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代写英国作业:Medieval British parliamentary system

时间:2018-11-19 16:46来源:未知 作者:quanlei_cai 点击:
导读:这是一篇英国留学生作业范文,讨论了中世纪的英国议会制度。英国历史上长期存在着法律至上的观念,进入中世纪以来,英国议会和议会制逐渐形成,历经了700多年的历史,演变成为现代社会资本主义代议民主制的重要组成部分。中世纪的英国议会制度模式一脉相承,与同时代的西欧诸国相比,极具鲜明的模式特征。就其模式特征而言,可以说一部近代英国议会政治制度史,即是议会渐进完善、成熟并逐渐取代国王统治国家的历史。 The concept of the supremacy of law has long existed in the British history. Since the middle ages, the British parliament and parliamentary system has gradual
导读:这是一篇英国留学生作业范文,讨论了中世纪的英国议会制度。英国历史上长期存在着法律至上的观念,进入中世纪以来,英国议会和议会制逐渐形成,历经了700多年的历史,演变成为现代社会资本主义代议民主制的重要组成部分。中世纪的英国议会制度模式一脉相承,与同时代的西欧诸国相比,极具鲜明的模式特征。就其模式特征而言,可以说一部近代英国议会政治制度史,即是议会渐进完善、成熟并逐渐取代国王统治国家的历史。
 
The concept of "the supremacy of law" has long existed in the British history. Since the middle ages, the British parliament and parliamentary system has gradually formed over 700 years of history and evolved into an important part of modern socialist representative democracy. In the middle ages, the model of the British parliamentary system followed the same pattern.
“法律至上”的概念早已存在于英国历史中。自中世纪以来,英国议会和议会制度逐渐形成了700多年的历史,演变成现代社会主义代议制民主的重要组成部分。在中世纪,英国议会制度的模式遵循相同的模式。
The British parliamentary system was born in the middle ages and is known as the "mother of parliament". The British parliamentary system is very profound in content, and its experience or lessons have the shaping power for us to learn from, or learn from.
英国议会制度诞生于中世纪,被称为“议会之母”。 英国的议会制度内容非常深刻,其经验或教训具有塑造力量,供我们学习或借鉴。
The British parliament can be traced back to the anglo-saxons and Normandy. There was a long tradition of democracy and the rule of law in early Anglo-Saxon British society. If you go back to the roots, modern Britain's parliament began with the practice of centralising local representation in early county courts. The later Witan conference was originally an advisory group for the king, with no specific organization. To some extent, however, the wise men's council began to have the tradition of people from all walks of life in Britain. William the duke of Normandy conquered England in the 11th century. After that, the Norman Kings, on the basis of inheriting Anglo-Saxon customs and practices, transplanted the Normandy traditional way of governing the country to England, among which the most important was the "imperial council". Part of this group was the great landowner, and part was the special counsel of the king. The council initially carried out the king's general duties, which were later divided into several departments. During the reign of Henry I, the imperial council had a relatively fixed function, consisting of a small number of bishops, court officials, barons and so on. Its main task was to assist the king in administering local governments, handling major cases and accepting appeals from county and district courts. Later, Henry ii appointed five of them to form a fixed-site court to hear major cases in various regions under the king's guidance, which gradually evolved into the "throne court", a grand conference composed of representatives from various states and the king and his officials. Later, the assembly in Westminster turned into a kind of national legislature. This actually became the origin of modern British parliamentary system.
 
