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MBA Essay模板:Proposed Strategic Framework for Conflict Management, Analysis and Strategy

论文价格: 免费 时间:2021-12-13 09:01:41 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是MBA专业的留学生Essay范例,题目是“Proposed Strategic Framework for Conflict Management, Analysis and Strategy(冲突管理、分析和策略的建议战略框架)”,在分析了Holyrood项目中冲突的阶段、来源和原因之后,本报告旨在进一步识别、分析和批判性地评估冲突,目的是提供一个冲突管理框架,可用于项目管理向前推进。首先,我们将重申Holyrood项目内部冲突的背景。接下来,将采用一种有条理的方法来了解应使用哪种形式的战略来解决冲突问题。在Holyrood项目的背景下,通过应用和评估冲突管理文献,将提出一个整体的冲突管理策略。冲突管理原则已经确立,然后是应在哪些阶段实施这些原则。提出了一项谈判策略,以协助实施合作解决问题的方法。为了使这个框架有效,项目管理必须表现出强有力的领导力,因为这与组织和项目绩效密不可分(HoganKaiser, 2005)。最后,在附录中确定了主要冲突,并使用拟议的冲突管理框架提出了解决方案。

Introduction介绍

Following the analysis of stages, sources and causes of conflict within the Holyrood project, this report aims to further identify, analyse and critically evaluate conflict, with the objective of providing a conflict management framework which can be used by project management moving forwards. Firstly, the background to conflict within the Holyrood project will be reiterated. Next, a methodical approach will be used to understand which form of strategy should be used to resolve conflict issues. A holistic conflict management strategy will then be proposed, by applying and evaluating conflict management literature within the context of the Holyrood project. Conflict management principles have been established, followed by the phases in which they should be implemented. A negotiation strategy has been suggested to assist in the implementation of a collaborative problem solving approach. For this framework to be effective, strong leadership must be demonstrated by project management, as this is inextricably linked to organisational and project performance (Hogan and Kaiser, 2005). Finally, key conflicts have been identified in the appendix, with solutions made using the proposed conflict management framework.

 MBA Essay范例

Problems With Previous Conflict Management以前冲突管理的问题

Prior to Mr Armstrong's resignation as Project Manager in the Holyrood Project, conflict and communication issues have been rife. Although it is unclear whether Mr Armstrong had a conflict management strategy in place or not, it is certain that the conflict management strategy (or lack thereof) has been ineffective thus far. As previously discussed in CW2A, Figure 1 illustrates how sources of unsolved conflicts within group work develop into bigger problems, which cause contagious conflict, resulting in weak communication, time wasted and poor cooperation, with a final result of poor project performance.

在阿姆斯特朗先生辞去荷里路德项目经理一职之前,冲突和沟通问题一直很普遍。虽然尚不清楚阿姆斯特朗是否有冲突管理策略,但可以肯定的是,冲突管理策略(或缺乏)迄今为止是无效的。正如之前在CW2A中讨论的,图1说明了团队工作中未解决的冲突的来源如何发展成更大的问题,从而导致传染性冲突,导致沟通不畅、浪费时间和合作不良,最终导致项目绩效不佳。

 

Though there have been many unsolved conflicts, perhaps one of the most important has been the poorly defined project brief. During RIBA stages 0-2, an unsubstantiated cost estimate of £50 million was published prior to the consultation of professional quantity surveyors or industry professionals (Fraser, 2004). This would become the source of unsolved conflict, which would develop into bigger problems and contagious conflict, and ultimately result in poor performance. To ensure this source of conflict, among the many others, are rectified, an effective conflict management strategy must be developed and implemented. Table 1, on the following page, provides a brief overview of some of the key issues within the Holyrood Project, who the issues are owned by, and what the state of their priorities are.

 

Conflict Dimensions, Desired Outcomes, Conflict Management Strategies冲突维度,期望结果,冲突管理策略

As illustrated in Table 1, there are currently a number of complex conflict issues within The Holyrood Project. This complexity is further complicated by the fact different stakeholders have different priorities. Therefore, the proposed conflict management strategy will take into consideration individual priorities when preparing for negotiations. Figure 2, below, further identifies and evaluates the factors that have influenced the choice of conflict management approach that will be used by project management, by using an adapted conflict management map (Jameson, 1999).

