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共享经济对交通运输业的潜在影响

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-08-14 10:42:18 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1. Introduction介绍
如今,经济发展速度比以前快,创新和技术是商业世界的关键驱动力。他们催生了业务的存在,甚至更多他们创造了一个全新的商业模式,使其他原始业务被扼杀。共享经济是近年来最强大的创新热潮之一。共享经济的概念早在30年前就提出了。然而,直到最近几年,移动互联网的出现为共享经济提供了一个高速经济发展的平台(LAN,et al.,2017)。共享实体经济作为一种新的商业模式,出现在人们的视野中,并逐渐开始改变人们的生活,共享经济的本质是物品使用权的暂时转移。在互联网平台的帮助下,人们可以将多余资源的使用权转让给需要的人。它可以使人们在不购买商品的情况下,能够获得商品的权利。共享经济的出现大大提高了社会闲置资源的利用效率,是一种非常有前途的商业模式。这种商业模式的出现也造就了一批新兴产业和优秀企业。自行车共享是共享经济的新兴产业之一。由于其在中国的出色表现,在中国引起了公众的广泛关注。Mobike是中国最大的自行车共享公司之一。它是一个完全无站自行车共享系统,总部设在中国北京。以世界上最大的自行车租赁共享运营商bicyles的数量来看,2016年12月,上海成为世界上最大的自行车共享城市(Li,et al,2018)。因此,本报告将重点分析共享经济及其对运输业的潜在影响,并以Mobikeas为例。
Nowadays, the economy is developing in the faster speed then before, and innovation and technologyare the key drivers in the commercial world. They surge greaton the business existed, or even morethey create a total new business model that make kill the other original business. Sharing economy is one of most powerful innovation blooms in these years. The concept of Sharing economy was put forward as early as 30 years ago. However, until recent years, the emergence of the mobile Internet provides platform with a high-speed economic development for sharing economy (Lan, et al., 2017). The sharing real economy,as a new business model, appears in the vision of people, and gradually starts to change people's lives.The nature of sharing economy is the temporary transfer of the right to the use of the item. With the help of the Internet platform, people could transfer the right of the use of redundant resources to the people who need it. It could make people, in the case of not buying the goods, be able to get the right of the goods. The emergence of sharing economy has greatly improved the utilization efficiency of social idle resources, which is a very promising business model. The emergence of this business model also creates a number of emerging industries and excellent enterprises. The bicycle sharing is one of the emerging industries of sharing economy. It gets great attentions of public in China due to its great performance in China. The Mobike is one of the biggest bicycle sharing companies in China. It is a fully station-less bicycle-sharing system headquartered in Beijing, China. It is, by the number of bicyles, the world's largest shared (for hire) bicycle operator, and in December 2016, made Shanghai the world's largest bike-sharing city (Li, et al, 2018). Therefore, this report will focus on an analysis of sharing economy and its potential impacts on the transportation sector and take Mobikeas example. 

