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基于正念的压力降低(MBSR)英国assignment:Mindfulness-based stress reducti

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-08-21 11:13:40 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
Mindfulness is plump; enrich the meaning of the mind. A: awareness is through a destination to focus on the present, not to judge a conscious awareness of another moment of experience, and emerged awareness. Mindfulness thought core lies in two points: one is to focus on the present; the second is not commenting on all the ideas presented at the moment (Rahnama et.,al,2014). "Attention to the present" and "no judgment" are both the core ideas and main methods of psychotherapy based on the theory of "mindfulness". The core is mindfulness training method, is based on "pay attention to the present" and "not judged" as the core and basic technology, claims in an open and accepting attitude to accept the current of thoughts, emotions, symptoms.
In this spiritual training, the emphasis is on conscious awareness, attention to the present, and the absence of judgment on any concept of the present. Therefore, mindfulness is purposeful and conscious, attention to perceive the presence of everything, everything for the moment and does not make any judgment, any analysis, any response, simply aware of it, to pay attention to it. Mindfulness for people's psychological problems has the very good channel role, "can help us from this inertia and ignorance without the state of sleep wake up, to touch the lives of all possibilities, consciously and unconsciously." Therefore, in modern psychology, mindfulness has been developed into a systematic psychotherapy, that is, mindfulness therapy. The so-called mindfulness therapy is a psychological therapy based on mindfulness. Mindfulness therapy is not a kind of psychological therapy, said of the psychotherapy, but rather a series, the series of psychological therapy have a common characteristic, that is based on the method of "mindfulness". Current mature mindfulness therapies include mindfulness decompression therapy, mindfulness cognitive therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy.
Mindfulness has been defined as ‘‘moment-to-moment awareness'' or a ‘‘systematic approach to developing new kinds of control and wisdom in our lives, based on our inner capacities for relaxation, paying attention, awareness, and insight'' This approach has been used in structured, evidence-based group programs called mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), which focus on empowerment, nonjudgmental interpretation of events, and acceptance of the present situation using mindful meditation practices and gentle stretching (Huskens et.,al, 2015).
Lego therapy
Lego therapy can promote children's social interactions, probably because it is a highly structured, predictable, and systematization of toys, and cognitive style of autism groups tend to be systematic, easily attracted by a systematic object. Systematization refers to a process of induction, which is a drive to understand and construct a system based on "if-then" rules. Lego treatment was attached lego intervention methods, its core is to use the internal cooperation and interdependence of stress the therapist to the child and the guidance of the identification of the same target to consolidate and strengthen communication and exchanges, to create mutual concern, the necessity of social interaction and collaboration. In the intervention, the therapist to support and guide the whole process, but not really to join the group activities, also is not a substitute for children deal with the problem, whether, in the face of conflict or setback, children need help each other to solve.
Since 1949, the first piece of Lego plastic blocks, Lego toys are geared to the needs of all children, with rich and expansion of Lego product, its audience from the children gradually extended to teenagers, even has attracted a lot of adults. Lego, which initially targeted children with autism spectrum disorders, has only recently expanded its interventions to include children with social dysfunction. As a result, Lego has a smaller audience.
Lego building games develop children's abilities of cognition, fine movements, and hand-eye coordination by using their own hands and brains. They can also experience a sense of achievement and pleasure after finishing the work. In daily construction, children do not deliberately emphasize social interaction, which is the focus of lego therapy and the main purpose of intervention. Lego therapy is aimed at children with different levels of social disorder, providing them with a large number of verbal and nonverbal communication opportunities during the intervention process, enabling them to initiate and maintain interaction.
Children are free to build Lego bricks (Barakova et.,al, 2015). There is no unified process and requirement. Every child can have different playing time, playing mode and partners. In contrast, lego therapy is a structured intervention, with fixed operating modes and procedures, as well as specific rules and disciplines. Adults need to evaluate the development of children before the intervention, and then choose a suitable model for children, and strictly follow the intervention requirements.
