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浪漫主义时期钢琴作品演奏的特征-英国作业

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-09-11 08:59:06 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction介绍
19世纪初,它在欧洲文艺界形成了一种新的潮流风格,音乐中的浪漫因素逐渐占据主导地位(Ying,Evens,Hashim and Chiat,2015)。在音乐史上,100多年后,这是一个浪漫的时期。19世纪是和谐极度发展的世纪(Kupana和Otacioglu,2012)。这是音乐大师层出不穷的世纪,也是钢琴音乐发展到巅峰的世纪。这一时期诞生了许多著名的钢琴家和钢琴作品。这些钢琴作品不仅给观众带来了每秒的享受,而且在钢琴演奏技巧上也有许多独创性的创作,对后世的钢琴演奏产生了深远的影响(Maslen,2013)。本文旨在了解浪漫主义时期钢琴作品的演奏技巧及其影响。本文首先回顾了浪漫主义时期钢琴作品的特点,然后介绍了浪漫主义时期钢琴演奏技术的特点。最后,探讨浪漫主义时期钢琴演奏技巧对后世钢琴演奏技巧发展的影响。
In the early 19th century, it formed a new trend style in European literature and art generally, the romantic factors in music gradually occupied a dominant position (Ying, Evens, Hashim and Chiat, 2015). In the history of music, more than 100 years later, it was a romantic period. The 19th century was a century of extreme development of harmony (Kupana and Otacioglu, 2012). It is the century where music masters emerge in an endless stream, and the century when piano music developed to its peak. In this period, many famous pianists and piano works have been born. These piano works not only brought enjoyment to the audience every second, but also have many original creations in the piano playing skills, which has a profound impact on piano performances of later generations (Maslen, 2013). The aim of this paper is to understand the playing skills and influence of piano works in the Romantic period. This article first reviews the characteristics of piano works during the Romantic period, and then introduces the characteristics of piano performance techniques of this period. Finally, it discusses the influence of piano performance techniques in the romantic period on the development of piano performance skills of the later generations.
2.0 Main body主体
2.1 Characteristics of piano works during the romantic period浪漫主义时期钢琴作品的特点
2.1.1 Reflection of nationalism民族主义的反思
19世纪是民族主义的世纪。随着民族解放运动的发展和音乐色彩的增加,音乐家们比以往更加关注民族情感(赖、吴、柔、徐、郭,2015)。民族精神是许多浪漫主义作曲家的爱国主义精神和民主精神(Lai等人,2015)。革命精神的集中体现,也是他们热爱生活、歌颂美好未来的理想追求。特别是在东欧和北欧国家,音乐家们收集并出版民歌,精选民族历史传说、自然风光、人民生活等题材,运用大量民歌的旋律和节奏,形成了具有民族特色的音乐语言。ICS为19世纪的音乐增添了新的色彩,成为浪漫主义音乐的重要力量(Spector,Yong,Altenmüller and Jabusch,2014)。
The 19th century was a century of nationalism. With the development of the national liberation movement and the increasing color of music, musicians paid more attention to national sentiment than ever before (Lai, Wu, Jou, Hsu and Kuo, 2015). The national spirit was the patriotic spirit and democratic spirit of many romantic composers (Lai et al., 2015). The concentrated expression of the revolutionary spirit was also the ideal pursuit of their love of life and their eulogizing for a better future. Especially in Eastern Europe and the Nordic countries, musicians collected and published folk songs, selected ethnic historical legends, natural scenery, people's lives and other subjects, and used a large number of tune and rhythm of folk songs to form a musical language with national characteristics to add new color for the music in the 19th century and became an important force in romantic music (Spector, Yong, Altenmüller and Jabusch, 2014).
2.1.2 Full of imagination
The musicians of this period contacted the real life and used their fantasy themes and images to reflect their ideals and wishes (Akbulut, 2010). They searched for materials from folklore and mythological epics, by fictionalizing and beautifying their content, as well as rendering religious mysticism to add a lot of fantasy factors to music works.
2.1.3 Strong expression of subjective personal thoughts and emotions
Arts of romanticism focuses on feelings, and rationality belonged to the secondary position. The various phenomena of the whole world and real life were expressed through personal subjective feelings, reflecting the thoughts and feelings of the bourgeoisie and their worldview in this new historical period (Chmurzynska, 2012). Therefore, lyricism, autobiographical and personal psychological portrayal became one of the main features of romantic music. It reflected purely subjective personal feelings and also has a certain social typicality.