2. The discussion on the impact of sharing economy on transportation industry 论共享经济对交通运输业的影响
2.1. An overview of the sharing economy 共享经济概述
该报告将分析共享经济的概况,重点分析运输业中的B2C(企业对客户)。共享经济或共享经济有时被称为合作经济或合作消费,对于共享经济的概念,在导言中作了介绍。介绍了共享经济的运行模式。根据共享经济的参与主体,分析了共享经济的运行模式。共享经济由资源提供者、资源需求者和第三方经济共享平台三个参与者组成。其中,资源提供者是拥有闲置资源的个人或组织,希望从临时使用未使用资源给他人带来好处(Puschmann&alt,2016)。资源的需求者是对商品或服务有需求的个人或组织,这些人或组织往往希望尽快满足这些需求。无论是对于需求方还是供应商,第三方平台都更值得信赖,安全性更强,这在互联网时代往往会增长(Hamari,Sj_Klint&Ukkonen,2015)。共享平台发布经济供求信息、审核和协调。资源需求者可以根据自己的需求从平台上最近的资源所有者那里搜索。如果供需双方有效匹配,可以降低交易成本。
The report will analyze theoverview of the sharing economy, focusing on the B2C(Business to Customer) in the transportation sector. Sharing economy or sharing economy is sometimes called cooperative economy or cooperative consumption.For the concept of Sharing economy, it has been introduced in the introduction. The operating mode of sharing economy is introduced. The operating mode of the sharing economy is analyzed according to the participating subjects of the sharing economy. The sharing economy consists of three participants, which are the provider of resources, the demanders of resources, and the third-party economic sharing platform. Among them, the provider of resources is an individual or organization that has idle resources and hopes to benefit from the temporary use of unused resources to others (Puschmann& Alt, 2016). The demander of resources is the individual or organization that has the need for the goods or services, and these people or organizations often want to meet these requirements as soon as possible. Whether for the demander or the provider, the third-party platform is more trusted, and the security is stronger, which tends to grow in the Internet age (Hamari, Sjöklint&Ukkonen, 2015). Thesharing platform releases economic supply and demand information, reviews and coordinates. The resources demanders can search from nearest resource owners on the platform according to their own requirements. If both sides of supply and demand effective matching, it could reduce transaction costs.
The business model changes brought by the sharing economy are mainly reflected in the following two aspects. Third-party platforms replace traditional enterprises as the main providers of resources. This offer is not directly to provide resources.The third-party platform integrates the society any idle resources, thus providing to consumers.The third-party platform itself need not have any resource (Sundararajan, 2016). The nature of enterprise is the transaction cost reducing.The mobile Internet and Sharing economy development makethe enterprise transaction cost gradually reduce and even lower. The employment relationship is no longer so clear, gradually mutual cooperation between individuals, employers and employment. With the aid of the third-party platform, every consumer also plays a role of businessman at the same time. At the same time, they can enjoy a share of the goods and services.
As introduced before, the Mobike would be taken as an example. The macroenvironmental analysis of Mobike would be made with the PEST analysis. First aspect is the policy environment. At present, China has a not very good policy environment for sharing bicycles. Although there are some supporting policies, the problem is more obvious. On the one hand, the national policy attaches great importance to sharing economy and green travel, which reflects the support attitude towards sharing economy and sharing bicycles. On the other hand, the policy of local policy on the sharing of economic development is dominated by norms and constraints, and there are fewer policies to encourage development. In addition, the legal status and responsibilities of platform enterprises are not clearly defined (Cohen, &Kietzmann, 2014). There are no clear rules on the nature of the platform, industry classification, new labor relations, practitioners and platform tax collection.For the economy. in the important period of China's economic structure transformation, sharing economy because of its important role will become an important part of the national development strategy. Thebicycle sharing as one of the new forms of Shared economy would also benefit from it. Therefore, although China's overall economic environment is general, it is a good development period for the sharing of bicycles.
For the social aspect, China is in an era of Sharing economy, and the government is promoting green travel and national fitness. Bicycle sharing has the character to meet the demand of green travel and people's fitness needs, which is easily accepted by people. The Sharing economic environment has changed people's sense of consumption (Zervas, Proserpio& Byers, 2013). The Sharing economy is fascinating because it is believed to solve the problem of resource waste and to break down barriers to resource flows. Sharing economic platform such as Uber is convenientfor life and work. The success makes people to realize the sharing of economic strength. It can be said that the successful practice of early sharing economy has greatly changed people's consumption pattern and paved the way for the sharing of bicycles (Tedjasaputra& Sari, 2016). In such an environment, sharing bikes as a new sharing economy can be quickly accepted. People's environmental protection and health awareness are rising. Traffic congestion and the last one kilometer become the common fault of the big cities, people urgently need a new way to travel to solve these two problems, and Shared bicycle to become the best way to solve these two problems. #p#分页标题#e#
Last aspect is the technology environment. The technology environment of sharing bicycle is better, so it can be said that the development of sharing bicycle is inseparable from the development of technology. The technical environment involved in sharing a bicycle includes the following aspects. First, the mobile Internet (Redfearn, 2016). In recent years, China mobile Internet users have been on a steady growth stage. As of December 2016, the number of mobile Internet users in China has reached 695 million. The development of mobile Internet has created opportunities for the change of business model based on mobile phone. It is the mobile Internet that is used to connect bikes and users effectively. Second, mobile payments. Alipay and WeChat have contributed to China mobile payment. According to the central bank, China's mobile payment business had 25.71 billion transactions, up 85.82 percent from a year earlier. In a Shared bicycle, the payment of the deposit and rent requires the support of mobile payment. Third, GPS positioningprovides the possibility for users to find a single bicycle. Therefore, to sum up, the macro-environment for Mobike is good. 
