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英国本科essay范文:太阳能在可持续发展住宅的应用和对环境的利与弊

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-07-08 13:08:59 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
Introduction 介绍
人类文明的发展离不开能源。能源需求的不断增长引发了公众对与能源生产和输送有关的可持续性问题的审查。已经有大量的研究关注于减少与能源使用相关的环境影响。中国在21世纪全球能源战略中处于非常重要的地位。中国的能源储备居世界第二,能源消耗和燃料排放居世界第一。拥有重要的国内能源资源和基础设施。作为联合国安理会常任理事国,中国必须把促进能源利用和发展作为重要的外交和国家安全政策。
The development of human civilization can not do without energy. The increasing demand of energy has triggered the public scrutiny on the sustainability issues associated with the energy production and transmission. There have been a large number of studies focusing on reducing the environmental impacts associated with the energy use. China is in a very important position in the global energy strategy of the 21st century. China ranks second in energy reserves in the world, while energy consumption and fuel emissions rank the first in the world. It also possesses important domestic energy resources and infrastructures. As a permanent global member of the UN Security Council, China must make its promotion of energy use and trends an important diplomatic and national security policy.
我们都知道发展能源会对环境产生一定的影响。2008年,我国一次能源消费总量达到28亿元,其中我国占5000万元。此外,煤炭作为传统能源,在中国能源结构中占很大比例,占总能耗的68.7%。2010年,燃煤电厂占总发电量3的81.8%。这些能源消费部门排放的大量污染物对环境质量有重大影响。中国目前是世界上增长最快的国家之一,在过去30年里,中国的GDP年平均增长率为10%。经济的快速增长对能源需求和相关的环境影响具有巨大的影响。一方面,能源对人类的日常生活和经济发展至关重要,另一方面,太阳能等可再生能源也被鼓励减轻这些环境影响。
接下来的章节将通过政策、人文和服务三个不同的方面讨论中国将采取哪些步骤来实现这一目标。We all know that developing energy will have some impact on the environment. In 2008, the total amount of primary energy consumption rose to 2.8 billion, of which China accounted for 50 million1. In addition, as a conventional energy source, coal accounts for a large proportion of Chinese energy mix, reaching 68.7% of total energy consumption2. In 2010, coal-fired power plants accounted for 81.8% of the total generating capacity3. The large number of pollutants emitted from these energy-consuming sectors has a significant impact on the quality of the environment. China is currently one of the fastest-growing countries in the world with an average annual GDP growth rate of 10% over the past 30 years. The rapid economic growth has a huge impact on energy demand and related environmental impacts. On one hand, energy is vital to human daily life and economic development.On the other hand, renewable energy sources such as solar energy have been prompted to mitigate these environmental impacts.
太阳能是由太阳的氢辐射产生的。由于其清洁、无限和几乎无限的性质,它已成为面对日益减少的化石燃料使用能源的重要组成部分。太阳能系统已经开发多年,并广泛应用于工业和民用建筑等领域。基于成本与潜在的空间热节约,被动式系统(以及更简单的主动式系统)目前对住宅应用的潜力最大。然而,回到80年代,将家庭煤炭成本与采用新能源的价格进行比较,煤炭仍然是中国大多数家庭的首选。为了响应全球减少过度开采不可再生能源和使用传统能源产生的二氧化碳对环境的影响的原则,中国政府致力于在2020年降低单位国内生产总值的二氧化碳排放强度。与2005年相比,可再生能源将在实现这一目标方面发挥关键作用。中国政府出台了一系列促进可再生能源发展的战略规划和优惠政策。可再生能源消费量分别占2010年和2020年能源消费总量的10%和15%。Solar energy is generated from the radiation of the sun from the hydrogen in the sun. With its clean, unlimited and almost limitless nature, it has become an important part of the use of energy in the face of dwindling fossil fuels. The solar energy system has already been developed for years and used in wide range of fields such as industrial and residential buildings. Passive systems (and the simpler active systems) are felt to currently hold the most potential for residential applications on the basis of cost versus potential space heat savings.  How ever, back to the 80’s, compare the cost of household coal with the price for adopting new energy, the coal was still the first choice for most families in China. To respond to global principle of reduce the environmental impact of over-exploitation of non-renewable energy sources and carbon dioxide generated from the use of traditional energy sources, Chinese government has devoted to reduce the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP in 2020 by 40–45% compared to the level of year 2005  .The renewable energy will play a critical role in achieving this goal . The Chinese government has issued a series of strategic plans and preferential policies to promote the development of renewable energy. The energy consumption of renewable energy accounts for 10% and 15% of the total energy consumption in 2010 and 2020, respectively4.
later chapters will talk about what steps China will take to enforce this goal through three different aspects which are policy,humanities and service.
 
