指导
网站地图
英国essay 澳洲essay 美国essay 加拿大essay MBA Essay Essay格式范文
返回首页

人力资源Essay怎么写:Leadership In Relation to Change Management

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-01-24 09:53:35 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是Leadership In Relation to Change Management(与变革管理相关的领导力)”Cyert(1990: 29)将领导力定义为“让组织中的参与者将注意力集中在领导者认为重要的问题上的能力”。Cyert(1990: 29)认为领导的职能因此与组织、人际和决策行动相一致。鉴于对全球商业环境中活力水平提高的关注日益增加,人们对探索领导力与组织行动以及重要的变革管理之间的关系的需要产生了新的兴趣(Teece, 2009;Beerel, 2009)。改变是任何公司战略的一个持续的部分,是一个已被证明与公司执行和维持竞争优势的能力显著相关的战略(Kavanagh & Ashkanasy, 2006)。因此,后现代时代要求组织能够应对变化作为一个持续的动态公司(Hayes, 2007;蒂斯,2009)。因此,这篇文章关注的是不同类型的领导对促进公司内部变革愿景的影响(Anderson & Anderson, 2010)

Introduction介绍

Cyert (1990: 29) defines leadership as the ability to get participants in an organisation to focus their attention on the problems that the leader considers significant. The functions of leadership considered by Cyert (1990: 29) therefore align to organisational, interpersonal and decisional actions. In light of increased attention being directed towards the heightened levels of dynamism found in the global business environment, an emerging interest is being directed towards the need to explore how leadership relates to organisational actions and, importantly, change management (Teece, 2009; Beerel, 2009). Change is an on-going part of any firms strategy and is a strategy which has proven to be significantly related to a firms ability to perform and sustain competitive advantage (Kavanagh & Ashkanasy, 2006). The postmodern era thus demands that organisations are able to deal with change as a constant dynamic within the firm (Hayes, 2007; Teece, 2009). As such, attention is directed within this essay towards the influence of different types of leadership on promoting a change vision within the firm (Anderson & Anderson, 2010). 人力资源Essay范例

Change and leadership变化和领导

Gill (2002) argues that change requires effective leadership to be successfully introduced and sustained(p.307). Combining an understanding and translation of vision, values and strategy coupled with inspiration is argued by Gill (2002) to promote a more sustainable change approach within the firm. This essay introduces four leadership theories: authoritarian, democratic, transformational, and transactional, and discusses their approach in relation to change management. Stemming from this it is argued that there is a need to adopt a situational based approach to leadership to assume the flexibility and adaptability required to support change within the firm (Steers, Sanchez-Runde & Nardon, 2012).

吉尔(2002)认为,变革“需要有效的领导才能成功地引入和维持”(307)。吉尔(2002)认为,将对愿景、价值观和战略的理解和转换与灵感相结合,可以在公司内部促进更可持续的变革方法。这篇文章介绍了四种领导理论:威权主义,民主,变革,交易,并讨论了他们的方法在变化管理的关系。由此,有人认为,有必要采用基于情境的方法来领导,以假定灵活性和适应性,以支持企业内部的变化(Steers, Sanchez-Runde & Nardon, 2012)

 

Change and the role of autocratic leadership

Early studies of leadership including that of the theoretical development of Great Man Theory approached leadership from a trait perspective and argued that there were characteristics within a leader, which made them successful. This theoretical position thus supported the contention that leaders were born and not made (Hoffman, Woehr, Maldagen-Youngjohn & Lyons, 2011). One of the earliest approaches to leadership, Great Man theory paved the way for a study of the leader as a separate entity to those within the firm. Aligned to this, autocratic styles of leadership promoted a separation between the leader and his employees. Autocratic leaders are therefore leaders who impose a style, which is characterised by individual control over decisions within the firm. This type of leadership style results in little opportunity for input from employees, with the leader instead dictating decisions across the firm (Van Vugt, Jepson, Hart & De Cremer, 2004). Aligning this to the context of change management, this is a leadership style which has been shown empirically to hinder the progress of change within the firm (Bennis, 2000).

 

As seen in Kotters eight stage model of change, change can be approached in a prescriptive, diagnostic manner. Kotter (1996) argues that in order for change to be sustained within the firm there is a need to ensure high levels of employee involvement. This employee involvement is needed to overcome the deeply rooted structural inertia related to change processes as presented in the work of Hannan and Freeman (1984). Hannan and Freeman (1984) argue that change challenges the equilibrium within the firm, and thus there is a need to lead change in a way which lowers resistance through employee involvement. Autocratic leadership therefore offers no room for this involvement and is thus linked to higher levels of employee resistance and a lack of stability as part of the change programme (OToole, 1995). Denton (1996) argues that autocratic change goes against the simple rules of change by failing to appreciate the need to gain input from employees to sustain and in turn operationalize change.