如表1所示,目前在Holyrood项目中存在许多复杂的冲突问题。由于不同的涉众有不同的优先级,这种复杂性进一步复杂化了。因此,拟议的冲突管理战略在准备谈判时将考虑到个别优先事项。下面的图2进一步确定和评估了影响项目管理将使用的冲突管理方法的选择的因素,使用了一份经过调整的冲突管理地图(Jameson, 1999)

 

Firstly, conflict dimensions have been identified in the form of common sources of conflict within the project; fragmented task communication, independent, low trust relationships, high time pressure, political influence, and a lack of scope. Next, the desired outcomes from using this strategy are outlined, including improved relationships, learning from experience, working towards a shared vision, and gaining individual commitment to team goals. By achieving these goals, project team performance will improve, resulting in higher efficiency, lower project costs, less conflict, and shorter project programme. Finally, conflict management strategies are proposed; including using a collaborative working approach, 3Dimensional Negotiation Strategy, working with awareness of political influence, focusing on interest (not positions), encouraging effective communication among stakeholders, defining success in real terms, and, finally, using negotiation and collaborative resolution techniques. Based on these factors, it has been concluded that the best conflict management strategy should be based on a collaborative conflict management framework.

 

Proposed Conflict Management Principles建议的冲突管理原则

One of the recurrent and fundamental issues thus far in the Holyrood Project is a lack of collaboration between stakeholders. This has been demonstrated through PS Mrs Doig bypassing former Project Manager Mr Armstrong, as well the fragmented communication between EMBT & RMJM, which has resulted in silo-working. To break down these barriers, it is therefore proposed that a collaborative problem solving process will be most effective in resolving this conflict. This will improve the current strained relationships and encourage collaboration. The proposed framework is based upon both integrated bargaining literature (Stroh, Northcraft, Neale, 2002) and Figure 2 (Jameson, 1999). Ultimately, this strategy will aim to find the best outcome for both parties, and will require project management to use an integrative perspective (de Dreu, Kroole and Steinel, 2000; Fisher & Brown, 1988) to encourage collaborative behaviour.

迄今为止,Holyrood项目反复出现的基本问题之一是利益相关者之间缺乏协作。PS Mrs Doig绕过了前项目经理Mr Armstrong, EMBTRMJM之间的零散沟通也证明了这一点,这导致了竖井作业。为了打破这些障碍,因此提出了一个合作性的问题解决过程将是解决这一冲突的最有效的方法。这将改善目前紧张的关系,并鼓励合作。提出的框架是基于综合谈判文献(Stroh, Northcraft, Neale, 2002)和图2 (Jameson, 1999)。最终,该策略的目标是为双方找到最好的结果,并将要求项目管理使用一个综合的角度(de Dreu, KrooleSteinel, 2000;Fisher & Brown, 1988)来鼓励合作行为。

 

1. Establish Common Project Goals

Firstly, a common set of goals must be established between the conflicting parties. This will allow the different teams to understand what is expected of them, which, in turn, will boost team productivity and collaboration (McComb, Green, Compton, 2015). Goals should encourage collaboration by incentivizing mutual benefits. For instance, in this particular context, all stakeholders are working under heavy political influence, with the intention of creating a building to benefit Scottish members of Parliament, this should therefore be established as a mutual project goal.

 

2. Separate People from Problems - Avoid Interpersonal Conflict

Once common goals and mutual benefits have been established, emotions must be detached from the problem being dealt with. Research has shown that whilst task conflict can increase team efficiency (Simons, 2000) interpersonal conflict can "disturb the equilibrium of an organisation" (Williams, 2011). Cultural differences may be one of the underlying causes of conflict within the project; with Enrqiue Miralles feeling alienated and misunderstood it is essential for these differences to be rectified.

 

3. Avoid Positional Focus, Focus on Interests

Research has shown that it is easier to establish agreement on interests rather than positions, perhaps due to the fact interests can be viewed from multiple perspectives and are not assertive or demanding like positions (Whetten and Cameron, 2011).