2.2 Characteristics of piano playing skills
2.2.1. Speed change
In piano music, a very important factor in the specific expression of romantic style is speed. The speed range of music in different eras is different. For example, the speed range of the Baroque music is not wide, and the speed range of romantic music is much larger than that of the Baroque period. The difference in the speed range of music during this period is exaggerated, from as fast as 200 beats per minute to as slow as 42 beats per minute. For example, some of Chopin's "Mazurek" collections are marked with speed markers, with the fastest speed marker: 189 beats per minute; the slowest is 80 beats per minute. These different "Mazurek" appear at different speeds, indicating how much the speed range of this period has changed. Why did such a large speed change occur during this period? This is because the piano technology of the Romantic period developed to its peak. First, a group of master pianists who showed off their superb performance skills appeared. Second, through the unremitting efforts of composers such as Liszt, Chopin, Schumann and Brahms, the artistic expression of the piano was thoroughly revealed. Various technical means have been expanded, and a large number of super-technologies have emerged. From the difficulty point of view, the test of human functions in this period has reached its peak. In order to focus on the new performance techniques of this period, the concert-style "Etude" replaced the purely technical Etudes, and a number of Etudes that can be played at the concert for the purpose of special techniques of supertechnology were written, which promoted the development of the piano playing technology itself. The best reflection of the development of piano performance in the 19th century is Liszt's "Super Skill Etude", "Six Paganini Etudes" and Chopin's 24 Etudes (Works 10 and 25).
2.2.2 Power of playing
The characteristics of romantic music works are the large-scale transformation and contrast (Emond and Comeau, 2013). A large number of two-tone, chord, octave require common use of texture with more power, the change of technology type, which has led to great changes in the force parts. According to relevant records: Liszt, Chopin’s method of teaching at that time very scientifically used the strength of fingers, wrists, elbows, arms, waist and even the whole body (Parsons et al., 2005; Hou et al., 2017). This is the way of playing by combining weight and fingers (Emond and Comeau, 2013). There has been a big change in strength. Pianists do everything they can to make the piano lighter, louder, darker, brighter, more connected, sharper, thicker, thinner, and more varied in tone, extending the intensity change from pppp to ffff, the various parts of the body are unified into a whole, instead of just using one of the parts to play, so that the strength of the piano performance has been richly changed. For example, in the works of 44 of Tchaikovsky's the 2 Piano Concertos, there is very strong and very weak, in the 331 subsection of the second movement, it appears extremely weak, in the 330 subsection, it appears four weak marks (pppp).
 
2.2.3 Rubato
The most complicated, serious, and difficult to deal with romantic works is probably flexible beats. Conceptually, the modern meaning of flexible beats is not limited by the speed or rhythm of a rigid phrase in a phrase, and the freedom to telescopically slow or speed up the melody (Maslen, 2013). Rubato are the playing styles of musical works in the Romantic period, which are entirely determined by the sense of music and are determined by the actual situation of music development (Akbulut, 2010; Chmurzynska, 2012). Playing flexible beats must master the style of works, understand the connotation of works, have a good sense of music and rich knowledge accumulation, only listening more, thinking more, carefully observing, developing a good sense of music and gaining a sensitive understanding, can a person handle flexible beats properly.
2.2.4 Musical form
The music of the romantic music era focused on subjective performance, so the composers paid more attention to the content of songs, and paid less attention to the problem of musical form (Spector et al., 2014). In the period of classicalism, the sonatas and concerto styles were gradually abandoned by the composers, and the “small character” of the single movements with weaker logicization formed an important music category of romantic piano music (Akbulut, 2010; Chmurzynska, 2012; Lai et al., 2015). For example, the lyrical melody and the original harmony of Schubert's Sonata, especially his "waltz", etc., the themes were mostly dreams, fantasy and enthusiasm. In terms of sonata, since Beethoven, it was not very attractive to composers, the classical sonata was generally abandoned, and tended to a single movement. Dance music played an important role in the romantic music era, such as “Mazurka”, “Polish Dance” and “Waltz” and “Polk” (Ying et al., 2015). In addition, variations also lost the depth that it expressed during the classical period in the romantic piano music.#p#分页标题#e#
2.2.5 Harmony
In the classicism period, the main tone music replaced the polyphonic music, and the main tone music with the theme of "melody and harmony background" occupied the primacy (Maslen, 2013). The function harmony and its tonal relationship system became the skeleton of the music structure. Harmony has become a very important factor. The piano's texture has completely changed. There were main melody and accompaniment, rather than the pairing of several melody during the period of polyphonic music. The harmony of the romantic period was further expanded on the basis of the functional harmony of classicism (Spector et al., 2014). The harmony was diverse, through the use of chords, extended chords (seven chords, nine chords, eleven chords, etc.), complex chords (heavy genre, reorientation chords; subordinates, subordinate chords) to get a fresh harmony effect (Ying et al., 2015). At the same time, a large number of uncoordinated and unresolved uncoordinated chords have been added.