In 1215, king John of anjou, who had been defeated and defeated, held talks with representatives of the nobility and signed the famous magna carta. The magna carta clearly states that the rights of the subject are independent and not given by the king. The significance of the magna carta is profound. It implicitly affirms and embodies the idea of the supremacy of law and the limitation of royal authority through the formulation and promulgation of written laws, thus laying a foundation for the emergence of parliament decades later. In 1264, Simon DE montfort, a cousin of king Henry iii, defeated and captured the king, relying on the support of nobles, knights and citizens. The following January, in the name of the regent, DE montfort called a meeting in accordance with the magna carta of liberty. This time, in addition to informing some of the nobles and knights, he also asked each city to send two citizens who were "kind, law-abiding and upright" to participate. Obviously, this is not to be regarded as such in the modern sense of parliament. Although the British parliament was established in 1265, it was the same year that the royalists rescued Henry iii and killed DE montfort. After the restoration of Henry iii, the British parliament failed to convene three times a year. In the seven years from 1265 to 1272, the parliament met 16 times. In 1295 Edward I, the son of Henry iii, convened a meeting of great nobles, archbishops, and knights, and civil representatives. During the thirty - five years of Edward I's reign, parliament met more than fifty times, and not only amended and supplemented the old laws, but also enacted new ones. After 1325, "the time when parliament could be convened without civilian representatives was finally over," and the parliament's supreme legislative power was established. At this point, the British parliament held twice a year has become a system, which laid the foundation for the British parliamentary system consisting of the monarchy, the house of lords and the house of Commons.
 
Despite the establishment of the parliamentary system in Britain, the various levels in parliament are in an unbalanced state, their respective status and role are not the same, so the parliament has not played a substantive role. On November 13, 1295, king Edward I of England convened a new parliament to collect taxes from all classes. He first proposed that ordinary people could enter parliament and become members of parliament, and invited them to the national parliament. Although civilian representatives were invited mainly to help pass the tax provisions, this laid the foundation for the later development of the parliament towards both houses. After 1311, the civilian mp became a full member of parliament. Beginning in 1343, the two houses of parliament were gradually separated, forming the upper and lower houses of parliament. Representatives of monks and nobles formed the house of lords, also known as the house of lords. Representatives of warriors and citizens formed the house of Commons, also known as the house of Commons. The British parliamentary system thus formed by the house of lords, the house of Commons and the British king tripartite power structure.
 
In the 15th century, the Kings also attached great importance to the cooperation of the parliament when they seized and maintained power, which led to the enhancement of the great nobles' control over the parliament, in which the upper house held great power. After the 15th century, as the rose war broke out, many nobles died, and the power of the upper house gradually declined. The decline of royal power and the decline of aristocracy in the middle and late middle period contrast with the relative improvement of the lower house, which is mainly reflected in the expansion of financial power and legislative power of the lower house. In 1399 Thomas arundel, the archbishop of Canterbury, still declared to parliament on behalf of the king: "the house of Commons is the petitioner and the aspirant, and judgment is the business of the king and the house of lords." But in 1404, things finally changed. Henry iv declared that no one could change the law without the consent of the whole nation. Because "all classes" include the Commons, this amounts to a transfer of power to the Commons.
 
In the middle ages, the model of the British parliamentary system was in the same line and had distinct features. As far as its model features are concerned, it can be said that a modern history of British parliamentary political system is a history of parliament's gradual improvement, maturity and gradual replacement of the king to rule the country.
 
The house of lords is made up of all kinds of nobles, including descendants of the royal family, hereditary peers, life peers, judges of appeal and bishops of the church. Members of the house of Commons are elected by universal suffrage. They are elected by a simple majority for a term of five years. Since the promulgation of the people's representative act in 1969, all British citizens over the age of 18 who are not legally disqualified from voting have the equal right to vote.
 
Historically, the house of lords has a longer history than the house of Commons, and the transition in parliament has been gradual. In the middle ages, the house of lords was a rival to the king, and the house of Commons was not yet formed. The "model parliament" of 1295, where aristocrats and commoners met together, had only one house. It was not until 1343 that the civilian courts first met separately, so that year was usually marked as the age when the bicameral system was formally established. Until now, the upper house has remained the authentic and sovereign body of parliament, while the lower house is only a sub-session. By the middle of the 15th century, the house of Commons had acquired financial, tax, audit, personnel and legislative powers.



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