正如Kotter的变革八阶段模型所示,变革可以用一种规范性的、诊断性的方式来处理。Kotter(1996)认为,为了使公司内部的变化持续下去,有必要确保高水平的员工参与。这种员工参与是为了克服HannanFreeman(1984)在工作中提出的与变化过程相关的根深蒂固的结构惯性。HannanFreeman(1984)认为,变化挑战了企业内部的平衡,因此有必要通过通过员工参与来降低阻力的方式来领导变化。因此,专制的领导为这种参与提供了空间,并因此与更高水平的员工抵抗和缺乏稳定性作为变革方案的一部分联系在一起(Otoole, 1995)Denton(1996)认为,独裁式的变革违背了简单的变革规则,因为它没有意识到需要从员工那里获得投入来维持变革,并反过来实施变革。

 

Despite the negative associations between an autocratic style of leadership and change there are times when autocratic styles of change may be suitable. For example, reflecting upon the different types of change presented by Gersick (1991) autocratic styles of change may be appropriate for those firms having to make a dramatic, time pressurised change under a punctuated equilibrium approach. The quick decision making processes aligned to this form of leadership would speed up the change process and would enable one individual to take control of the change to ensure a consistent approach. It is however widely noted that whilst elements of autocratic leadership may be appropriate in terms of pressurised change, the overall style of autocratic leadership in its entirety fails to allow for change to foster and develop in an effective way across the firm (Burke, 2013).

 

Change and the role of democratic leadership变革和民主领导的作用

Moving towards a greater capacity to allow for employee involvement, democratic forms of leadership promote an open, collaborative form of leadership, which seek to facilitate conversations within the firm through the promotion of sharing ideas across all levels within the firm. Considered to be a leadership style, which supports flexibility within the firm, this type of leadership is positively aligned to change practices within the firm (Foels, Driskell, Mullen & Salas, 2000). Foels, Driskell, Mullen & Salas (2000) for example argue that democratic leadership has the potential to enhance the satisfaction of employees during change. It does so by supporting employee involvement, which Kotter (1996) argues facilitates a more sustainable approach to change by lowering damaging forms of employee resistance. Under democratic leadership styles, employees feel fostered and feel valued to share their opinions. This can in turn result in a greater development of change options with employees being able to directly influence the direction of change. This type of leadership is most successful when aligned to gradualist, evolutionary forms of change within the firm. Intentional, planned change can be supported by democratic conditions, which allow the time to involve all. This however is associated with challenges largely related to the time it can take to make a decision under this leadership style. Unlike autocratic forms of leadership where one person makes the decision, democratic leaders draw on as many perspectives as possible, which can slow down the rate of change. Sustainable under planned change, the democratic leadership style would be less suited to conditions of punctuated equilibrium change.

为了提高员工参与的能力,民主的领导形式促进了一种开放、协作的领导形式,通过促进公司各个层面的思想分享来促进公司内部的对话。被认为是一种领导风格,支持企业内部的灵活性,这种类型的领导与企业内部的变革实践积极一致(Foels, Driskell, Mullen & Salas, 2000)。例如,Foels, Driskell, Mullen & Salas(2000)认为,民主领导有潜力在变革中提高员工的满意度。它通过支持员工参与来实现这一点,Kotter(1996)认为,通过降低破坏性的员工抵制形式,促进了一种更可持续的变革方法。在民主的领导风格下,员工会觉得分享他们的意见是被培养和被重视的。这反过来可以导致更大的变化选项的发展,员工能够直接影响变化的方向。这种类型的领导最成功的时候是与公司内部渐进的、渐进的变化形式保持一致。有意的、有计划的改革可以得到民主条件的支持,因为民主条件允许所有人都有时间参与。然而,这与在这种领导风格下做出决定所需要的时间有关。与一个人做决定的专制形式不同,民主领导人尽可能从多个角度出发,这可以减缓变革的速度。在计划中的变革下,民主的领导风格是可持续的,它不太适合间断的均衡变化。

