are all essential (Macgregor, 2004:83; Agarwal, 1997:23; Shah and Shah, 1995:80). In addition, the operation of environmental organizations, publicity of environmental protection knowledge, etc. all require sufficient funds, manpower, material resources, and time. At present, although women's self-promoted or advocated environmental protection organizations have some financial support, it is far from meeting their needs. Many environmental protection women invest their own energy, time, and money in environmental protection. They rely on a sense of environmental protection and conscience. However, when personal resources are exhausted, if the environmental protection needs to be continued, social resources are necessary (Macgregor, 2004: 84; Shah and Shah, 1995:81).#p#分页标题#e#
3.3 Lack of adequate attention and respect for women's work
Women as the main body of household work are the result of gender division of labor in the society. This division of labor divides women into the private sphere, while the work of private sphere is considered to be worthless, and it is the obligation of women’s (Mary, 1985; 37; Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter and Wangari, 1996: 105). If the labor force is employed for housework and agricultural production, calculating the daily remuneration according to the labor market price, a large number of labor costs should be paid for women. However, these labors are completed by women free of charge. The society has neglected the value of women's housework. It also regards women's environmental protection work done in housework and agricultural production as free labor. Women’s environmental protection work is not valued, which will dampen women’s enthusiasm for environmental protection (Mary, 1985:19; Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter and Wangari, 1996: 108).
 
4.0 Recommendations on women’s maintaining and developing special relationships with the environment
4.1 Help women to improve their overall capabilities
Only by promoting women’s comprehensive development in economics, education, and politics can the majority of women consciously embark on environmental protection work. First, it needs to help women to increase their income. Both poverty alleviation and environmental protection are prerequisites for promoting the participation of women in environmental protection. As far as the current situation is concerned, there seems to be regional differences in the enthusiasm of women’s participating in environmental protection. For example, in developed regions, the enthusiasm is relatively high, and the enthusiasm of women in relatively economically backward regions is not high. Especially in rural areas, advanced science and technology should be disseminated to free rural women from heavy and inefficient agricultural production, which will increase agricultural production efficiency and agricultural income to save women enough time and energy to care for the environment and participate in environmental protection (Agarwal, 1992: 119). Second, it must provide certain educational conditions. By raising the level of education of women to allow them to understand the relationship between environmental protection and economic growth, women can recognize the importance of the environment. With a certain amount of environmental knowledge, women can raise awareness of environmental protection and then take action to participate in environmental protection (Agarwal, 1992: 158; Shah and Shah, 1995: 77). Third, it must ensure that a considerable number of women participate in politics and participate in decision-making in environmental management (Agarwal, 1992: 146; Macgregor, 2004: 60).
4.2 Provide more support for women
Support and coordination of relevant social systems should be provided for women to participate in environmental protection. First, it must arrange certain institutions or places, especially public social organizations, to cooperate with each other and use their own powers and capabilities to ensure the integrity of the environmental protection chain and the smooth completion of environmental protection work. Environmental protection tasks such as environmental monitoring, pollution disposal, and ecological protection all require the cooperation and overall planning of social-related systems so that women's participation in environmental protection activities can be carried out in a scientific and guided manner (Mary, 1985: 19; Agarwal, 1997: 37). Second, it is necessary to integrate environmental protection considerations into the system and rules to provide institutional convenience for women's participation in environmental protection (Agarwal, 1992:119; Macgregor, 2004:58). Third, there must be certain technical and financial support. Funds of women’s participation in environmental protection can be funded by relevant units and organizations of the national society. They can also be supported by various non-governmental organizations at home and abroad, and funds raised by women who participate in environmental protection. The all-round, multi-channel funding source is an essential material condition for women to participate in environmental protection and proceed smoothly. In addition, the education and training of women on environmental protection with reasonable and scientific knowledge should be strengthened so as to improve their environmental awareness and ability (Agarwal, 1992:134; Macgregor, 2004:61).
4.3 Improve respects for women from a social ideology aspect
The society must fully affirm the economic value and social significance of women's environmental protection work. Women's participation in environmental protection work not only purifies the environment, optimizes resource conservation, but also helps the society to repay some of the environmental debt left by economic development; women's environmental protection work itself is also a loss of the labor force that also creates wealth; Women's participation in environmental protection work is due to their concern for and love of the environment. It is out of women's mother's feelings and is a kind of active dedication. For this kind of noble behavior, the society should give praise and support. It should not regard environmental protection as the responsibility of women and low-value labor. When necessary, certain spiritual and material encouragement should be given to women for their participating in environmental protection (Agarwal, 1992:157; Leach, 2007:67).
 
5.0 Conclusion
There is indeed a special relationship between the environment and women, which is mainly reflected in the following aspects: rights of women, the division of labor between men women, benefits of women’s participation in environmental protection, roles of women in families, gender advantages, and physiological characteristics. Under current conditions, there are still some factors in the special relationship between women and the environment that are not conducive to women's participation in environmental protection. These include deficiencies in women's capabilities, women's lack of adequate support, and women's lack of adequate attention and respect. In response to these deficiencies, the author proposes improvement measures to help women to improve their abilities comprehensively, provide more support for women, and respect women in social ideology, so as to better promote women to play an active role in environmental protection.
 
References
Agarwal, B. (1992) ‘The gender and environment debate: lessons from India’, Fem. Stud, 18 (1):
119-158.
Agarwal, B. (1997) ‘Environmental Action, Gender Equity and Women's Participation’, Development and Change, 28, 1-44.
Banerjee, S. B. (2003) ‘Who Sustains Whose Development? Sustainable Development and the Reinvention of Nature’, Organization Studies, 24(1): 143-180.
Bauhardt, C. (2014) ‘Solutions to the crisis? The Green New Deal, Degrowth, and the Solidarity Economy: Alternatives to the capitalist growth economy from an ecofeminist economics perspective’, Ecological Economics, 102(6): 60-68.
Griffin, S. (1978) Woman and Nature: The Roaring inside Her, New York: Harpe & Row Press, 33-49.
Leach, M. (2007) ‘Earth Mother Myths and Other Ecofeminist Fables: How a Strategic Notion Rose and Fell’, Dev. Change, 38 (1): 67-85.
Macgregor, S. (2004 ) ‘From Care to Citizenship: Calling Ecofeminism Back to Politics’, Ethics & the Environment, 9 (1):56-84.
MacGregor, S. (2010) ‘A Stranger Silence Still: the Need for Feminist Social Research on Climate Change’, Sociol. Rev, 57 (2):124-140.
Mary, D. (1985) ‘Citizenship with a Feminist Face: The Problem with Maternal Thinking’, Political Theory, 13(1):19-37.
Paddock, J. R. (2017) ‘Changing Consumption, Changing Tastes? Exploring Consumer Narratives for Food Secure, Sustainable and Healthy Diets’, Journal of Rural Studies, 53: 102-110.
Pérez-Terán, A. S. (2017) Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment, New York: Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon, 487-500.
Roucheleau, D., Thomas-Slayter, B., Wangari, E. (1996) Feminist Political Ecology, London: Routledge,
Shah, M. K. and Shah, P. (1995) ‘Gender, Environment and Livelihood Security: an Alternative Viewpoint from India', IDS Bulletin, 26(1): 75-82.
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