And then, it is the industry analysis. In the second half of 2016 is the outbreak of the Shared cycling period in China. Through the development, bicycle sharing is faced with more fierce competition. There are now more than 25 companies in China sharing the bicycle market. Among them, OFO, founded in 2014, and Mobike, established in 2015, are the most powerful sharing bicycle companies in China. The industry threats are as follows. First is the threat of new entrants (Barry & Caron, 2015). Even thoughMobike has a large number of patents. The new entrants are difficult to imitate, but the patent is not Shared cycling necessary facilities, which can only be threshold, and won't become the Shared cycling industry technical threshold.Other Shared bicycle brand can enter the sharing bicycle market, these competitors may occupy a lot of market share a bicycle, thereby reducing the bicycle to the expansion of space.Second, the profit model is unclear. At present, the entire Shared cycling industry profits mainly depends on Shared bicycle rental, and this part of income is likely to be difficult to recover the cost, if not profitable, Shared bicycle industry will not be able to achieve sustainable development and explore a suitable profit sharing bikes and reliable model still is one of the main threats to the entire Shared bicycle industry.
2.2. The impact of sharing economy on different levels 
The impact of sharing economy on different levels are as follows, with the bicycle sharing as example. First is the impact of bicycle sharing on individuals.The contribution of the sharing of bicycles to individuals mainly includessaving cost, reducing travel time, convenience, health and the ability to bring benefits to people from the senses. Compared to Shared cycling, buying a bike has the following disadvantages. The bike owners need to pay the purchase cost and maintenance cost, and always want to do a good job of guard against theft, so buy bicycle disadvantage will hinder people's buying behavior to bike. Thus, the cost of sharing a bicycle is derived from two aspects: the cost of travel and the cost of buying a bicycle. Among them, the travel cost savings from people use bicycle to solve the problem of the last kilometer of travel, in the last kilometer of travel, use a bike than to use other means of transport have lower prices, it provides people with the last mile of the cheapest way to travel (Meyer &Shaheen, 2017). The cost savings from buying a bicycle come from the fact that people don't need to buy a bike, saving the cost of buying, maintaining and preventing theft.Although sharing bike contributes great to people's travel cost reduction, main advantage for sharing bike for personal is that it reduces the people travel time in traffic jams. Studies have shown that people who ride regularly value time and want to travel within a short period of time. And this conclusion is further highlighted share the advantages of bicycle, it is not necessary to worry about exactly is for short or long-distance cycling, because Shared cycling this is in order to solve the problem of the last kilometer of travel, which means that people use bicycle travel is given priority to with short bike ride.
The impact of bicycles on society is as follows. With the increase in the number of people sharing bikes, their contribution to each individual contributes to social welfare. For example, more people using Shared bikes will save people overall travel time and reduce the number of vehicles used, thus reducing traffic congestion and environmental pollution caused by motor vehicles (Sui, 2017). The social benefits of sharing a bicycle include two aspects: health and the additional benefits that it brings, saving time and the additional economic benefits it brings.Health is a very important aspect of the social benefits of sharing a bicycle. The sharing of bicycles has brought about an increase in the overall health level of the society, while the rise of the health level will bring other benefits to the society. Many studies show that people if for half an hour's exercise every day can significantly reduce heart disease and breast cancer and other diseases, which can significantly reduce untimely death. Improved health will also boost productivity. Rising despite the state's overall health is not just from sharing a bike, but it does to a certain extent, improve national health level, which brings to the national social benefits in these areas. In addition, because people use Shared bicycle travel is in order to solve the problem of last kilometer, and the last one-kilometer problem often appeared in the work, also can achieve the purpose of fitness in work on the way, don't need to put the extra time for people to ride fitness. While riding in traffic road could make riding inhaling too much pollutants, non-standard cycling can also bring security hidden danger, but overall, ride on people's health benefits still outweigh the risks to people. Healthy cycling can reduce the use of motor vehicles and improve the environment, so that more people can participate in cycling activities and form a virtuous circle.
