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代写英国作业:精准教学:理论、实施与研究

时间:2018-05-10 09:57来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
本文是英国留学生作业范文,主要内容是讲述精准教学的相关定义,以及相关理论实施与研究等方面。
精准教学(PT)已经在许多场合得到应用,并在学习能力方面取得了巨大成功。它是一种测量教学方法是否成功实现学习目标的方法。它着眼于直接观察行为,监控时间执行的行为的频率,并在一个称为标准加速图(SCC)的统一视觉显示器上分析行为。精准教学不确定课程应该教什么,而是提供一个系统的方法,以应用的教学策略。它以孩子的表现为基础,换句话说,学习者知道最好的。学习者的进步表明程序是否适合于学习者,或者是否需要对程序进行修改。为了衡量学习者的进步,目标行为必须直接观察。例如,朗读一本书可以直接观察,以确定读者的技能水平的单词和理解。然而,最近有一些支持使用精准教学的内部行为。虽然,它已被证明是有效的减少抑郁症的感觉,它被广泛应用于可观察的行为。
 
Introduction to Precision Teaching 精准教学概论
 
Precision Teaching (PT) has been applied in many settings and has been greatly successful in increasing learning performance in learners with a wide-range of abilities (White, 1986). It is an approach that measures whether an instructional method is successful in achieving learning goals. It focuses on directly observable behavior, monitors the frequency of the behavior performed in time and analyzes the behavior on a uniform visual display called a Standard Celeration Chart (SCC). Precision Teaching does not determine what curricula should be taught but offers a systematic approach as to the instructional tactics to apply (White, 1986). It bases the curriculum on the child’s performance, in other words, the learner knows best (Lindsley, 1971). The learner’s progress demonstrates whether the program is appropriate for the learner or if changes need to be made to the program.
 
In order to gauge a learner’s progress, the target behavior must directly observable. For example, reading a book aloud can be directly observed to determine the reader’s skill level of the words and comprehension. However, there has been some recent support for using Precision Teaching on inner behaviors. Although, it has been shown to be effective in reducing feelings of depression (Kubina et al., 2006), it is widely used on observable behavior.
 
In Precision Teaching, a learner’s performance is based on behavior frequency which is the average number of responses during each minute of the assessment period (White, 1986). Behavioral fluency is that combination of accuracy plus speed of responding that enables learners to function efficiently and effectively in their natural environments (Binder, 1996). Accuracy alone is not the best gauge of learning progression as it may show skewed improvement in performance. Essentially, by only assessing the accuracy of a learner’s response, an improvement in the learner’s performance is not truly reflected because the responses may be correct but the lack of speed in providing those responses also demonstrates a lack of mastery.
 
Frequency is measured by counts per minute. The speed of a learner’s performance of responding and the accuracy of the responses indicates the learner has either mastered the material, in other words, achieved fluency, or the progress has stalled and the instructional program must be altered. Fluency applies three learning outcomes associated with fluent behavior: Retention, endurance and application (Binder, 1993, 1996 as cited by Kubina, Morrison & Lee, 2002). Retention is the ability to perform the behavior after the intervention is terminated. Without retention, the learner loses the ability to perform the behavior. Endurance is the ability to perform a behavior at a specified level over a duration of time (Binder, unpublished doctoral dissertation; Binder, 1996, Binder, Haughton & Van Eyk, 1990 as cited by Kubina, Morrison & Lee, 2002). For learners who lack endurance may find it difficult to perform behaviors within a 30-second or 1-minute intervals and may ultimately stop performing the desired behaviors. Application is applying some element of a behavior to the entire behavior. For example, if the learner has difficulty in basic writing techniques then the application of increasing fluency in writing spelling words quickly cannot be achieved.
 
