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美国summary范文:The Summary of “Double exposure: assessing the i

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-02-12 11:03:18 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
导论:该文是一篇美国summary范文,讨论了假设经济全球化与气候变化之间存在协同作用。 O'Brien(2000)说,自工业革命以来,大气中温室气体的浓度翻了一番。在过去的一个世纪里,全球平均地表温度上升了0.3-0.6℃,海平面从10厘米上升到25厘米。作者认为,这种变化是由于人为地持续构成了大气层和其他人类活动。作者还提到了双重曝光的概念。正如奥布莱恩(O'Brien,2000)所说,双重暴露是某些特定地区,部门或生态系统面临气候变化和经济全球化影响的情况。
作者的主要结论包括以下四个方面:第一,他认为气候变化与经济全球化之间不仅存在因果关系,关系应该是协同作用。作者使用以下实例来解释协同作用:全球变暖的变化将导致不同地区降水和干燥气候条件的变化,从而导致世界各国经济结构的变化;自工业革命以来,随着世界人口的快速增长,用水量迅速增加;更重要的是,水污染也变得非常严重。大气中的人为排放的温室气体,如一氧化碳,二氧化碳不断增加,这将改变地球的大气成分。其次,他报告说,气候变化和经济全球化的协同作用具有复杂的影响。它们产生的影响可能相互抵消,或相互叠加,导致环境和经济方面出现双重赢家和输家。第三,在判断是否存在赢家或输家时,他认为不应仅从某个方面进行评估,而应从经济,社会和环境方面进行评估和分析。最后,作者得出结论认为,随着经济全球化和气候变化同时出现,政策可能能够解决某一方面的负面影响,但可能会带来另一方面的负面影响。因此,我们应该从整体和长远的角度来制定政策以取得更好的结果。尽管作者未能明确提出全球气候变化的具体解决方案,但作者还是提出了另一个新思路:环境问题对每个国家来说都不是一个问题。解决这个问题涉及一个国家的政治和经济方面。面对日益严重的环境问题,每个国家应平衡经济,社会和环境方面的关系。
The article postulates a synergism between economic globalization and climate change. O’Brien (2000) says,since the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has been doubled. In the past century, the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.3 - 0.6 ℃, and the sea level has risen from 10 cm to 25 cm. The author believes that this change is due to artificially sustained composition of the atmosphere and other human activities. The author also mentions a concept of double exposure. As O’Brien (2000) says, double exposure as the cases in which some particular regions, departments, or ecosystems is confronted by the influences of climate change and economic globalization. 
The author’s main conclusions include the following four aspects: first, he considers that there is not only a causal relationship between climate change and economic globalization, the relationship should be synergism. The author uses the following examples to explain the synergism: changes in the global warming will cause the changes in precipitation and dry climate conditions in different areas, which leads to changes in the economic structure of countries all over the world; since the Industrial Revolution, with the rapid growth of the world population, water consumption has increased quickly; what is more, water pollution also has become very serious. Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have increased continuously, which will change the earth's atmospheric composition. Second, he reports that the synergism of climate change and economic globalization has complex impacts. The impacts they produce may cancel each other, or be superimposed on each other, resulting in the appearance of double winners and losers in both environmental and economic aspects. Third, in judging whether there are winners or losers, he thinks that it should not evaluate only from a certain aspect, but from economic, social and environmental aspects to evaluate and analyze. Finally, the author concludes that as economic globalization and climate change appear simultaneously, a policy may be able to address the negative impact of a certain aspect, but it may bring negative effects of another aspect. Thus we should be from an overall and long-term perspective to make policies to achieve better results. Although the author fails to explicitly put forward a concrete solution on global climate change, the author shows another novel idea: the environmental issue is not a single problem for every country. To solve the problem involves both political and economic aspects of a country. Facing the increasingly serious environmental problems, each country should balance the relationship among economic, social and environmental aspects.
 
References
O’Brien K. (2000). Double exposure: Assessing the impacts of climate change within the context of economic globalization. Retrieved from Google Scholar Database.
 
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