People on the road, the time will bring the opportunity cost, that is, reduce the time spent on the road, will increase the time people do other things, this paragraph of time can do some more useful for individual activities, or in some production activities, therefore, if can reduce people's travel time, whether for personal or business owners is a good thing. And Shared cycling can solve the problem of people last mile trip, reduce people from start to finish it in the process of the entire travel time, especially in the rush of travel in the consumption of time, which increases the working people and production activities of the time, and significantly improve the social and economic benefits. However, this is only one of the benefits of sharing a bike. The potential of sharing a bicycle has attracted more departments to the traffic plan, which will bring more economic benefits to the society (Edelman, Luca & Svirsky, 2016). The wider economic benefits include the following aspects: first, to reduce travel time makes the workers have the opportunity to work more choice, and on this basis, the workers can choose higher work efficiency, raise the social overall benefit; Secondly, the decrease of travel cost and time makes people's dependence on geographical location begin to decrease, so as to flexibly choose work and life place according to their own needs and increase labor participation; Third, the increase of urban production increases the competitiveness of cities and reduces the imperfect competition between cities. Fourth, the agglomeration effect.
2.3. The future opportunities and challenges of the sharing economy in the transportation sector
Opportunities to sharing economy in the transportation sector are as follows. First, the rapid popularization of mobile phone users and mobile Internet users on the rise solve the interpersonal communication obstacles.The information about idle resources can be conveyed to any mobile Internet users. The mobile Internet provides a hardware foundation for the construction of Sharing economy in the transportation sector. Second, it is the development of mobile payment, so that people can use mobile phones for payment, the payment security makes people willing to share the idle resources and form the basis of the third-party resource integration platform. Third, mobile positioning technology helps people to find the latest owners of the spare resources they need and increase the use efficiency of resources from the technology. Fourthly, the improvement of people's living standard, excess capacity and idle resources have caused people to share idle resources and increase the demand for resource utilization (Möhlmann, 2015). Fifth, resource providers can earn extra money by using idle resources, and those who need resources can meet their needs at a lower price, and the two sides can achieve mutual benefit and win-win results. Sixthly, sharing economy can reduce transaction cost. Therefore, the above advantages of sharing economy and the external development such as the technology development provide the opportunities for the sharing economy development in the transportation sector. 
The challenges facing the industry are as follows, taking Mobike as example. It mainly includes the following aspects.The loss rate remains high. One of the major problems with sharing bikes is the loss rate, which is often caused by human destruction (Sundararajan, 2013). Among them, the main methods of vandalism include breaking down the anti-theft system of sharing bikes and taking the bicycle as their own, and even selling them in the second-hand market. Some people install private locks on their bikes to make it easier for them to use their bikes. There is also a malicious smear on the QR code on the bike, affecting others to unlock and so on. If the rate of human damage is too high, it will be difficult for sharing bicycles to make an effective profit.#p#分页标题#e#
Management systems and laws and regulations are not yet sound.Due to the short birth time of the Shared bicycle, its own management is still defective, and the relevant laws and regulations are not perfect, which brings many difficulties for the normal operation of the motorcycle. Lack of management system for users to park and share bicycles. Share the bicycle with no pile way make the park too flexible, the city's appearance and brought a certain degree of influence traffic order, widespread illegal parking problems in Shared cycling when convenient travel down others. Mobike users have violated the law and refused to pay a fine, which has caused the problem of the traffic police car. Because the users are not unified with the owner, people refused to pay fines for motivation after violations, if the user refuses to pay the fine, the bike will be hold. The use of mobike has caused great inconvenience, and at present, there is no good solution to this problem. 
