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英国留学生会计专业硕士毕业论文范文模板-Pricing of Hotel Industry By XXX

论文价格: 免费 时间:2013-06-11 10:11:15 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
英国留学生会计专业硕士毕业论文范文模板-Pricing of Hotel Industry By XXX
 
 
酒店的产品和企业,可见的设施和非物质服务集成的输出,属于无形的服务,表明相互服务。酒店业是一个古老的行业,有着几千年的历史。它为人类的进步与发展,社会的经济,文化,科学和技术的发展公共交通的发展
 
 
篇目
1。简介................................................................................... 4
2。文献综述............................................................................ 4
2.1。供给和需求理论..................................................... 5
 2.1.1。的定义,供应和需求................................................ 5
 2.1.2。供给和需求之间的关系........................................... 5
2.1.3。价格弹性........................................................................ 6
2.1.4。该应用程序的供应和需求............................................. 7
2.2。垄断理论................................................................. 8
2.2.1。垄断的定义......................................................... 8
2.2.2。垄断的应用....................................................... 9
2.3。价格歧视理论.................................................... 9
2.3.1。价格歧视的定义.............................................. 10
2.3.2。价格歧视的类型........................................................ 10
2.3.3。价格歧视的应用............................................... 11
2.4。市场细分的理论............................................. 12
 2.4.1。市场细分的定义......................................... 12
2.4.2。的基础细分消费市场....................................... 14
2.4.3。酒店市场细分....................................................... 15
2.4.4。酒店市场细分的方法.................................... 15
2.4.5。酒店市场细分的应用................................ 17
2.5。收益管理的理论................................................. 18
2.5.1。收益管理的定义............................................ 19
2.5.2收益管理的应用.......................................... 19
 
 
Executive summary
Hotel is as the product and the output of an enterprise, which integrated with visible facilities and immaterial services,belongs to invisible services showed by mutual services. The hotel industry is an old industry, with several thousand years of history. It developed with the progress of mankind, the development of social economy, culture, science and technology and the development of public transportation
 
 
This thesis takes the pricing of hotel industry for research object, by the related theory as the research foundation, to analyze the problems of the hotel pricing. Firstly, focus on the development of the hotel industry and the pricing to the decisive influence of the hotel, to represent the background in this paper. Chapter 2 of this article expounds the theory basis: supply and demand, monopoly, price discrimination, and marketing segmentation, and make generalization with the proper combination of hotel features. Chapter 3 is an analysis of the hotel pricing strategy problems, according to the characteristics of its own industry and different environment conditions of the hotel, formulate a set of rational and effective pricing system. Finally puts forward suggestions that can effectively improve the method ; The conclusion of the fourth chapter will further elaborates the achievements of this paper, hoping hotel pricing strategy can cause the attention of the industry and promote the development of the hotel as some guidance.
 
 
Table of Contents
1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………..…4
2. Literature Review………………………………………………………………....4
2.1. The theory of supply and demand………………………………………….....5
 2.1.1. The definition of supply and demand………………………………………...5
 2.1.2. The relation between supply and demand…………………………………....5
2.1.3. The price elastic………………………………………………………………6
2.1.4. The application of supply and demand………………………………………7
2.2. The theory of monopoly…………………………………………………….....8
2.2.1. The definition of monopoly…………………………………….…………..8
2.2.2. The application of monopoly……………………………………………….9
2.3. The theory of price discrimination…………………………………………....9
2.3.1. The definition of price discrimination……………………………………....10
2.3.2. Types of price discrimination…………………………………………….....10
2.3.3. The application of price discrimination………………………….................11
2.4. The theory of marketing segmentation……………………………………...12
 2.4.1. The definition of marketing segmentation……………………………….....12
2.4.2. The basis of segmenting consumer markets……………………………......14 
2.4.3. Hotel marketing segmentation………………………………………….......15
2.4.4. The method of hotel marketing segmentation……………………………...15
2.4.5. The application of hotel marketing segmentation………………………..…17
2.5. The theory of revenue management………………………………………....18
2.5.1. The definition of revenue management…………………………….……....19
2.5.2. The application of revenue management………………………………...…19
 
 
1. Introduction 
In recent years the development of global hotel industry is good. The competition of the hotel industry is various, non-price factors on buyers’ choice affect more and more seriously, such as hotel brand, quality of service, facilities, and the convenience level of transportation and so on, but even so, the price is still the decisive factor for customer’s choice.
 
 
The famous British economist and price theory expert Arthur Marshall had said: “an enterprise entrusted pricing to who, means that the enterprise’s fate was dependent on whom.” It is thus clear that prices on the importance of the management of the enterprise, because it is the foreign exchange media of the enterprise of the product (service).  The price directly affects the accumulated resources of the enterprise sustainable development and is the only channel of infusion of funds. The reasonable price, can promote business management, regulate the product service supply and demand, and guide reasonable allocation of resources.  The price is the powerful competitive weapon. Market economy is a competitive economy, in today's complex market environment, the price is one of the few really controlled factors in the process of enterprise operation, if the enterprise wants to develop for a long time, we must attach importance to the management of the price. The flexible cooperation of price and other factors can greatly enhance the flexibility of the competition.#p#分页标题#e#
 
 
In marketing combination, how to establish the price are the most complex and one of the most challenging decisions. According to the internal and external factors, how to adopt the pricing strategy, and how to change pricing, etc, to attract new customers and keep old customers, become the core reason to obtain advantages of the competitiveness.
 
 
2. Literature Review
Following this article expounds the theory basis: supply and demand, monopoly, price discrimination, marketing segmentation, and revenue management. And make generalization with the proper combination of hotel features.
 