2.3 Impact on future generations
2.3.1 Provide a scientific training method
The piano performance in the period of romanticism was mainly to express emotions, and thus paid particular attention to the expression of phonology in performance (Kupana and Otacioglu, 2012). Piano players should, after fully understanding the emotions of a piece of music, by controlling the power of the fingertips to enhance the infection of the music, so as to improve the emotional contagion of the audience (Spector et al., 2014). In order to achieve this goal, the Romantic period created a series of training methods, such as high-finger training methods, which could effectively increase the strength of wrists and arms. The scientificity and effectiveness of this series of training methods have been recognized by the majority of pianists, and today it is still an important method for pianists to train (Akbulut, 2010; Maslen, 2013).
2.3.2 Pay attention to the cooperation between piano performance and other musical instruments
Due to the progress of society, more and more kinds of musical instruments have gradually entered the field of piano accompaniment. A pianist at that time could effectively control and process the piano playing techniques to make the piano sound perfectly integrated into the sound of other instruments, so that it made the emotion expressed in the music of the romanticism period more vivid (Akbulut, 2010, Chmurzynska, 2012). From the romantic period, the piano playing skills paid more and more attention to the cooperation with other instruments (Emond and Comeau, 2013). Through the cooperation with other instruments, the piano performance could express the emotions contained in the works.
2.3.3 Improve the artistic expression of piano performance
The flourishing development of piano playing techniques in the romantic period changed people's perception of piano playing (Chmurzynska, 2012). At that time, piano performers pursued higher techniques, from arm training to finger training to diversified playing skills, which improved the artistic expression of piano performance like never before. This powerful artistic expression not only provides a benchmark for piano performance and training for later pianists, but also encourages and motivates piano performers of future generations to continuously improve the playing skills of the piano (Emond and Comeau, 2013).
3.0 Conclusion
The emotional performance skills of the romantic period are a great peak in the history of piano art. Some characteristics of piano works in this period are: expressing nationalism, being imaginative, and expressing strong personal feelings, which has promoted the development and improvement of piano skills at that time, and it has been greatly improved in terms of speed, strength, beat and musical structure. The influence of the development of piano playing skills in the romantic period on the development of piano performance skills in later generations provides a series of scientific and effective training methods, which make the piano performance begin to attach importance to the cooperation with other instruments, and to promote and motivate the performers of the later generations to continuously improve the playing skills of the piano.
 
References
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Chmurzynska, M. (2012). How (not) to discourage youngsters from playing the piano. On Bad and Good Piano Teaching. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 45, 306-317.
Emond, B. and Comeau, G. (2013). Cognitive modeling of early music reading skill acquisition for piano: a comparison of the middle-c and intervallic methods. Cognitive Systems Research, 24(9), 26-34.
Hou, J. et al. (2017). Mirror neuron activation of musicians and non-musicians in response to motion captured piano performances. Brain and Cognition, Volume 115, July, Pages 47-55
Kupana, M. N. and Otacioglu, S. G. (2012). Effect of the teaching piano sight reading program developed in accordance with the systematic learning on the sight reading skills of the music teacher candidates. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 886-894.
Lai, K. Y. et al. (2005). Effects of hand span size and right-left hand side on the piano playing performances: Exploration of the potential risk factors with regard to piano-related musculoskeletal disorders. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 50(11), 97-104.
Maslen, S. (2013). Playing like a girl: practices and performance ideals at the piano. Performance Enhancement & Health, 2(1), 3-7.
Parsons, L. M. et al. (2005). The brain basis of piano performance. Neuropsychologia, 43(2), 199-215.
Spector, J. T. et al. (2014). Biographic and behavioral factors are associated with music-related motor skills in children pianists. Human Movement Science, 37(10), 157-166.
Ying, L. F. et al. (2015). Tension release in piano playing: teaching Alexander technique to undergraduate piano majors. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174(12), 2413-2417.
 
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