The construction of common Lego bricks does not have any restrictions on the number and development of children, whether adults join or not. But in lego therapy, in addition to the target, adults and peers are also important. Adult intervention activities need to be involved in all the way, to support and guide the process, and companion in the process of intervention object the cooperation model, should actively and its communication, improve their ability of social communication.
Differences in the respective of the school setting between these approaches 
Hands-on, self-building. In the theory of cognitive development, people's thinking, the cognitive structure is in the process of the interaction between subject and object, and the process needs to be the adjustment of the individual subjective initiative, self-choice, and the initiative construction need to body. An action is the source of knowledge and the medium of interaction between subject and object. Young children's knowledge is not through the infusion, taught teachers and other adults, but in a certain sense of the environment in the background, the learners' interaction with the environment, through the meaningful construction way and get, its essence is the learner's self-building (Dhanalakshmi, 2016).
General development trend of children's thinking: from concrete thinking to abstract thinking, that is, from action thinking to image thinking, and then to abstract logical thinking. Often while playing I think, once the movement stops, the thinking goes to stop is 3 years old children's thinking characteristics, 4, 6 years old children's thinking characteristics it can get rid of the specific things, actions, rely on brain representation for Lenovo, use of already know, seen, heard knowledge to ponder over a problem. Lego education advocates learning in practice and learning in practice, which is in line with children's thinking characteristics. At the same time, the different sets of lego bricks can meet the demand of young children's thinking, such as "engineering building", "baby home" suits, these high lifelike building blocks can help children get the relevant things of intuitive perception, by observing the imitation, to build the image, the works of molding to obtain the overall understanding of such things; And some blocks suit, such as "conventional building blocks", "pipeline building blocks", "mechanical" early suit, is an alternative to a certain extent, help children in the process of building alternative, and characterized by material or material generation people, promote the concrete visual thinking to abstract logical thinking development.
According to the learning theory of constructivism and the teaching concept of "discovery learning", Lego education has formed a unique 4C learning experience mode, namely Connect, Construct, conceive and Continue (Burke, Chan, & Neece, 2017).
Connect: that is, the connection between each other. At the beginning of the learning activities, principal zhang children of lego education should establish the connection between the new knowledge and the original experience. Constructivist learning theory holds that learning should take place in real learning tasks, emphasizing diverse, meaningful and situational information provision. Lego education requires teachers in teaching for 3-6 years old children, should not be too much emphasis on knowledge in today's novelty, but should help children to build new knowledge and the connection between the original experience, find out the relationship between it, make the experience gained by the more systematic, at the same time also prompted by contacting children found new problems.#p#分页标题#e#
Construction: the process of building a new, systematic structure on an existing text. Construction activity is lego task must be completed for each link, it emphasizes on the original experience, on the basis of the existing structure to construct, rather than blindly, the construction of a powerful and unconstrained style, no experience based. Children aged 3-6 years old are more likely to emphasize the importance of acquiring a basic understanding of things through meaningful and active acceptance of learning, establishing a substantial connection between old and new experiences and forming an impression. And in such a forward, new problems, new ideas, proactive problem solving, discovery learning.
Conceive a summary of what you have done or experienced in your life. Lego education advocates that children should reflect on problems in the construction process, including successful experience and lessons of failure, such as symmetric application and regular arrangement. Where the construction is not stable, the gear cannot rotate, etc. Lego education in reflection link more emphasis on the teacher's guide, advocate teachers by creating situations, operating existing works, language to ask children, help children to build the work and problems appeared in the process of building structure are reviewed and evaluation, thinking and improvement, and guide children to directly manipulate materials or simple language expression thereof show its performance review, evaluation, think and perfect.