 
2.1. The theory of supply and demand
Demand and supply are the basic concept of microeconomics: demand refers to the public due to need a product and produce requirements; while supply refers that the vendor response to the needs of the public to provide commercial products supply. It shows that as the movements of the price but other factors being invariable, the individual in a period of time would buy the amount of goods. (Hu, 1987)
 
 
2.1.1. The definition of supply and demand
The concept was formally introduced in the writings of Taymiyyah who wrote that when the demand of goods increased, but its usability reduced and the price rise; while when the demand of goods reduced, but its usability increased and the price was down. “(Hosseini, Hamid S. 2003) According to Marshall, he defined it from another point (driving force) and showed that the power of the supply and demand had the short-term effect on the equilibrium, like the phenomenon of scissors cutting paper, both sides of the blade moved to cut paper, and changes of market price is depend on changes of supply and demand. But he believed that long dominated the price changes is the production costs of commodity, because he thought the changes of production cost would not in the short term reflect on equilibrium price. (Marshall 1890)In response to the decision factors, Adam Smith generally assumed that the supply price kept fixed but that its increased scarcity would lead to reduce its value. (Buchan 2007) Meanwhile, the common idea from Stanley Jevons, Carl Menger, and Léon Walras was a very important milestone since the thought from Adam Smith how to decided supply price. They all agreed that the price was decided by the marginal price of production decision. 
 
 
2.1.2. The relation between supply and demand
However, along with the Fleeming Jenkin drew the curves of the supply and demand, (Prichard 1963) which caused many scholars and experts that had a new understanding of the theory of supply demand. (Humphrey 1992).
 
a. The demand curve can be used to explain the relationship between supply and demand.
 
b. The intersection point of the supply curve and the demand curve is the equilibrium.
 
c. When the quantity of demand (Q) is up (The demand curve Q has the positive move along the 
 
coordinate transformation), and supply quantity Q unchanged, the equilibrium price and volume balance (namely equilibrium quantity) will also rise, equilibrium price, quantity, there will change; and vice versa.
 
 
The sample of supply and demand relation
 
 
2.1.3. The price elasticity
The so-called price elasticity is the demand for price elasticity, it refers when the price of a product changes, demand of the product changes with the accordingly sensitivity. 
Price elasticity shows that supply and demand has dependency on prices change, which reflects the price change causes the corresponding rate of change from the supply and demand, namely the sensitive degree of supply and demand for the price information, also called price elasticity of supply and demand. These factors, such as the price of the goods, consumers' income, the price of substitutes, and consumer interests will influence on the consumption demand for goods. Price elasticity is that these factors remain unchanged, the price changes of the goods itself cause the changes of demand quantity. (Andrew 2007)
 
 
Price elasticity formula
Price elastic coefficient of demand = demand change rate /price change rate
 
 
The hotel often faces the continuously elastic demand, the demand of hotel guest room along with the season, the different date of every month, and the different time point of each week changes. Revenue management helps hotel ease demand fluctuation, in the off-season, the hotel can cut the price to improve occupancy rate, thus increasing income; in the busy season, the hotel can increase the price to improve overall income. If managers know when the wave crest and wave trough of needs to come, they will be better to make plans.
 
 
2.1.4. The application of supply and demand
In 1897, Italian economist Pareto found the famous "80/20" law. 100 years later, the American Richard launched a book "the 82/20 rule" ,with detailed explanations of the l practical law. He pointed out that between the cause and result, input and output, hard work and the harvest there was not the relationship of the balance. (Ryds, 2002)  Typically 80% of the gains will come from 20% of hard work, 80% of the profits from 20% of customers. According to this law, the suppliers are in the customer base: a small part of them with the profit is key customers; another part of them without profit is general customers; and the next part of them with the loss is not appropriate customers. But everything is not immutable: the business between some customers and suppliers continues to increase, while others may reduce. As a supplier, the key is to keep the customers who can bring profits and big business, at the same time, in the general customers can also seek to the development prospect of business and profits. Especially pay attention from the general customers to find out "elastic customers", and purposefully provide appropriate service, because "elastic customer" might be the source of development of future business and profits. 
 
 
Because the demand and supply of the market, the development of economy hotel is rapidly. The economy hotel as a potential huge market, the payback period of the investment capital is short, and the current occupancy rate always maintains in a high level, profit and returns on investment are higher, so it has become the most recent valuable choice of hotel
 
2.2. The theory of monopoly
Monopoly is the few capitalist enterprise with huge capital, enough scale of production and operation and market share, through the agreement, the alliance, joint, equity and other methods, manage and control the production and circulation of commodity in one or several departments, in order to get high profits. (Orbach & Campbell 2012)
 
 
2.2.1. The definition of monopoly
Classical economists John Mill first put forward the concept of the natural monopoly. In his "political economics principle", Mill in discussing the rent proposed "rent is the result of the natural monopoly", but he didn't do any explain about natural monopoly itself in this paper. On the basis of him, Sharkey in 1982 and Baumol, Panzar and Willig thought the most remarkable feature of the definition of natural monopoly was the subadditivity of its cost. While in the same year Clarkson and Miller argued that the basic characteristics of the natural monopoly was that, in a certain range of output, the production function presented the state  of scale return increasing (cost decreasing). That production scale is greater, the unit cost of production is smaller. The mass production by an enterprise was, more efficient than by a few smaller scale enterprises. (Clarkson and Miller, 1982)
 
 
2.2.2. The application of monopoly
In the fierce competition, the big enterprise often on their own advantage in the economic, and constantly excluded and swallowed up small and medium-sized enterprise, make the production material, labor and labor products, increasingly concentrate in their own hands. At the same time, capitalism credit system and the development of the joint stock company broke through the single capital limitations, accelerating the development of capitalist concentration, and also promoted the development of production concentration. (Davies, 1984)
 
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