 

Therefore, negotiations should identify what both (or all) parties want, as opposed to what they perceive the solution to be, this means looking at the project holistically. As mentioned in principle 1, it should be in all parties interests to provide a new parliament for Scottish MP's. This must therefore be established as a mutual interest. For example, previously, Mr Armstrong has focused too much on establishing hardline positions by sending EMBT increasingly stern letters (Holyrood Enquiry, Page 106).

 

4. Invent options for mutual gains

As a means of transforming interpersonal conflict to task conflict, conflicting parties' attention should be shifted to brainstorming on mutually agreeable and beneficial solutions, such as working towards a shared vision. This stage will require project management to be creative minded and generate unconventional solutions.

 

5. Consider BATNA's with objective criteria以客观标准考虑BATNA

Regardless of how collaborative parties may be, it is inevitable that conflicting parties may have incompatible interests. These interests may be due to different priorities, cultural differences, and so on. Consequently, an objective criteria that is independent of either parties needs must be identified. This may be achieved by asking parties "What is a fair way of evaluating the merits of our arguments?" (Whetten and Cameron, 2011).

无论合作各方如何,冲突双方的利益不相容都是不可避免的。这些利益可能是由于不同的优先级,文化差异,等等。因此,必须确定一个独立于任何一方的客观标准。要做到这一点,可以问当事人:“有什么公平的方法来评估我们的论点的价值?(韦顿和卡梅隆,2011)

 

6. Success must be quantifiable, measurable, methodical.

The value of success in conflict resolution will be subjective, and vary from task to task. However, all conflict resolution outcomes should aim towards a defined success. This means clearly having a clearly defined, realistic and achievable outcome. The outcome must be significant, benefit both parties involved in the conflict, and improve the overall state of the project performance.

 

The 4 Phases of Collaborative Problem Solving

Now that a collaborative problem solving framework has been established, the stages of how to use this framework must be understood and implemented. The stages can be broken down into 4 steps:

 

1. Identifying Key Sources of Conflict

Fundamentally, conflict issues within the Holyrood project stem from a lack of collaboration and communication among key stakeholders. Former Project Management failed to demonstrate strong leadership, and did not create a shared vision within the project which may be the cause of lacking collaboration. Moving forwards, a shared vision must indeed be worked towards by all stakeholders. As the Holyrood project is of a political nature, politics has a strong influence over the decision making process. However, the project vision should be to provide a better space for Scottish MP's and provide a sense of independence for the Scottish people. This is a mutual goal which all parties must be motivated towards working towards.

 

Furthermore, the lacking collaboration and leadership has been responsible for contagious interpersonal conflict throughout the supply chain, namely between EMBT & RMJM. Cultural differences and misunderstandings have created a silo-working environment, resulting in delays in receiving design information, which in turn, is resulting in constantly escalating cost estimates from DLE. These escalating cost estimates are causing concerns among SPCB members and the public alike, who are beginning to distrust Mrs Doig as a result. By collaboratively problem solving this issue, all parties will benefit in their own respective ways.

 

2. Generating a Solution生成解决方案

As mentioned in the collaborative problem solving principles, solutions must satisfy the needs of both parties involved in conflict, and result in mutual gains. Furthermore, solutions must be fair, and have a clearly defined, quantifiable outcome that may be reached. The first proposed solution in resolving conflict by acquiring a clearly defined project brief, or 'crystalized scope'. This will take much collaboration and communication among the key stakeholders in Holyrood. As per the collaborative problem solving principles, all parties must work in harmony, towards a shared vision, with the same goals. It is suggested that, to eliminate cultural differences and misunderstandings, a cultural diversity session will be held. This will also enhance the relationships and communication among stakeholders.