Continue: Lego education claims after the reflection continue thinking in the process of construction, with the reflection of the new way of thinking to solve the problem of work continue to build, on the one hand, help children to comb experience system, on the other hand, in the last link guide children found the problem, find out contact, become the beginning of the next set up tasks, at the same time also can make more perfect works.
Lego education advocates "doing secondary school". Provide children with the appropriate materials for toys, create a meaningful environmental background. Bamboo provides opportunities for children to have conversations with materials and toys, so as to achieve hands-on and hands-on practice. (3) at the difficult problem setting, trial operation in the process of gradually cultivate children find problems, looking for contact and the ability to solve the problem, finally completed the course of actively building, gain experience. Encourage children to solve the problem in the hands-on, in the process of building protection and inspire their knowledge desire, imagination, creativity, and help them get scientific concepts and the relationship between the concepts and cultivate children's observation, attention, hand-eye coordination, and so on have become lego education efforts to achieve development goals. Activity rules cannot only restrain children's behavior and make them form good behavior habits, but also enhance their attention to their peers and strengthen their sense of community. To highlight and enforce the rules, print them out and paste them on the bulletin board in the lego treatment room. The details are as follows: 'if you destroy it, you have to fix it. If you cannot repair it, please ask for help. If the other person is using it and cannot take it, please ask first. Keep the room quiet and quiet. Individuals cannot climb or jump on equipment; Should not tease, abuse or intimidate others; Using the tool to control their hands and feet; Shorter attention to clearing and resetting.
However, the specific method of mindfulness therapy takes the form of group training courses. Each patient entering the stress clinic is required to attend an eight-week group training session once a week for 2.5 to 3 hours each time. Practised meditation and mindfulness is the content of the training, the specific method is: first of all need to do is try to choose a can pay attention to the object, can be a sound, or words, or a phrase, or his own breathing, body feeling and movement; After selecting the object of attention, all you need to do is sit comfortably, close your eyes, and do a simple abdominal breathing relaxation exercise (no more than one minute). Then, adjust your breathing and focus on the object of your choice (Huskens et.,al, 2015). When the participants in the process of training, the in the mind of some of the other ideas, feeling or emotion which transfer the attention of the participants appears, don't close, only need to go back to the original attention at any time. No matter what comes to mind, don't worry. Just simply return your attention to your breathing without fear, regret, or judgment. After 10 to 15 minutes of training like this, take a quiet break for one to two minutes, followed by other normal work activities.
Reference list 
Barakova, E. I., Bajracharya, P., Willemsen, M., Lourens, T., & Huskens, B. (2015). Long-term LEGO therapy with humanoid robot for children with ASD. Expert Systems, 32(6), 698-709. doi:10.1111/exsy.12098
Bazzano, A. a., Wolfe, C., Zylowska, L., Wang, S., Schuster, E., Barrett, C., & Lehrer, D. (2015). Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for Parents and Caregivers of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Community-Based Approach. Journal Of Child & Family Studies,24(2), 298-308. doi:10.1007/s10826-013-9836-9
Burke, M. m., Chan, N., & Neece, C. L. (2017). Parent Perspectives of Applying Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Strategies to Special Education. Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities, 55(3), 167-180. doi:10.1352/1934-9556-55.3.167
Huskens, B. b., Palmen, A., Werff, M., Lourens, T., & Barakova, E. (2015). Improving Collaborative Play Between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Siblings: The Effectiveness of a Robot-Mediated Intervention Based on Lego Therapy. Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 45(11), 3746-3755. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2326-0
M. M., A., & Dhanalakshmi, D. (2016). Mindfulness based stress reduction for reducing anxiety, enhancing self-control and improving academic performance among adolescent students. Indian Journal Of Positive Psychology, 7(4), 390-397.
Rahnama, F., Hamedi, M., Sahraei, F., & Parto, E. (2014). Effectiveness of play therapy (lego therapy) on behavior problems in children.Indian Journal Of Health & Wellbeing, 5(9), 1084-1086.

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