The unsound credit system is one of the important problems in the sharing of bicycles.The use of bicycles is a great test of the quality of citizens (Heinrichs, 2013). At present, it is not enough to restrict the users' illegal behaviors, and the use of bikes depends on the quality of citizens. Depending on the quality level of users, the risk of sharing bicycle operators will be increased. Although mobikeuses a credit scoring system, it will lose the opportunity to use Mobike once the user has a serious violation. But the credit points are not line with the social credit, of course, also do not have to share with other bike credit system to connect, a user lost the chance of using Mobike still has a chance to choose other Shared cycling.Tighter regulation in the future may limit the development of Mobike.In the future, policies will be directed to protect the sharing of bicycles from destruction while also introducing stricter regulation to limit the development of Shared bicycles. Current sharing bicycle industry to expand too fast and brought a series of chaos, brings to the city management challenges.

3. Conclusion
Innovation and technology are the critical pulse for the business development. Mobike is a typical sharing economy on transportation example to demonstrate its vital impact on the users, social, company and national. It created a new business model, it brought great revenue and attracted the angel investments that’s the significant opportunity for the company. But there are severe challenges for the long run. To sum up, the threats or challenges facing the industry include the high loss rate, not yet sound management systems and laws and regulations, unsound credit system, tighter regulation in the future and the fierce competition. As the customers’ behaviors are changing, how to catch up the opportunities and overcome the challenges are crucial in the future.
 
References 
Barry, J. M. & Caron, P. L. (2015) ‘Tax regulation, transportation innovation, and the sharing economy’, Social Science Electronic Publishing, 2, pp. 13-19
Cohen, B. D. &Kietzmann, J. (2014) ‘Ride on! mobility business models for the sharing economy’, Organization & Environment, 27(3), 279-296.
Edelman, B., Luca, M. & Svirsky, D. (2016) ‘Racial discrimination in the sharing economy: evidence from a field experiment’, American Economic Journal Applied Economics, 9(2), 1-22.
Hamari, J., Sjöklint, M. &Ukkonen, A. (2015) ‘The sharing economy: why people participate in collaborative consumption’, Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, 67(9), 2047-2059.
Heinrichs, H. (2013) ‘Sharing economy: a potential new pathway to sustainability’, GAIA- Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 22(4), 228-231(4).
Lan, J., et al. (2017) ‘Enabling value co-creation in the sharing economy: the case of mobike. Sustainability, 9(9), pp. 12-17
Li, Y. et al (2018) ‘Evaluating the impact of mobike on automobile-involved bicycle crashes at the road network level’,Accid Anal Prev, 112, 69-76.
Meyer, G. &Shaheen, S. A. (2017). Disrupting mobility- impacts of sharing economy and innovative transportation on cities.
Möhlmann, M. (2015) ‘Collaborative consumption: determinants of satisfaction and the likelihood of using a sharing economy option again’, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 14(3), 193-207.
Puschmann, T. & Alt, R. (2016) ‘Sharing economy’, Business & Information Systems Engineering, 58(1), 93-99.
Redfearn, R. L. (2016) ‘Sharing economy misclassification: employees and independent contractors in transportation network companies’, Social Science Electronic Publishing.
Sui, Y. (2017). Sharing Economy and Its Application in the Field of Transportation. International Symposium on Social Science.
Sundararajan, A. (2013). From zipcar to the sharing economy.
Sundararajan, A. (2016) ‘The sharing economy: the end of employment and the rise of crowd-based capitalism’, Mit Press Books, 1.
Tedjasaputra, A. & Sari, E. (2016). Sharing Economy in Smart City Transportation Services. Seachi 2016 on Smart Cities for Better Living with Hci and Ux (pp.32-35). ACM.
Zervas, G., Proserpio, D. & Byers, J. (2013). The rise of the sharing economy: estimating the impact of airbnb on the hotel industry. Social Science Electronic Publishing.
 
 
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