正如在合作解决问题的原则中提到的,解决方案必须满足冲突双方的需要,并产生互利的结果。此外,解决方案必须是公平的,并有一个明确界定的、可能达到的可量化的结果。第一个提出的解决方案是通过获取一个明确定义的项目概要,或“明确的范围”来解决冲突。这需要在荷里路德的主要利益相关者之间进行大量的合作和沟通。根据合作解决问题的原则,各方必须协调一致,朝着共同的愿景和目标努力。有人建议,为了消除文化差异和误解,将举办一个文化多样性会议。这也将加强利益相关者之间的关系和沟通。

 

It must be made clear to Mrs Doig, that by attaining clearly defined project deliverables from the SPCB, a finalised design can be worked on by EMBT & RMJM. With this design, cost estimates are unlikely to rise exponentially, as the elements of uncertainty will be eliminated. This will result in Mrs Doig gaining back some of her lost trust from the public and SPCB alike. Ultimately, acquiring fully defined project specifications and design will benefit all stakeholders involved in the project.

 

As mentioned earlier, Mr Armstorng previously sent increasingly stern and demanding letters to EMBT. This line of communication is not recommended in requesting such important information. Instead, it is recommended project management meet regularly with Enrique Miralles, and allow him to work without the pressure of other stakeholders intervening in his unique way of working.

 

3. Formulating an action plan and agreement

Once causes of conflict have been identified and a solution has been generated, an action plan must be executed to reach an agreement between the conflicting parties.

 

In the context of trying to acquire defined project scope, it proposed a meeting will be held between Project Management and Mrs Doig. This will allow 'on the table' negotiation tactics to be implemented. Furthermore, sending an email or fax would not be suitable, and could even be considered insulting, when requesting such important information.

 MBA Essay怎么写

From this meeting, Mrs Doig will be prompted to attain project deliverables from theSPCB, such as specifications, gross floor area, limitations and so forth. It must bemade clear it is in all parties best interests that these deliverables are received. As mentioned, Mrs Doig will be regaining lost trust, which should be used as an incentive to acquire the specifications.

 

Once these clear specifications and project deliverables have been acquired from the SPCB, they can be passed to EMBT, who must work to fulfill those specifications, and only these specifications. As there will be no uncertainty, there will be no reason for GFA, and ultimately cost, to exponentially rise.

 

Although it proposed that a collaborative problem solving approach is taken within the project, and that all parties involved should work together effectively, it is evident that Enrique Miralles is not attracted to the idea of working in Edinburgh. This is evident from his previous statements. Therefore, pressure should not be put on EMBT to work in Edinburgh. Instead, it is suggested that a final stage D project brief is delivered from EMBT, which will allow the rest of the project to carry on swiftly.

 

To ensure this issue does not become interpersonal conflict, has been proposed that a cultural diversity session will take place. Not only will this session enrich the relationships throughout the supply chain, but this should also help RMJM and other key stakeholders understand the way in which Enrique Miralles works in his own culture.

 

Further to attaining project deliverables, Mrs Doig should produce a project procedures manual, which, prior to 1999, has not existed within the project. This manual will set out policies, strategies, and lines of communications to be used within the project. It is suggested that project management will discuss the creation of this manual with Mrs Doig, who, as project sponsor, is responsible for its creation and implementation. Similarly to a clearly defined brief, this manual should be incentives under the premise of mutual benefits to Mrs Doig: it will make her job easier within the project, and will avoid conflict and trust issues throughout the supply chain.

为了取得项目的可交付成果,多伊格女士应编制一份项目程序手册,在1999年以前,该手册在项目内并不存在。本手册将列出在项目中使用的政策、战略和通信线路。建议项目管理层与Doig女士讨论本手册的创建,她作为项目发起人,负责该手册的创建和实施。与明确定义的简介类似,该手册应在互惠互利的前提下激励多伊格女士:它将使她在项目内的工作更容易,并将避免整个供应链中的冲突和信任问题。

 

It is perhaps fair to assume that Mrs Doigs lack of experience as a construction professional may contribute to why she has not yet produced this manual. As a greatly experienced construction professional, it is proposed Mr Curran will assist Mrs Doig with the production of this manual. As mentioned in CW2A, the production of this manual will greatly benefit the overall project performance whilst reducing conflict.

 

One of the final issues which must be addressed is former project management being bypassed. The very nature of collaborative team working and problem solving should eliminate the need for Mrs Doig to feel compelled to bypass project management.