 人力资源Essay怎么写

The changing vision of leadership

Whilst autocratic and democratic styles of leadership were considered to be viable leadership options in the 1980s/1990s, todays business environment demands a more aspirational, visionary approach to leadership driven by dynamism and the rising power of employees. The transformational leadership style is a style, which epitomizes passion and inspires positive changes across the organisation. Both process and people driven, transformational leaders relate to the need to understand employees within the firm. Moving towards a more personalised form of leadership, this leadership style has been positively related to effective and sustainable approaches to change within the firm (Avolio & Yammarino, 2013). Eisenbach, Watson & Pillai (1999) for example argue that transformational leadership is the most appropriate approach to change due to the passion and inspiration it promotes. This in turn supports the prescriptive model of Kotter (1996), which highlights the importance of creating and maintaining a momentum for change (Carter, Armenakis, Field & Mossholder, 2013).

 

In an empirical study by Carter, Armenakis, Field & Mossholder (2013) transformational leadership was shown to improve the quality of change and the relationship quality between leaders end employees. This was further supported by Paulsen, Callan, Ayoko & Saunders (2013) who argue that transformational leadership supports innovation during times of major change. Supported by findings from employees, Paulsen et al (2013) showed that employees were most influenced by transformational leaders and this in turn inspired a greater engagement with the change environment.

Carter, Armenakis, Field & Mossholder(2013)的实证研究中,变革型领导被证明可以提高变革的质量和领导者与员工之间的关系质量。这一观点得到了PaulsenCallanAyokoSaunders(2013)的进一步支持,他们认为变革型领导在重大变革时期支持创新。根据员工的调查结果,Paulsen等人(2013)表明,员工最容易受到变革型领导者的影响,这反过来又激发了员工对变革环境的更大参与度。

 

Change and the role of transformational leadership

Adopting a personal approach to change, transformational leadership has been praised for its ability to lower resistance to change. As widely noted across the change management literature, resistance to change can be a hinder to the effectiveness and sustainability of change (Hayes, 2007). Resistance can thus be debilitating for those firms who have to change to survive. Oreg & Berson (2011) thus show that under the umbrella of transformational leadership, employees are less likely to resist large-scale organisational change. Change values were positively related to the passion inspired by the transformational leader. This leadership style is therefore effective at eliciting change, which is inspirational. This approach may be appropriate during a large-scale change where there is a need to instil employee confidence and trust. Supported by the change management literature, transformational leadership supports many of the stages of the change process to ensure that any change is deeply rooted in the new culture of the firm. In particular, this type of leadership has been aligned to a continual, evolutionary process of change, which again is deemed to be best suited to this style.

 

Whilst transformational leadership is aligned to a number of core advantages, it is again in a similar vein to democratic leadership related to slower forms of decision-making compared to more autocratic styles of leadership. It is therefore important to create a culture within the firm where change is planned and incremental in nature. This is supported by the link between incremental change and the overall sustainability of change (Gersick, 1991).

虽然变革型领导与一些核心优势相一致,但它与民主型领导类似,与专制型领导相比,民主型领导的决策方式更为缓慢。因此,重要的是在公司内部创造一种文化,使变革在本质上是有计划的和渐进的。这一点得到渐进式变化与变化的整体可持续性之间的联系的支持(格西克,1991)

 

Change and the role of transactional leadership改变和交易型领导的角色

The final leadership style considered within this essay is that of transactional leadership. The transactional approach to leadership refers to a leadership style, which directs followers in the self-interests of the leader. Whilst transformational leadership has democratic foundations, transactional approaches motivate employees to perform by aligning rewards to the wider strategic goals of the firm. In the context of a change management programme, an employee would be rewarded for facilitating new changes within the firm but would be punished if they failed to operationalize the changes implemented. The exchanges between the leader and his followers are therefore exchanges based upon the achievement of wider organisational goals. Supported by the clear articulation of change goals, this is a leadership style, which is considered to achieve order in light of change (Bono, Hooper & Yoon, 2012).