The progress of a learner is recorded on a visual display called a Standard Celeration Chart (SCC). The chart is called a standard celeration chart since it always depicts rate of change or progress in a standard manner, regardless of the initial frequency of the behavior (White, 1986). The SCC utilizes a ratio scale which means that all changes in performance will be measured in equal ratios regardless of where they are marked on the chart. The change in frequency from 1 to 2 is the same ratio as 50 to 100 on the SCC. The charts shows whether there is an acceleration, deceleration or no change in behavior. When a behavior frequency doubles, or moves from 1 to 2, it is considered a “times 2” acceleration. Likewise, when a behavior is halved, or moves from 2 to 1, it is considered a “divided by 2” deceleration (Lindsley, 1990a).
 
Implementation of Precision Teaching 精准教学的实施
 
Five steps are involved in the implementation of Precision Teaching: (1) select a task, (2) set an aim (3) count and teach, (4) develop a learning picture and (5) decide what to do (McGreevy, 1983). The first step of implementation is selecting a task for the learner to learn. A task has five parts: (1) a movement that can be counted often each day, (2) a counting period, (3) a correct/incorrect pair, (4) a learning channel set, and (5) a movement that is “hard to do” (p. II-1). A movement is an observable, physical movement, something that the learner is doing. To make sure the movement occurs often, the learner should have 8-10 learning opportunities per day (p. II-5). If the movement is too hard, then the movement can be changed to a slice back, a step back or a tool movement and, conversely if a movement is too easy it can changed to a leap up movement (p. II-11). A slice back is a smaller movement of the original movement. A step back is an easier movement than the original movement. A tool movement is the prerequisite body movement required to perform the original movement. A leap up movement is a movement that is harder to perform than the original movement.
 
A counting period is amount of time spent each day counting the movement (p. II-12). The period should be long enough so the movement can occur at least 8-10 times. The counting period should not be so long that it proves difficult to count the movement. However, adjustments can be made if the counting period is too long or too short to count the movement. Similarly, Kubina and Yurich (2012) incorporated these two parts into their analysis PT. They suggested that the first step of PT is pinpointing. Pinpointing applies focusing observable behavior and measuring behavior based on frequency. Consider the Dean Man rule that states if a dead man can do it then it is not behavior. The idea is that any directly observable behavior should involve some physical movement. For example, instead of observing a child sitting still in a chair, the teacher can observe the number of times the child gets out the chair.
 
A correct/incorrect pair involves counting the correct movements and incorrect movements (McGreevy, 1983, p. II-15). Instead of focusing on eliminating a movement without adding a replacement movement. For example, rather than decreasing screaming, it best for the learner to increase talking in softer voice.
 
A learning channel set outlines the input channel (received) and output channel (sent). The input can vary from hearing, touching, seeing, smelling, etc and output can include saying, writing, doing, pointing, etc. The learning channel sets “tells [others] how we are teaching a task” and “reminds us that are many ways for a [learner] to learn the same movement (McGreevy, 1983, p. II-18).
 
Lastly, the movement must be hard to for the learner to perform (p. II-20). The objective is to learn a new task rather than working on previously learned tasks. By selecting tasks that are hard to do, the learner, provided with ample learning opportunities, will hopefully achieve more corrects and fewer corrects over time and ultimately reach or come close to the aim.
 
The next step in implementing precision teaching is to set an aim (p. III-2). The aim is final chosen objective of the performance likely achieved by a high frequency of correct responses and low to zero frequency of incorrect responses. It is critical that learners learn to perform correct movements in a prompt, smooth and decisive manner. If the learner is having difficulty reaching aim, it may be necessary to change the way the movement is taught, change the learning channel or change the movement as indicated above as a step back, slick back or tool movement.
 
The third step in implementing precision teaching is to count and teach (p. IV-1). This steps requires counting the correct and incorrect responses and teaching the task to the student (p. IV-1). A movement is learned when the learner knows what the correct and incorrect responses are. Each task will be counted and taught daily until the learner reaches aim or the learning picture reflects a need for change.
 
The fourth step in implementing precision teaching is to develop a learning picture. Utilizing the Standard Celeration Chart, the charts displays the correct and incorrect responses provided daily by the learner (p. V-1). The trends of the chart develop the learning picture. The learning picture shows how quickly the responses are increasing or decreasing and predicts whether the learner will achieve aim.


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