 

4. Implementation and Follow up

To ensure that agreements can be reached, a 3D Negotiation strategy will be blended with the collaborative problem solving approach (Lax and Sebenius, 2003). Once agreements have been reached through negotiation, a follow-up plan must be implemented to ensure the outcome is positive, and that the conflict does not reoccur further down the line. Previously, concerns had been raised that Mr Armstrong did not have a backup plan when going into negotiations (Holyrood, Page 106). New project management will ensure Best Alternatives to Negotiated Agreements (BATNAS) are in place for all negotiations.

 

3D Negotiation Strategy literature proposes that negotiations are split into three dimensions: Tactics, Deal Design, Scope and Sequence. Within these three dimensions, there are common barriers, and approaches to overcoming such barriers. A simplified analysis of Lax and Sebanius's literature would conclude that negotiations should not focus solely on one dimension of negotiations. For example, people and processes may be dealt with successfully in one conflict issue, but value and scope must not be neglected during the negotiation.

 

This negotiation process requires project management to be somewhat flexible depending on who and what conflict issue is being negotiated with. As poor project scope is one of the fundamental issues; this again will be used as an example.

 

The 1st Dimension concerns tactics, or the people and processes involved in the negotiation process. When negotiating with Mrs Doig, tactics could include the style of communication used, or the communication line. It would be disrespectful to negotiate on this issue over email or fax, and instead, should be negotiated face to face, in a meeting. This will also provide a better opportunity to deal with Mrs Doigs difficult attitude.

第一个维度关注的是策略,或者是谈判过程中涉及的人员和过程。与多伊格女士谈判时,策略可以包括使用的沟通方式或沟通路线。通过电子邮件或传真就这个问题进行谈判是不礼貌的,相反,应该在会议上面对面地谈判。这也将提供一个更好的机会来应对道格斯夫人的困难态度。

 

The 2nd Dimension, deal design, considers the value and substance of the negotiation: what will be offered and gained from it? In this example, project specifications and deliverables will be ascertained, under the premise of Mrs Doig regaining positive public perception and trust in the SPCB. This dimension is ultimately about preparing exactly what is to be achieved from negotiating before meetings, and considering what is the substance of the negotiation.

 

Finally, the 3rd Dimension, or set up, must be considered. This means considering who is involved in the negotiation, where it will take place, what will happen after the negotiation, and what back ups or alternatives are in place? For example, if a fully defined project scope cannot be ascertained from Mrs Doig, a Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement could be at least to acquire a more accurate GFA for architects to work with. Although this would not be the ideal outcome, EMBT would have less reason to make complex design changes, resulting in DLE not having to publish increasingly growing cost estimates, which damage public confidence and stakeholder trust.

 

Project management should follow up on all negotiations. Dates should be set for follow up meetings, where objective, quantifiable data can be tracked to monitor progress on the conflict resolution. During these meetings, mutual goals should be reiterated to ensure that both parties understand what is expected of them within the project. If collaboration between stakeholders is still failing, it may be necessary to reconsider the proposed conflict management strategy, and consider a hard-line approach. That being said, this approach has been used by previous project management to no avail, therefore, it is likely that a collaborative approach will indeed succeed.

 

Conclusion结论

Conflict within the Holyrood project is fundamentally rooted in a lack of collaboration and communication among stakeholders working within the project. Therefore, for the most part, conflicts are inextricably linked, and can be solved by implementing a holistic collaborative approach to problem solving. This report has proposed a set of conflict management principles and phases to be followed, which will allow for the conflicts within Holyrood to be dealt with accordingly. Following the specific examples provided, Table 2, on the following page, has provided a list of key issues which must be addressed using the provided conflict management framework.

Holyrood项目中的冲突从根本上是源于项目中工作的涉众之间缺乏协作和沟通。因此,在大多数情况下,冲突是不可分割地联系在一起的,可以通过实施一个整体的协作方法来解决问题。本报告提出了一套冲突管理原则和应遵循的阶段,这将使荷里路德内部的冲突得到相应处理。根据所提供的具体示例,下一页的表2提供了必须使用所提供的冲突管理框架解决的关键问题列表。 

 

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