CHAPTER 1   (political factor)
(Political factors have also had a huge impact. While bringing new technology, the market and technology are also developing. We can consider the direct and / or enabling / disabling effects of these political factors.I will focus on describe particular policies, laws, or regulations in terms of solar photovoltaic power.)
In June 2007, the Chinese government released the "China's National Climate Change Program". In September 2007, it released the "Medium and Long-term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in China" and put forward the goal of developing renewable energy in China. Material can be included. Encourage and support the development of optoelectronics industry,the Chinese government has issued a series of documents one after another. These documents include: In September 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission promulgated the Eleventh Five-Year Plan forthe Medium- and Long-Term Development of Renewable Energy. In March 2008, the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development jointly released the Proposal on Accelerating the Promotion of Solar PV Building Applications. In July 2009, the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Science and Technology and National Energy Administration jointly released the Notice on Implementing Golden Sun Demonstration Project. In February 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology formally issued "Solar Photovoltaic Industry" Twelfth Five-Year Development Plan ". In September 2012, the National Energy Administration released the Notice on Applying Large-Scale Applications of Distributed Photovoltaic Power Generation. In August 2013, the National Development and Reform Commission released the Circular on Promoting the Healthy Development of Photovoltaic Industry through Leveraging Price announcement" . 
Using Great Western Development Strategy as an example and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. Although China’s urban development is moving forward in western regions, there is still an economic gap between the western and eastern regions of China .
States some specific subsidy in west and east regions in China and compare. Overall speaking, rural and areas(west) where have less solar resources will have higher photovoltaic subsidies. What are the results in these areas after these policies have been established? 
 
CHAPTER 2    (humanities factors) 
Over last 10 years, there was a strong growth of adoption of both solar PV and SWH (solar water heater) in China, it is largely beneficiated from the subsidy policy of photovoltaic power generation by the Chinese government. Mallett stressed that the importance of social acceptance should not be overlooked in renewable energy development projects . This is reinforced by Sauter and Watson who stated that social acceptance from the local community is “a prerequisite” for public infrastructures such as the large scale and micro-generation renewable energy projects . As a new technology develop, a primary concern should be how the public is going to respond to these innovative applications.
A large-scale questionnaire was conducted from June to August 2010. It covers both urban and rural areas. The first part is an introduction to the three different regions where the questionnaire is located. The second and third parts are about the respondent's age, education level and income. The purpose is to understand respondents' attitudes toward the implementation of solar water heaters and solar photovoltaic resources. These issues include the understanding of solar energy technology, the public's attitude towards the implementation of solar energy, installation, use and some other technical issues and the implementation and utilization of related issues.
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Tables: Yuan, X., Zuo, J. and Ma, C. (2011). Social acceptance of solar energy technologies in China—End users’ perspective. Energy Policy
 
CHAPTER 3    (service)
The last set of factors is mainly about the technology and its design. Maintainability considerations in product technology, system design and installation. Maintainability can be understood as the time required to resolve technical problems when necessary maintenance8.
In this case, the services are the maintenance and update of solar panels. Materials wise the panels are mostly (80%) made out of glass, it may take more care in terms of maintenance compare to steels. Looking into materials choices through the production process and the considerations from the manufacturers' prospect.  As well as how companies adjust their business model for solar panel installation and after-sale service. Are the users and manufacturers communicating well?  If a series of good services have been provided, will that expand the solar thermal power generation in the residential market? 
 
CONCLUSION 
Solar energy generates power and heat used in residential have successfully reduced the construction waste. Less traditional burned energy will be used which means a significant amount of carbon dioxide gas will be produced, less harmful impact on the environment. The promotion and popularization of solar energy technology in rural housing must be inseparable from the state-related preferential national and local policies, as well as social and cultural conditions and related science and technology adaptability/flexibility. Given these advantages, it will soon be widely spread in China.
 
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 
BOOKS
CNEB, 2010a. China National Energy Bureau, China Statistical Yearbook of Energy 2009. China Statistics Press, Beijing.
CNBS, 2009. China National Bureau of Statistics, China Statistical Yearbook 2008. China Statistics Press, Beijing.
Pecht, Michael, Product Reliability, Maintainability, And Supportability Handbook(Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2009)
 
 
JOURNAL ARTICLES
 
CNEB, 2010b. China National Energy Bureau, New Energy Industrial Development Plan (draft). Available at: /http://www.21cbh.com/HTML/2010-7-21/yMM DAwMDE4NzkyMQ.htmlS.
CSC, 2010. China State Council, Guarantee energy supply security, support economic and social development. Available at: /http://www.gov.cn/ldhd/ 2010-04/22/content_1589828.htmS
Berg, M. and Hassett, M. (1984). Conservation and solar energy in residential and commercial buildings. Energy Policy, 12(1), pp.93-101.
CSC, 2010. China State Council, Guarantee energy supply security, support economic and social development. Available at: /http://www.gov.cn/ldhd/ 2010-04/22/content_1589828.htmS.
Coad, Alex, Peter de Haan, and Julia Sophie Woersdorfer, "Consumer Support For Environmental Policies: An Application To Purchases Of Green Cars", Ecological Economics, 68 (2009), 2078-2086 
Wang, X., Guan, Z. and Wu, F. (2017). Solar energy adoption in rural China: A sequential decision approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 168, pp.1312-1318.
Zi-Liang, M.A.; Han, J.M. Analysis on effect of gradient transfer in regional economic development between the eastern region and western region in China. J. Gansu Agric. Univ. 2007, 42, 135–141. 
Mallett, A. (2007). Social acceptance of renewable energy innovations: The role of technology cooperation in urban Mexico. Energy Policy, 35(5)
Sauter, R. and Watson, J. (2007). Strategies for the deployment of micro-generation: Implications for social acceptance. Energy Policy, 35(5)
Yuan, X., Zuo, J. and Ma, C. (2011). Social acceptance of solar energy technologies in China—End users’ perspective. Energy Policy, 39(3)
 
WEBSITE
 
Cec.org.cn. (2017).china electricity council. Available at: http://www.cec.org.cn/xinwenpingxi/2015-12-02/146158.html [Accessed 13 Nov. 2017].
 
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