本文中考虑的最后一种领导风格是交易型领导。交易型领导方式指的是一种领导风格,它引导追随者以领导者的自身利益为导向。变革型领导有民主的基础,而交易型领导方式通过将奖励与公司更广泛的战略目标相结合来激励员工的表现。在变革管理方案的范围内,一名雇员将因在公司内部促成新的变革而得到奖励,但如果他们未能实施所实施的变革,则将受到惩罚。因此,领导者和追随者之间的交流是基于实现更广泛的组织目标的交流。在明确表达变革目标的支持下,这是一种领导风格,被认为是根据变革实现秩序(Bono, Hooper & Yoon, 2012)

 

As shown in the work of Zhu, Riggio, Avolio & Sosik (2011) when directly compared to transformational leadership, transactional leadership approaches were not as successful when leading change. However, both have the potential to enhance the employees motivation to change. The success of the transactional style of leadership is however dependent upon the type of people within the firm. This type of leadership works best when the clear aspects of change can be defined and translated into achievable goals. Aligned to goal setting theory, this is an approach which works well with those employees who are motivated by challenging environments. With a speedier change process than transformational leadership, transactional styles balance the motivation for change with the need to operationalize it in an efficient manner. This is therefore an approach, which is often coupled with transformational styles with academics arguing that a dual focus on both is the most sustainable solution (Zhu, Riggio, Avolio & Sosik, 2011).

正如Zhu, Riggio, Avolio & Sosik(2011)的工作所显示的那样,与变革型领导相比,交易型领导方法在领导变革时并不那么成功。然而,两者都具有增强员工改变动机的潜力。然而,交易型领导的成功取决于公司内部人员的类型。当变革的明确方面能够被定义并转化为可实现的目标时,这种类型的领导才能发挥最佳作用。与目标设定理论相一致,这是一种很好的方法,适用于那些受到挑战性环境激励的员工。与变革型领导相比,交易型领导具有更快的变革过程,它平衡了变革的动机和以一种有效的方式实施变革的需要。因此,这是一种方法,通常与转型风格相结合,学者们认为,对两者的双重关注是最可持续的解决方案(Zhu, Riggio, Avolio & Sosik, 2011)

 

Conclusion结论

In conclusion, this essay has detailed four individual approaches to leadership and has discussed the pros and cons of each style. Arguing that perhaps what is needed is a move towards more situational forms of leadership, this essay states that situational leadership offers an approach to change which aligns to the flexibility and adaptability required in the external business environment (Thompson & Glaso, 2015). Reflecting upon an emerging trend within the leadership literature, situational leadership refers to a combination of different styles dependent upon the situation. This therefore supports discussions within this essay where the pace of change dictates the suitability of different styles. In light of heightened dynamism, adaptability is key and thus adaptability is also key to the leadership style adopted. Perhaps therefore the most suitable leadership style to elicit change is one where emphasis is placed on having an appreciation of the most suitable style for the situation at hand. This is thus an approach, which requires leaders to have the skills to switch between different styles when appropriate.

总之,这篇文章有详细的四种个人的领导方法,并讨论了每种风格的利弊。这篇文章认为,也许我们需要的是走向更情境化的领导形式,情境化领导提供了一种改变的方法,这种方法与外部商业环境中所需的灵活性和适应性一致(Thompson & Glaso, 2015)。情景型领导反映了领导文献中出现的一种趋势,指的是根据情况不同风格的组合。因此,这支持了本文中的讨论,即变化的速度决定了不同风格的适用性。在动态性增强的情况下,适应性是关键,因此适应性也是采取领导风格的关键。因此,也许最适合引起改变的领导风格是一种强调对当前情况最适合的风格的欣赏。因此,这是一种方法,需要领导者在适当的时候具备在不同风格之间切换的技能。

 

留学生论文相关专业范文素材资料,尽在本网,可以随时查阅参考。本站也提供多国留学生课程作业写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


此论文免费


推荐内容
  • MBA Essay作业:Ad...

    本文是MBA专业的留学生Essay范例,题目是“AdvantagesandDisadvantagesoftheSERVQUALModel(SERVQUAL模型的......

  • MBA Essay怎么写:S...

    ​本文是MBA专业的留学生Essay范例,题目是“SafeguardsAgainstSexualAbuseofFemaleWorkersinMNCs(防止跨国公......

  • MBA essay 模板:T...

    ​本文是MBA专业的留学生论文范例,题目是“TheCustomerSatisfactionModel(顾客满意度模型)”本章将描述因变量顾客满意如何与自变量感知......

  • 人力资源Essay范文翻译:...

    本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是“RecruitmentandRetentionofKnowledgeWorkers(招聘和保留知识型员工)”,专业服......

  • 人力资源Essay结构:Cu...

    ​本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是“CulturalVariablesinMNCs(跨国公司的文化变量)”,国际商业文献强调了全球一体化和日益增多的界......

  • MBA Essay要求:Ov...

    本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是“AReviewofAnti-BullyingandAnti-HarassmentMeasuresinAustrali......